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Organismal Biology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Emma Cox

Organismal Biology Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1030 - 002 > Organismal Biology Exam 2 Study Guide
Emma Cox
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About this Document

This study guide contain notes old tests, which I found to be the most beneficial way of studying after the first exam.
Organismal Biology
Debbie R. Folkerts
Study Guide
Organismal Biology
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Biology  Exam  2  Study  Guide   •   Egg  and  central  cell  with  polar  nuclei  fuse  with  the  2  sperm  cells  involved  in  double   fertilization  of  angiosperms   •   In  a  flower,  the  entire  whorl  of  stamens  is  known  as  the  androecium   •   Heart  shaped  =  plant  embryological  stage  are  the  3  tissue  systems  first  distinguishable   •   Gymnosperm  phyla   o   Confiferophyta   o   Cycadophyta   o   Ginkgophyta   o   Gnetophyta   •   Carpellate  flowers  are  imperfect  and  incomplete   •   Complete  flowers  are  always  perfect   •   Incomplete  flowers  can  be  perfect   •   Staminate  flowers  are  imperfect  and  incomplete   •   The  angiosperm  seed  coat  develops  from  integument  tissue   •   If  a  fruit  develops  from  tissue  other  than  the  ovary  wall,  the  fruit  is  called  accessory   •   Red,  tubular  flowers  with  little  or  no  odor  but  large  amounts  of  nutritious  nectar  are   likely  to  be  pollinated  by  hummingbirds   •   In  a  flower,  the  entire  whorl  of  carpels  is  known  as  the  gynoecium   •   All  sterile  flower  parts  together  can  be  referred  to  as  the  perianth   •   a  fruit  that  develops  from  a  number  of  separate  carpels  in  a  single  flower  is  aggregate   •   embryonic,  or  seed  leaves  are  called  cotyledons   •   Parenchyma  =  plant  cell  that  does  most  photosynthesis   •   Seeds  in  which  the  cotyledons  have  absorbed  the  endosperm  are  called  exalbuminous   o   Ex.  peanuts   •   Derivative  cells  are  cells  that  will  specialize  into  other  types  of  cell   •   The  opening  in  a  stoma  is  surrounded  by  guard  cells   •   Epigeous  is  germination  with  cotyledons  appearing  above  ground   •   Parenchyma  is  usually  the  most  common  type  of  cell  in  plant  bodies   •   Parenchyma  cell  is  alive  but  incapable  of  division  at  maturity  and  has  sieve  plates   •   Vessel  members  are  conducting  cells  with  both  pits  and  perforations   •   Wood  is  comprised  of  xylem   •   In  zygotic  meiosis,  gametes  are  formed  by  mitosis   •   The  immature  stage  of  Ambystoma  opacum  and  other  salamanders  is  called  a(n)  larva   •   Epidermal  cells  secrete  a  cuticle   •   Water  transport  is  not  accomplished  by  plant  trichomes   o   Antidesiccation,  antiherbivory,  carnivory,  and  insulation  are   •   Follicle  –  dry,  dehiscent  fruit  that  opens  on  one  side   •   Capsule  –  dry,  dehiscent,  each  carpel  opens  separately   •   Drupe  –  stony  endocarp   •   Pepo  –  berry  with  a  hard  rind   •   Pome  –  an  accessory  fruit   •   The  largest  organism,  the  oldest  organism,  and  the  tallest  organism  are  all   gymnosperms   •   Coconut  exhibits  hydrochory   •   Entomiphily  –  insect  pollination   •   All  true  ferns  have  circinate  vernation   •   Heterospory  =  plant  adaptation  that  necessarily  preceded  the  evolution  of  seeds   •   Gnetopyta  –  includes  the  desert  plant,  Welwitschia   •   Cycadophyta  –  dioecious  plants  with  seeds  in  strobili   •   Lycophyta  –  spores  in  strobili   •   Pterophyta  –  spores  in  sori   •   Ginkgophyta  –  dioecious  plants  with  dichotomous  venation  in  deciduous  leaves  on   dwarf  branches   •   Be  able  to  label  a  diagram  of  a  tree  trunk   o   Order  from  outside  to  inside  of  stem  =  periderm,  secondary  phloem,  vascular   cambium,  secondary  xylem,  primary  xylem   •   Age  of  tree  =  number  of  rings  in  trunk  *does  NOT  include  bark  ring   •   Anticlinal  =  type  of  cell  division  in  the  vascular  cambium  tht  results  in  the  production  of   more  vascular  cambium   •   Abscisic  acid  =  plant  hormone  that  controls  plant  dormancy  and  response  to  stress   •   The  combined  layers  phelloderm,  phellogen,  and  phellem  make  up  the  periderm   •   Middle  lamella  =  area  between  cells,  often  consisting  of  calcium  pectate,  mainly  in   parenchyma  tissue   •   The  cortex  of  stem  and  roots  consists  mainly  of  parenchyma  cells   •   Scleried  cells  –  supportive  