Organismal Biology Exam 2 Study Guide
Organismal Biology Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Biology Exam 2 Study Guide • Egg and central cell with polar nuclei fuse with the 2 sperm cells involved in double fertilization of angiosperms • In a flower, the entire whorl of stamens is known as the androecium • Heart shaped = plant embryological stage are the 3 tissue systems first distinguishable • Gymnosperm phyla o Confiferophyta o Cycadophyta o Ginkgophyta o Gnetophyta • Carpellate flowers are imperfect and incomplete • Complete flowers are always perfect • Incomplete flowers can be perfect • Staminate flowers are imperfect and incomplete • The angiosperm seed coat develops from integument tissue • If a fruit develops from tissue other than the ovary wall, the fruit is called accessory • Red, tubular flowers with little or no odor but large amounts of nutritious nectar are likely to be pollinated by hummingbirds • In a flower, the entire whorl of carpels is known as the gynoecium • All sterile flower parts together can be referred to as the perianth • a fruit that develops from a number of separate carpels in a single flower is aggregate • embryonic, or seed leaves are called cotyledons • Parenchyma = plant cell that does most photosynthesis • Seeds in which the cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm are called exalbuminous o Ex. peanuts • Derivative cells are cells that will specialize into other types of cell • The opening in a stoma is surrounded by guard cells • Epigeous is germination with cotyledons appearing above ground • Parenchyma is usually the most common type of cell in plant bodies • Parenchyma cell is alive but incapable of division at maturity and has sieve plates • Vessel members are conducting cells with both pits and perforations • Wood is comprised of xylem • In zygotic meiosis, gametes are formed by mitosis • The immature stage of Ambystoma opacum and other salamanders is called a(n) larva • Epidermal cells secrete a cuticle • Water transport is not accomplished by plant trichomes o Antidesiccation, antiherbivory, carnivory, and insulation are • Follicle – dry, dehiscent fruit that opens on one side • Capsule – dry, dehiscent, each carpel opens separately • Drupe – stony endocarp • Pepo – berry with a hard rind • Pome – an accessory fruit • The largest organism, the oldest organism, and the tallest organism are all gymnosperms • Coconut exhibits hydrochory • Entomiphily – insect pollination • All true ferns have circinate vernation • Heterospory = plant adaptation that necessarily preceded the evolution of seeds • Gnetopyta – includes the desert plant, Welwitschia • Cycadophyta – dioecious plants with seeds in strobili • Lycophyta – spores in strobili • Pterophyta – spores in sori • Ginkgophyta – dioecious plants with dichotomous venation in deciduous leaves on dwarf branches • Be able to label a diagram of a tree trunk o Order from outside to inside of stem = periderm, secondary phloem, vascular cambium, secondary xylem, primary xylem • Age of tree = number of rings in trunk *does NOT include bark ring • Anticlinal = type of cell division in the vascular cambium tht results in the production of more vascular cambium • Abscisic acid = plant hormone that controls plant dormancy and response to stress • The combined layers phelloderm, phellogen, and phellem make up the periderm • Middle lamella = area between cells, often consisting of calcium pectate, mainly in parenchyma tissue • The cortex of stem and roots consists mainly of parenchyma cells • Scleried cells – supportive cells; dead and lignified at maturity • Vessel members – pits and perforations in cells that connect end to end • Parenchyma – alive and capable of division; responsible for regeneration and development of secondary meristems • Sieve cells – alive at maturity but lacking many organelles and incapable of division • Tracheid cells – pits but no perforations • Know the stages of plant embryological development • Apical dominance, leaf abscission, and a number of other plant behaviors are controlled by auxins interacting with environmental influences • A flower with both calyx and corolla but lacking in androecium is imperfect and incomplete • Periderm, phloem, vascular cambium, and xylem are included in the bark of a tree • Heterosporous plants produce both microspores and megaspores • After fusion with a sperm cell in a fertilized angiosperm ovule, the central cell with polar nuclei becomes the endosperm • In a flower, the entire whorl of stamens is known as the androecium • In seedless vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is the dominant plant form • Microphyll – a small and simple leaf found on plants with ancestral characteristics • The nucellus is also known as the megasporangium • In Equisetum, the dispersal of spores is enhanced by the hygroscopic movement of the elaters • Ginkgophyta o Dichotomous venation o Deciduous leaves o Stinky, fleshy seed coats • 2 prothallial cells, a tube cell, and a generative cell make up the entire gymnosperm microgametophyte • in angiosperms, dioecious plants are those that have either carpellate or staminate flowers but not both • fern meiospores are produced by sporangia that occur in a covered cluster called a sorus • female cone = megasporangiate strobilus = ovulate strobilus = seed cone • Many seedless vascular plants like cycads and club mosses produce spores on specialized leaves clustered in the form of strobili • The life cycle of Anthocerophyta differs from that of Hepatophyta in that o No hygroschopic structures for spore dispersal o No specialized gamete containers o Simple dehiscence of the sporophyte • A strange desert plant with 2 ever growing leaves is a memory of Gnetophyta (Welwitschia) • In many Bryophyta, spores are dispersed from the capsule by hygroscopic movement of the peristome teeth • Cycadophyta – dioecious, short, stubby, palm-‐like plants • Ginkgophyta – a single living, dioecious, deciduous and dichotomously veined species • Gnetophyta – the source of the original ephedrine and others • Anthophyta – flowering plants • In nonvascular bryophytes the gametophyte is the dominant generation • Fusion of petals to form a tubular corolla is a form of connation • In flowers, radial symmetry is actinomorphic • A type of inflorescence in which several pedicels are attached at one node is umbel • In pterophyta, the dispersal of spores is enhanced by the hygroscopic movement of the annulus • An inflorescence with both disc flower and ray flowers, characteristic of sunflowers, is composite head • Follicle – fruit characterized as dry, indehiscent, and adapted for anemochory (wind dispersal) • Drupe – fleshy fruit with stony endocarphypogynous – when ovary is superior ad other flower parts are attached below it • Hepatophyta o Dichotomous branching of gametophyte thallus o Sporophytes with elaters and gametophytes with gemmae • Bryophyta – sporophyte consists of seta and capsule • Pterophyta – rhizome with adventitious roots and usually pinnately compound leaves • Psilophyta – dichotomously branching sporophyte without true leavers or roots • Lycophyta – club mosses with strobili, quill worts, resurrection plant, and others • Yellow flower color and flat topped-‐inflorescence characterize butterfly pollinated plants • Kenan sand boa is adapted to life in sand so it can be called psammophilus • Angiosperms, but NOT Gymnosperms o Double fertilization o Flowers o Fruit o 2-‐celled microgametophytes
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