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Dr. Greene Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Greene Exam 2 Study Guide NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers chapter 4-5 with diagrams and a practice quiz
Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 262 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
Rachel  Ferrell     NRTI  2000     Exam  2  Study  Guide:     Chapter  4:  Carbs:     Vocab:   • Carbohydrate=  carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen   • Glucose=  6  carbon,  form  of  carb  found  in  the  blood;  also  known  as  dextrose   • Simple  carb=  monosaccharide  and  disaccharides   • Complex  carbs=  starches  and  fiber   • Monosaccharides=  one  ring  structure   o Glucose,  fructose,  galactose   • Disaccharides=  multi  ring  structure   o Maltose=  glucose+glucose   o Sucrose=  glucose+fructose   o Lactose=  glucose+galactose   • Amylose=  type  of  starch;  digestible,  linear  chain  of  glucose  molecules   • Amylopectin=  type  of  starch;  digestible;  highly  branched;  makes  up  most  of  digestible  starch   found  in  plants   • Glycogen=  storage  of  starch/carbs  in  humans  (stored  in  muscle,  liver,  fat/brain)   • Glucagon=  released  by  pancreas  to  raise  blood  sugar   • Insulin=released  by  pancreas  to  lower  blood  sugar   • Lactose  intolerance=  body  lacks  enzyme  lactase  which  breaks  down  lactose   • Epinephrine=  increases  blood  glucose  during  times  of  stress   • Hyperglycemia=  high  blood  glucose   • Hypoglycemia=  low  blood  glucose   • Type  1  Diabetes=  common  in  children,  pancreas  can’t  make  insulin   • Type  2  Diabetes=  most  common  type  of  diabetes;  associated  with  obesity   • Oral  Glucose  Tolerance  Test=  a  way  to  assess  glucose  clearance;  can  determine  if  you  have  pre-­‐ diabetes   • Fasting  Plasma  Glucose=  another  test  for  glucose  clearance;  levels  are  lower  because  fasting   • Bariatric  surgery=  stomach  reduction  surgery;  can  be  used  to  help  with  diabetes     • Glycemic  Index=  ratio  of  the  blood  glucose  response  to  a  given  food  compared  to  a  standard   • Glycemic  Load=  (Glycemic  index)  x  (amount  of  carbs  in  a  serving)/100   o High  glycemic  loads→empty  foods  high  in  sugar  that  don’t  make  you  full  for  very  long   • Ketosis=  build  up  of  ketones  in  blood  from  fat  breakdown;  happens  when  body  does  not  have   enough  carbs   • Aspartame=  artificial  sweetener;  can  have  health  risks  although  FDA  says  safe   • Insoluble  fiber/infermentable  fiber=  can’t  be  digested  by  bacteria  in  gut;  ex.  cellulose   o Helps  with  digestion   • Soluble  fiber=  can  be  digested  by  bacteria  in  large  intestine;  ex.  from  fruits,  gums,  seeds   • Functional  Fiber=  added  to  foods;  cant  be  digested  but  does  stimulate  growth  of  bacteria  in  gut   o Probiotic           Concepts  to  Know:   • How  carbs  are  digested:   o Mouth→  salivary  amylase   o Stomach→  acid  neutralizes  amylase  activity   o Pancreas→releases  pancreatic  amylase  which  breaks  down  starch   o Small  intestine→  enzymes  located  in  cells  break  down  carbs  (substrate  specific)   § Broken  down  carbs  go  to  liver  via  portal  vein   o Large  Intestine→where  soluble  fibers  are  broken  down   • How  blood  glucose  is  regulated:   o High  blood  sugar   § Pancreas  releases  insulin   § Liver  stores  excess  glucose  as  glycogen   § Cells  take  up  glucose   o Low  blood  sugar   § Pancreas  releases  glucagon   § Liver  breaks  down  glycogen  into  glucose   § More  glucose  is  made  (gluconeogenesis)         • How  many  carbs  do  you  need?   o RDA→  130  g  per  day   • How  much  fiber  do  you  need?   o AI→  25-­‐38g/day     o Too  much  fiber=  >60g/day   • Fiber  food  labels   o Total  fiber  =  dietary  fiber  +  functional  fiber                   Chapter  5:  Lipids     Vocab:   • Triglyceride=  storage  form  of  lipid  in  the  body;  what  most  of  lipids  in  our  body  are   o Glycerol  backbone  +  3  fatty  acids   • Fatty  Acids=  on  triglyceride;  long  chain  of  carbon  atoms  with  hydrogen  and  an  acid  group  at  the   end   o Omega  end=  methyl  group   o Alpha  end=  carboxyl  group   • Saturated  fats=  no  double  bonds;  solid  at  room  temp   • Unsaturated  fats=  double  bonds;  liquid  at  room  temp   • Monounsaturated  fats=  only  one  double  bond   • Polyunsaturated  fats=  more  than  one  double  bond   • Omega-­‐3  Fatty  Acid=  ALA   • Omega-­‐6  Fatty  Acid=  LA   • Cis-­‐fatty  acid=  has  a  kink;  is  like  unsaturated  fat   • Trans-­‐fatty  acid=  double  bond  lays  flat;  behaves  like  a  saturated  fat     • Essential  fatty  acids=  Omega-­‐3  (LA)  and  Omega-­‐6(ALA)   o Omega-­‐3:     § Found  in  fish  and  seeds   § 2  servings  of  fish  per  week   § Broken  down  into  EPA  and  DHA  fatty  acids   § More  important  for  health  than  omega-­‐6   § Decreases  blood  clotting  and  inflammation   § Can  lower  risk  for  heart  attack  and  rheumatoid  arthritis   o Omega-­‐6   § 2-­‐4  servings  per  day   § helps  immune  system  and  vision   § produces  esicosanoids=  important  for  most  body  funcitons   § Archidonic  acid→can  cause  increased  blood  clotting  and  inflammation   • Diglyceride=  breakdown  product  of  TG  (2  fatty  acids+  glycerol  backbone)   • Monoglyceride=  breakdown  product  of  TG  (1  fatty  acid  +glycerol)   • Phospholipid=  like  TG  with  glycerol  backbone,  but  one  fatty  acid  replaced  with  phosphate  group;   important  for  cell  membrane;  good  emulsifier   • Lecithin=  example  of  important  phospholipid   • Sterols=  cholesterol;  part  of  cell  membrane;  helps  make  bile;  helps  make  steroid  hormones   • Emulsifier=  something  that  suspends  fat  in  water;  allows  them  to  mix;  helps  with  lipid  absorption   • Lipoprotein=compound  found  in  bloodstream;  core  of  lipids;  shell  of  proteins,  phospholipids,  and   cholesterol;  transport  lipids  through  bloodstream   • Adipocytes=  where  lipids  are  stored   • White  fat=  large  storage  capacity  for  TG;  can  also  secrete  enzymes  that  lead  to  metabolic  disease   • Brown  fat=  lots  of  mitochondria  (why  it  looks  brown);  generates  body  heat/energy;  high  in   infants   • Hydrogenation=  process  used  to  avoid  fats  going  bad;  forms  trans  fats  by  adding  hydrogen;   major  health  risk   • Smoke  point=  temperature  at  which  oil  starts  to  smoke;  how  to  chose  oils;  extra  virgin  olive  oil  is   best     Concepts  to  Know:   • Lipid  Digestion   o Stomach→digests  only  short  chain   fatty  acids   o Liver→  releases  bile;  helps  digest   lipids  as  well  as  act  as  an   emulsifier→form  micelles  which   are  allow  lipid  to  be  suspended  in   water   o Pancreas→secretes  lipase  to  help   absorption   o Small  intestine→primary  digestion   site;  where  absorption  takes  place   o Steps  of  Absorption:   § 1)  Bile  and  lipase  help  break   TG  into  monoglycerides  and   long  chain  fatty  acids     § 2)  After  they  