Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 110
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Bishoff on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Ashley Leschyshyn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Soc. 110 Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 6 Deviance What is deviance and how is it socially constructed? o Deviance: the violation of norms, rules, or expectations not all deviant acts are criminal, but most criminal acts are deviant o Socially constructed because it is relative (varies across societies and situations) and is fluid (perceptions change over time) What is social control? How does conformity and obedience relate to social control? Explain the difference between informal and formal social control. o the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in society Informal social control: carried out casually by ordinary people through laughter, smiles, and ridicule Formal social control: carried out by authorized agents like police officers, judges, school, administrators, & employers o We listen to authority figures (obedience) conform to those around us (conformity) Define / apply features discussed regarding the functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives of crime and deviance. (Includes all of the theories on deviance and crime that were discussed in lecture) o Functionalist conformity, obedience, law, & order o Conflict power & differential justice o Internationalist labeling & cultural transmission What is crime? How much crime is there? o Crime: violation of norms that are written into law Property: 8 million Violent: 1 million Identify index crimes and who measures these crime rates. o murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larcenytheft, motor vehicle theft, and arson o reported by the FBI in uniform crime report (voluntary submitted) What are victimless crimes? o the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal goods & services Briefly discuss the types of institutionalization. o Jail Temporary, misdemeanor, less than 1 year o Prison 2.3 million Americans, felony, more than 1 year, $21,000 per inmate per year) What is differential justice? o differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups Explain the death penalty in the United States. o Most executions in Texas (execute more people than all states combined) o Administered mostly by lethal injection o There are higher rates of homicide in states with death penalty o Controversies: Cost $3 million to execute Innocence 143 people exonerated since 1976 Deterrence doesn’t stop people Race/Ethnicity blacks and African Americans are overrepresented Gender men are more likely to be sentenced to death; females usually get a less sentence than men Roper vs. Simmons abolished juvenile death penalty; juveniles sentenced to death during case were sentenced to life in prison without parole and after 2012 life without parole was illegal Chapter 12 Gender What is the difference between sex and gender? o Gender: social and cultural significance attached to biology o Sex: person's biological status that is socially constructed (ascribed) Illustrate aspects of gender stratification and inequality in the U.S. o stratification: inequalities hierarchy or ranking (men at top) unequal access to resources like power, prestige, & wealth Apply sociology’s major perspectives to gender. o Functionalist Distinct roles: ensure family's and society's survival Don’t view the 2 distinct genders as from power (nothing to do with being more superior) Division of labor function Instrumental leader men Expressive leader women o Conflict Stratification: inequalities Hierarchy where men are at the top Leads to unequal access to resources like power, prestige, and wealth How did women become a minority? o Reproduction o Handtohand combat women are smaller and not as physically strong as men Discuss the relationship between work and family. o Worktofamily conflict: when work conflicts with family life/duties o Familytowork conflict: when family life conflicts with work duties Contrast the three waves of feminism. What were the goals of each? o First wave: (1848) goal was political and legal equality for women Gave women right to vote in 1920 o Second wave: (1960) distinguishing difference between sex and gender movement towards equal rights for women in paid labor force and education o Third wave: (1990) since wave 1 and 2 only focused on middle and upper class, the 3rd focused on inersectionalities social class/status, race/ethnicity, and sexuality How does gender inequality impact men? o Hegemonic masculinity: stereotypical vision of what it means to be male if standards are not met, they are view as feminine and have less power and dominace o Multiple masculinities: men can adhere to more than one role of what it means to be male Chapter 13 Race & Ethnicity According to Omi and Winant, how do we develop our understanding of racial categories? o Through racial formation─ a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed and destroyed. o To understand race one must pay close attention to the social, economic, and political forces that have established it as basic distinction among human beings What is the difference between race and ethnicity? How are the socially constructed? o Race: 100% socially constructed into categories based on phenotypes o Ethnicity: "ethnos" (ones country/nation of origin) and culture (traditions, religion, language) Describe the nature of stereotypes. o "stereo"=solid & "typos" = mark o the overgeneralization of a category/group of people What is the difference between prejudice, individual discrimination and institutional discrimination? o Prejudice: negative attitude towards groups/individuals o Discrimination: an act Individual discrimination: onetoone acts; dominant harms a subordinate and it sometimes goes unnoticed. Institutional discrimination: subtle, those who hold the power are usually the ones responsible for the discrimination. Describe the characteristics of a minority group and a majority group. What are the possible outcomes of