Dr. Greene Exam 2 Study Guide
Dr. Greene Exam 2 Study Guide NTRI 2000-002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 262 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Rachel Ferrell NRTI 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapter 4: Carbs: Vocab: • Carbohydrate= carbon, hydrogen, oxygen • Glucose= 6 carbon, form of carb found in the blood; also known as dextrose • Simple carb= monosaccharide and disaccharides • Complex carbs= starches and fiber • Monosaccharides= one ring structure o Glucose, fructose, galactose • Disaccharides= multi ring structure o Maltose= glucose+glucose o Sucrose= glucose+fructose o Lactose= glucose+galactose • Amylose= type of starch; digestible, linear chain of glucose molecules • Amylopectin= type of starch; digestible; highly branched; makes up most of digestible starch found in plants • Glycogen= storage of starch/carbs in humans (stored in muscle, liver, fat/brain) • Glucagon= released by pancreas to raise blood sugar • Insulin=released by pancreas to lower blood sugar • Lactose intolerance= body lacks enzyme lactase which breaks down lactose • Epinephrine= increases blood glucose during times of stress • Hyperglycemia= high blood glucose • Hypoglycemia= low blood glucose • Type 1 Diabetes= common in children, pancreas can’t make insulin • Type 2 Diabetes= most common type of diabetes; associated with obesity • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test= a way to assess glucose clearance; can determine if you have pre-‐ diabetes • Fasting Plasma Glucose= another test for glucose clearance; levels are lower because fasting • Bariatric surgery= stomach reduction surgery; can be used to help with diabetes • Glycemic Index= ratio of the blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard • Glycemic Load= (Glycemic index) x (amount of carbs in a serving)/100 o High glycemic loads→empty foods high in sugar that don’t make you full for very long • Ketosis= build up of ketones in blood from fat breakdown; happens when body does not have enough carbs • Aspartame= artificial sweetener; can have health risks although FDA says safe • Insoluble fiber/infermentable fiber= can’t be digested by bacteria in gut; ex. cellulose o Helps with digestion • Soluble fiber= can be digested by bacteria in large intestine; ex. from fruits, gums, seeds • Functional Fiber= added to foods; cant be digested but does stimulate growth of bacteria in gut o Probiotic Concepts to Know: • How carbs are digested: o Mouth→ salivary amylase o Stomach→ acid neutralizes amylase activity o Pancreas→releases pancreatic amylase which breaks down starch o Small intestine→ enzymes located in cells break down carbs (substrate specific) § Broken down carbs go to liver via portal vein o Large Intestine→where soluble fibers are broken down • How blood glucose is regulated: o High blood sugar § Pancreas releases insulin § Liver stores excess glucose as glycogen § Cells take up glucose o Low blood sugar § Pancreas releases glucagon § Liver breaks down glycogen into glucose § More glucose is made (gluconeogenesis) • How many carbs do you need? o RDA→ 130 g per day • How much fiber do you need? o AI→ 25-‐38g/day o Too much fiber= >60g/day • Fiber food labels o Total fiber = dietary fiber + functional fiber Chapter 5: Lipids Vocab: • Triglyceride= storage form of lipid in the body; what most of lipids in our body are o Glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acids • Fatty Acids= on triglyceride; long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen and an acid group at the end o Omega end= methyl group o Alpha end= carboxyl group • Saturated fats= no double bonds; solid at room temp • Unsaturated fats= double bonds; liquid at room temp • Monounsaturated fats= only one double bond • Polyunsaturated fats= more than one double bond • Omega-‐3 Fatty Acid= ALA • Omega-‐6 Fatty Acid= LA • Cis-‐fatty acid= has a kink; is like unsaturated fat • Trans-‐fatty acid= double bond lays flat; behaves like a saturated fat • Essential fatty acids= Omega-‐3 (LA) and Omega-‐6(ALA) o Omega-‐3: § Found in fish and seeds § 2 servings of fish per week § Broken down into EPA and DHA fatty acids § More important for health than omega-‐6 § Decreases blood clotting and inflammation § Can lower risk for heart attack and rheumatoid arthritis o Omega-‐6 § 2-‐4 servings per day § helps immune system and vision § produces esicosanoids= important for most body funcitons § Archidonic acid→can cause increased blood clotting and inflammation • Diglyceride= breakdown product of TG (2 fatty acids+ glycerol backbone) • Monoglyceride= breakdown