Test 2 Help Session Notes
Test 2 Help Session Notes ch 1213
Popular in Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ch 1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Erin Dornshuld in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Refer to your Lecture Notes!!! • How do you tell if it’s polar or non-polar? • polarity of bonds • polarity of molecules • dipole • X—Y (atoms are different= polar bond) X—X (atoms are the same= non-polar bond) • • Is the molecule symmetric or not? • CO 2 • O=C=O (dipole? no, non-polar molecule) • H 2 • H-O-H (dipole? yes, polar molecule) • CH (4ethane) • determine number of electron domains (4) • according to VSEPR, electron domain geometry=tetrahedral • molecular geometry (ignoring all lone pairs)= tetrahedral • dipole? no, non-polar • How do we know what atoms are more electronegative? • periodic table trends • electronegativity increases up and to the right on the periodic table • Fluorine is the most electronegative atom, Francium is the least electronegative atom • How do you determine formal charges? • CH 4 • C in methane- (4) - (4) - (0)= 0 • H in methane- (1) - (1) - (0)= 0 • FC= (# of valence electrons) - (# of lines) - (# of dots) • Be able to draw Lewis Structures and determine the formal charge for all atoms in a Lewis Structure. • Be able to determine electron and molecular geometry • know table chapter 6 • Which bond is the strongest/weakest? • single bond= weakest, longest • double bond • triple bond= strongest, shortest • ionic compound- metal bonded to nonmetal; ionic compound • ionic bonds are MUCH stronger than covalent bonds • NaCl compared to gasoline • How do you determine bond angle? • trigonal planar geometry= 120 degrees • If you added in a double bond, the bond angle between the two single bonds would be < 120 degrees • Double bonds take up more space than single bonds; triple bonds take up more space than double bonds • ideal bond angle between the two H for water- 109.5 degrees • realistic bond angle between the two H for water- < 109.5 degrees • Lone pairs take up more space than bonds • TEST QUESTION: What is the ideal and realistic bonds angle for water? • ideal: 109.5 degrees • realistic: < 109.5 degrees • How do you decide which resonance structure is the most stable? • use formal charges CO 2- • 3 • Si, P, and S can all have expanded octets • expanded octets can have up to 12 electrons (6 bonds, 3 double bonds) • Know all the polyatomic ions (approx. 11-12 naming questions) • 10 of these are matching • FeCl 2 iron (II) chloride • know the functional groups! • hydroxide- OH • aldehyde- CHO • carboxylic acid- COOH • amine- NH 3 • Know the difference between cis- and trans- structural isomers • cis- same molecule, same side • trans- same molecule, different sides • Know how to determine empirical and molecular formula!!! • Look at the example we did in class! • Assume a 100 g sample • Bond order • molecular orbital theory • know the “boxes” for MO theory • right boxes- Nitrogen and everything to the left use the boxes on the left • left boxes- Oxygen and everything to the right use the boxes on the right • single boxes are sigma boxes • start with sigma and alternate with sigma* (i.e. sigma, sigma*, sigma, sigma*) • * means it’s antibonding • double boxes are pi boxes • start with pi and alternate with pi* (i.e. pi, pi*, pi, pi*) • * means it’s antibonding • BO= # of electrons in bonding orbitals - # of electrons in anti bonding orbitals/ 2 • Paramagnetic or Diamagnetic? • paramagnetic- unpaired electrons • diamagnetic- paired electrons • What is the highest energy occupied molecular orbital? • What is the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital? • What type of ‘show your work’ problems are we gonna have on the test? • TEST BREAKDOWN • 17 multiple choice • only grading 16 • 10 matching 2 questions that make you draw Lewis structure, ﬁgure out formal • charge, electron domain geometry, molecular geometry, dipole (yes or no) • 1 question to determine the empirical formula and molecular formula. • MO diagram question, determine bond order, paramagnetic or diamagnetic, highest energy occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital • Know all the intermolecular forces and what that form between!!! • London dispersion forces arise from temporary dipoles • Be able to count sigma and pi bonds • Intermolecular Forces • proportional- if A increases, B will also increase • inversely proportional- if A increases, B will decrease • Hybridization • sp- 2 • sp - 3 • sp - 4 3 • sp d- 5 • sp d - 6
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