cells;  dead  and  lignified  at  maturity   •   Vessel  members  –  pits  and  perforations  in  cells  that  connect  end  to  end   •   Parenchyma  –  alive  and  capable  of  division;  responsible  for  regeneration  and   development  of  secondary  meristems   •   Sieve  cells  –  alive  at  maturity  but  lacking  many  organelles  and  incapable  of  division   •   Tracheid  cells  –  pits  but  no  perforations   •   Know  the  stages  of  plant  embryological  development   •   Apical  dominance,  leaf  abscission,  and  a  number  of  other  plant  behaviors  are  controlled   by  auxins  interacting  with  environmental  influences   •   A  flower  with  both  calyx  and  corolla  but  lacking  in  androecium  is  imperfect  and   incomplete   •   Periderm,  phloem,  vascular  cambium,  and  xylem  are  included  in  the  bark  of  a  tree   •   Heterosporous  plants  produce  both  microspores  and  megaspores   •   After  fusion  with  a  sperm  cell  in  a  fertilized  angiosperm  ovule,  the  central  cell  with  polar   nuclei  becomes  the  endosperm   •   In  a  flower,  the  entire  whorl  of  stamens  is  known  as  the  androecium   •   In  seedless  vascular  plants,  the  sporophyte  generation  is  the  dominant  plant  form   •   Microphyll  –  a  small  and  simple  leaf  found  on  plants  with  ancestral  characteristics     •   The  nucellus  is  also  known  as  the  megasporangium   •   In  Equisetum,  the  dispersal  of  spores  is  enhanced  by  the  hygroscopic  movement  of  the   elaters   •   Ginkgophyta   o   Dichotomous  venation   o   Deciduous  leaves   o   Stinky,  fleshy  seed  coats   •   2  prothallial  cells,  a  tube  cell,  and  a  generative  cell  make  up  the  entire  gymnosperm   microgametophyte   •   in  angiosperms,  dioecious  plants  are  those  that  have  either  carpellate  or  staminate   flowers  but  not  both   •   fern  meiospores  are  produced  by  sporangia  that  occur  in  a  covered  cluster  called  a  sorus   •   female  cone  =  megasporangiate  strobilus  =  ovulate  strobilus  =  seed  cone   •   Many  seedless  vascular  plants  like  cycads  and  club  mosses  produce  spores  on   specialized  leaves  clustered  in  the  form  of  strobili   •   The  life  cycle  of  Anthocerophyta  differs  from  that  of  Hepatophyta  in  that   o   No  hygroschopic  structures  for  spore  dispersal   o   No  specialized  gamete  containers   o   Simple  dehiscence  of  the  sporophyte   •   A  strange  desert  plant  with  2  ever  growing  leaves  is  a  memory  of  Gnetophyta   (Welwitschia)     •   In  many  Bryophyta,  spores  are  dispersed  from  the  capsule  by  hygroscopic  movement  of   the  peristome  teeth   •   Cycadophyta  –  dioecious,  short,  stubby,  palm-­‐like  plants   •   Ginkgophyta  –  a  single  living,  dioecious,  deciduous  and  dichotomously  veined  species   •   Gnetophyta  –  the  source  of  the  original  ephedrine  and  others   •   Anthophyta  –  flowering  plants   •   In  nonvascular  bryophytes  the  gametophyte  is  the  dominant  generation   •   Fusion  of  petals  to  form  a  tubular  corolla  is  a  form  of  connation   •   In  flowers,  radial  symmetry  is  actinomorphic   •   A  type  of  inflorescence  in  which  several  pedicels  are  attached  at  one  node  is  umbel   •   In  pterophyta,  the  dispersal  of  spores  is  enhanced  by  the  hygroscopic  movement  of  the   annulus   •   An  inflorescence  with  both  disc  flower  and  ray  flowers,  characteristic  of  sunflowers,  is   composite  head   •   Follicle  –  fruit  characterized  as  dry,  indehiscent,  and  adapted  for  anemochory  (wind   dispersal)   •   Drupe  –  fleshy  fruit  with  stony  endocarphypogynous  –  when  ovary  is  superior  ad  other   flower  parts  are  attached  below  it     •   Hepatophyta   o   Dichotomous  branching  of  gametophyte  thallus   o   Sporophytes  with  elaters  and  gametophytes  with  gemmae   •   Bryophyta  –  sporophyte  consists  of  seta  and  capsule   •   Pterophyta  –  rhizome  with  adventitious  roots  and  usually  pinnately  compound  leaves   •   Psilophyta  –  dichotomously  branching  sporophyte  without  true  leavers  or  roots   •   Lycophyta  –  club  mosses  with  strobili,  quill  worts,  resurrection  plant,  and  others   •   Yellow  flower  color  and  flat  topped-­‐inflorescence  characterize  butterfly  pollinated   plants   •   Kenan  sand  boa  is  adapted  to  life  in  sand  so  it  can  be  called  psammophilus   •   Angiosperms,  but  NOT  Gymnosperms   o   Double  fertilization   o   Flowers   o   Fruit   o   2-­‐celled  microgametophytes    


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