product of TG (1 fatty acid +glycerol) • Phospholipid= like TG with glycerol backbone, but one fatty acid replaced with phosphate group; important for cell membrane; good emulsifier • Lecithin= example of important phospholipid • Sterols= cholesterol; part of cell membrane; helps make bile; helps make steroid hormones • Emulsifier= something that suspends fat in water; allows them to mix; helps with lipid absorption • Lipoprotein=compound found in bloodstream; core of lipids; shell of proteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol; transport lipids through bloodstream • Adipocytes= where lipids are stored • White fat= large storage capacity for TG; can also secrete enzymes that lead to metabolic disease • Brown fat= lots of mitochondria (why it looks brown); generates body heat/energy; high in infants • Hydrogenation= process used to avoid fats going bad; forms trans fats by adding hydrogen; major health risk • Smoke point= temperature at which oil starts to smoke; how to chose oils; extra virgin olive oil is best Concepts to Know: • Lipid Digestion o Stomach→digests only short chain fatty acids o Liver→ releases bile; helps digest lipids as well as act as an emulsifier→form micelles which are allow lipid to be suspended in water o Pancreas→secretes lipase to help absorption o Small intestine→primary digestion site; where absorption takes place o Steps of Absorption: § 1) Bile and lipase help break TG into monoglycerides and long chain fatty acids § 2) After they absorb into small intestine, they reform as TG § 3) Chylomicron forms and carries TG through lymph and eventually to blood stream and back to the liver § • Lipoproteins and how they carry lipids through a water environment to cells o Chylomicron § primary component= TG § function= carries dietary lipids from small intestine to cells § least dense/biggest Micelle o VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) § Primary component= TG § Function= carries lipids made by liver to cells § Less dense than chylomicrons o LDL(low density lipoprotein) § Primary component= cholesterol § Function= carries cholesterol made by liver to cells § “bad” cholesterol because it causes buildup of cholesterol in vessels o HDL (high density lipoprotein) § Primary component=cholesterol § Function= carries cholesterol out of blood stream § “good” cholesterol because it removes excess cholesterol from vessels o also note that when VLDL transports TG, it becomes LDL as is loses TG o **exogeneous pathway= pathway for dietary lipids→ via chylomicrons o **endogeneous pathway= pathway for other lipids→ via VLDL, LDL, HDL o lipoprotein lipase= what breaks down these lipoproteins in order to release TG or cholesterol • Cardiovascular disease caused by cholesterol: o Artherosclerosis= buildup of plaques in vessels o Plaques= made of fat cholesterol, and calcium o When plaque bursts→ thrombus= blood clot which can travel anywhere in bloodstream and block vessel • NUMBERS YOU NEED TO KNOW o Optimal levels to avoid disease risk: § Low LDL→100 mg/dL § High HDL→ >60 mg/dL § Low total cholesterol→ <200 mg/dL § Low triglycerides→ <150 mg/dL Extra: • This is a practice quiz he gave us in class for Ch. 4 • 1) Name the type of carb that stimulates insulin →monosaccharide • 2) Define gluconeogenesis→ production of glucose; happens in liver when blood sugar is low • 3) What are the monosaccharides in sucrose?→glucose and fructose • 4)Fructose is lipogenic true or false?→ true • 5)What is the sugar in blood sugar?→glucose • 6) What is lactase?→ enzyme that breaks down lactose • 7) Name 2 organs that control blood glucose→liver, pancreas • 8) What is the chemical structure for a carb?→CHO • 9) Name 3 characteristics of a functional fiber→1. No digestion 2. Fermentable 3. Added to foods • 10) What is in “Other Carbs”?→ starches and polysaccharides • 11) What does “total fiber” consist of?→ dietary + functional fiber • 12) What is in “sugars” on a food label?→monosaccharides therefore simple sugars • 13) What can influence GI?→ water, amount of fiber, structure, macronutrients • 14) Discovery of insulin experiment; what happened when pancreas was removed from dogs?→ they got diabetes, urinated more • 15) Name 2 food groups that are high in carbs→ milk, bread • 16) Fiber arrives at the colon intact, T or F?→ true • 17) What organ secretes glucagon?→ pancreas • 18) Hormone from adrenal gland that rapidly controls glucose?→ epinephrine • 19) What carbs are stored in liver?→ glycogen • 20) Name 3 organs that mediate insulin’s actions→ pancreas, liver, muscle
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