absorb  into   small  intestine,  they  reform   as  TG   § 3)  Chylomicron  forms  and  carries  TG  through  lymph  and  eventually  to  blood  stream   and  back  to  the  liver     §   • Lipoproteins  and  how  they  carry  lipids  through  a  water  environment  to  cells   o Chylomicron   § primary  component=  TG   § function=  carries  dietary  lipids  from  small  intestine  to  cells   § least  dense/biggest   Micelle   o VLDL  (very  low  density  lipoprotein)   § Primary  component=  TG   § Function=  carries  lipids  made  by  liver  to  cells   § Less  dense  than  chylomicrons   o LDL(low  density  lipoprotein)   § Primary  component=  cholesterol   § Function=  carries  cholesterol  made  by  liver  to  cells   § “bad”  cholesterol  because  it  causes  buildup  of  cholesterol  in  vessels   o HDL  (high  density  lipoprotein)   § Primary  component=cholesterol   § Function=  carries  cholesterol  out  of  blood  stream   § “good”  cholesterol  because  it  removes  excess  cholesterol  from  vessels   o also  note  that  when  VLDL    transports  TG,  it  becomes  LDL  as  is  loses  TG   o **exogeneous  pathway=  pathway  for  dietary  lipids→  via  chylomicrons   o **endogeneous  pathway=  pathway  for  other  lipids→  via  VLDL,  LDL,  HDL   o lipoprotein  lipase=  what  breaks  down  these  lipoproteins  in  order  to  release  TG  or   cholesterol   • Cardiovascular  disease  caused  by  cholesterol:   o Artherosclerosis=  buildup  of  plaques  in  vessels   o Plaques=  made  of  fat  cholesterol,  and  calcium     o When  plaque  bursts→  thrombus=  blood  clot  which  can  travel  anywhere  in  bloodstream   and  block  vessel   • NUMBERS  YOU  NEED  TO  KNOW   o Optimal  levels  to  avoid  disease  risk:   § Low  LDL→100  mg/dL   § High  HDL→  >60  mg/dL   § Low  total  cholesterol→  <200  mg/dL   § Low  triglycerides→  <150  mg/dL     Extra:   •  This  is  a  practice  quiz  he  gave  us  in  class  for  Ch.  4   • 1)  Name  the  type  of  carb  that  stimulates  insulin  →monosaccharide   • 2)  Define  gluconeogenesis→  production  of  glucose;  happens  in  liver  when  blood  sugar  is  low   • 3)  What  are  the  monosaccharides  in  sucrose?→glucose  and  fructose   • 4)Fructose  is  lipogenic  true  or  false?→  true   • 5)What  is  the  sugar  in  blood  sugar?→glucose   • 6)  What  is  lactase?→  enzyme  that  breaks  down  lactose   • 7)  Name  2  organs  that  control  blood  glucose→liver,  pancreas   • 8)  What  is  the  chemical  structure  for  a  carb?→CHO   • 9)  Name  3  characteristics  of  a  functional  fiber→1.  No  digestion  2.  Fermentable  3.  Added  to  foods   • 10)  What  is  in  “Other  Carbs”?→  starches  and  polysaccharides   • 11)  What  does  “total  fiber”  consist  of?→  dietary  +  functional  fiber   • 12)  What  is  in  “sugars”  on  a  food  label?→monosaccharides  therefore  simple  sugars   • 13)  What  can  influence  GI?→  water,  amount  of  fiber,  structure,  macronutrients   • 14)  Discovery  of  insulin  experiment;  what  happened  when  pancreas  was  removed  from  dogs?→   they  got  diabetes,  urinated  more   • 15)  Name  2  food  groups  that  are  high  in  carbs→  milk,  bread   • 16)  Fiber  arrives  at  the  colon  intact,  T  or  F?→  true   • 17)  What  organ  secretes  glucagon?→  pancreas   • 18)  Hormone  from  adrenal  gland  that  rapidly  controls  glucose?→  epinephrine   • 19)  What  carbs  are  stored  in  liver?→  glycogen   • 20)  Name  3  organs  that  mediate  insulin’s  actions→  pancreas,  liver,  muscle    


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