intergroup relations; minority and majority group contact? o majority group: subordinate group whose members, even if they represent a numeric majority lack access to and control over valued resources in society o majority group :hold majority of positions of social power in a society, and may be defined by law. intergroup relations may cause problems because of the tension between the groups What is racial profiling? o any police initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior. Explain the concept of affirmative action. o Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs , promotions, and educational opportunities Who are the model minority? Why? o Asian Americans because they have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally despite past prejudice and discrimination Apply sociology’s major perspectives to race and ethnicity. o Functionalist Integration, Identity, Order o Conflict Discrimination, Exploitation, Rasism o Interactionalist Contact, Interaction Chapter 10 Social Class What is social stratification? What are the various systems of stratification? o a ranking system of statuses o 2 types: Closed Stratification: slaveryprohibited globally, but still occurs chattel slavery: in US prior to Civil War; they were bought, sold, and inherited dept bondage: labor for loan repayment human trafficking: sexual exploitation; forced labor (domestic/agriculture); removal of organs Open Stratification: social class ranking of economic position; achievement influences social class Identify the generational and directional characteristics of social mobility. o generation: intergenerational (comparing generations) and intragenerational (comparing different times in a single lifetime) o direction: vertical (moving up/down a class) & horizontal (no movement) Assess the extent of social mobility in the United States. o social class is something you are born with and usually is your class for life Apply the functionalist theory of social stratification and its associated criticisms. o believe stratification is beneficial for society to function Davis & More Thesis: some positions have more importance & talent/experience leads to reward (Ex: doctors) Criticisms: society does not reward important positions accurately (Obama makes less than Oprah) Apply Karl Marx’s conflict perspective. o Discuss his views of stratification. o How was one’s social class determined? o What is meant by class consciousness and false consciousness? he was against capitalism for communistic ways social class: relationship to means of production (owners & workers) class consciousness: the awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change false consciousness: describes an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position Briefly explain the Interactionist view as it relates to social class. o every day class consciousness: awareness of one's own social status and that of others Ex: type of clothes, brands, cars, technology What is the difference between income and wealth? o Income: wages/salaries measured over a period o Wealth: money, assets, minus debts What is absolute poverty? How is it defined/calculated? o not enough money to afford basic necessities of life o minimum cost of nutritionally adequate diet x 3 What is the feminization of poverty? o women earn less in the labor market o for divorces women assume financial responsibility for kids, usually no alimony, and pay child support Who are the underclass? o the poor who make up 1520 percent of the population o limited and inconsistent access to resources and membership includes diapropriate African Americans, Hispanics, immigrants, and single mothers. Briefly explain Weber’s concept of life chances. o describes how likely it is, given certain factors, that an individual's life will turn out a certain way. o life chances are positively correlated with one's socioeconomic status. Chapter 8 Education Discuss key contemporary issues in public education. o declining school standards grade inflation (instructors giving grades) functional illiteracyindividuals have basic reading, writing, and math skills o school violence safer at school than at home property bases offences o bullying direct: menphysical or verbal indirect: womensocially isolate bullycide: bullied into suicide o school discipline in loco parentisstudents can be punished since parents can punish them ingraham vs. wrightassociated with schools being able to punish students Describe the sociological perspectives on education. o Functionalist socialization respect authority punctuality individualism competition social integration assimilation prep for the work force social placement taught at appropriate level credentialism gatekeeping mechanism latent functions increases life expectancy (better benefits & want to have better body image) childcare peer networks courtship (propinquity) (spacial nearness) o Conflict social placement tracking social inequality o lower social class o race/ethnicity o gender ─ women (social sciences) & men (technology & math) standardized testing structured for middle class creates cultural bias o Interactionist teacher expectations/selffulfilling prophecy RosenthalJacobson Experiment: took 10 random students & told teacher they were the most intelligent; when they came back at end of year, those 10 students were excelling What are the functions of schooling in America? o Culture transmission o Social integration o Training and social control o Cultural innovation o Child care In what ways do schools cause or exacerbate social inequality? o there is unequal resource distribution o the teacher expectancy effect o tracking through standardized tests o more opportunities for certain students o gender inequality How does labeling students affect their academic performance? o the students that are labeled "smarter" regardless if they are or not perform better than those who are not labeled as being smarter Identify the four student subcultures. o Bureaucratization of schools o Teaching as a profession o Community colleges o Homeschooling
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