Bio 152 Exam 2 Study Guide
Bio 152 Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 152
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alena Comley on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 152 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. O'Quin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Bio 152 Exam 2 Study Guide Root system-anchors the plant and takes in water and nutrients from the soil Shoot system- Harvests light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce sugars Dermal Tissue-barrier between the organism and the environment; helps protect the shoots and helps in water and nutrient absorption in the roots o Made up of epidermal cells-secrete waxy cuticle; form the stomata for gas exchange; form trichomes which help in protection and reducing water loss Ground Tissue-produces and stores valuable molecules, such as pigments, hormones, and toxins for defense o Parenchyma-most abundant and versatile; “workhorse cells”, pretty much do everything in the plant-alive at maturity o Collenchyma-provides structural support to growing regions of shoots- alive at maturity o Sclerenchyma- Sclereids and fibers: Support stem and other structures after growth has ceased; cells dead at maturity Vascular Tissue- To transport water from the roots to the shoots; to transport sugar either from roots to shoots or shoots to shoots, depending on the location of sources and sinks o Xylem- Tracheids and vessel elements; have perforations that help transport water; dead at maturity o Phloem- Companion cells and sieve-tube elements; sieve tube elements transport the phloem sap; companion cells provide support to the sieve tube elements Primary growth increases the plant length-involves the apical meristem Secondary growth increases the plant width- involves the cambium Solute potential is negative-means there is more solute present compared to pure water Pressure potential is both positive and negative-positive value indicates a pushing on the water; a negative value indicates pulling on the water (tension) Hypothesis for water transport Root pressure- solutes are still pumped into the roots at night, which causes water to flow into the plant and eventually push up the plant and out of the leaves; in low lying plants only-like grasses Capillary Action- based on the tendency of water to move up a small tube; adhesion helps bind water molecules to the side of the tube; cohesion links water molecules to each other, transmitting adhesion and tension forces; tension reduces the surface area at the air water interface, which helps pull up against gravity; only pulls water up about a meter Cohesion-Tension – water is pulled to the tops of trees along a water-potential gradient, via forces generated by transpiration at leaf surfaces; tension created at the leaves menisci is transmitted to the rest of the plant by cohesion- can pull water to the tops of very tall trees Sugar locations Source- Sugar is transported into the phloem, which causes a low solute potential. As a result, water flows passively from the xylem into the phloem. The increase in water causes an increase of turgor pressure. Sink- Sugar is removed from the phloem, which moves the solute potential closer to 0. This causes the water to flow passively back into the xylem. The water leaving the phloem reduces the turgor pressure. Essential nutrient- plant cannot complete its life cycle without the nutrient; example- Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Macronutrient-availability limits plant growth; ex-Nitrogen, phosphorus Micronutrient-required in small quantities, act as cofactors for specific enzymes; ex-copper, boron, iron Cations use an antiporter to cross the membrane Anions use a symporter to cross the membrane Mycorrhizae-symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Plant provides organisms with sugars and photosynthetic products and organisms provide plan roots with nitrogen and phosphate Rhibozome- symbiotic relationship. Bacteria provide organism with ammonia and the plant provide the bacteria carbohydrates and protection Type of Ion Method of Brief Description Exclusion Exclusion Passive Blocked entry to the epidermal and cortex cells lack symplast the requisite membrane transporters Casparian Strip endoderm cells act as a selective filter and prevent unnecessary ions from reaching the xylem Active Metallothioniens bind to metal ions and prevent them from acting as a poison Tonoplast exclusion Transport proteins in the tonoplast will actively remove substances from the cytosol and store them in the vacuole Response Receptor Hormone Mechanism for plant Involved Involved response Phototropism to Auxin The asymmetric distribution blue light of auxin causes cells on the shaded side to elongate more than cells on the illuminated side Germination- Phytochrome Red/Far-Red light Stem Elongation- Phytochrome Red light deficiency causes Red/Far-Red Light plants to grow higher in an effort to reach sunlight Flowering- Phytochrome Florigen Interrupting the night period Red/Far Red with red light flashes Light changed flowering patterns Gravitropism Auxin Cells in the lower portion of the root elongate more slowly compared to cells in the upper portion, resulting in bending.
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