Psych100 Exam #1 Comprehensive Notes
Psych100 Exam #1 Comprehensive Notes PSYC100010
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Exam #1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Psychology – study of mental activity and behavior psychological science – the study, through research, of mind, brain, and behavior Mind = mental activity (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches as well as memories, thoughts, and feelings) Behavior = totality of observable human actions Common Psychological research errors: Ignoring evidence Failing to accurately judge source credibility Misunderstanding statistics Seeing relationships that don’t exist Making relative comparisons Accepting after-the-fact explanations Mental shortcuts Failing to see self-bias Nature/nurture debate – arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture Mind/body problem – a fundamental psychological issue determining if mind and body are separate or if the mind is simply the physical brain’s subjective experience Introspection – a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thought Developed by Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism – an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components Developed by Edward Titchener Stream of consciousness – a phrase coined by William James to describe each person’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts Functionalism – an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior Evolutionary theory – a theory represented by the naturalist Charles Darwin; views history of a species in terms of the inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior Adaptation – in evolutionary theory. The physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations Natural selection – in evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do not Gestalt theory – a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its constituent elements Unconscious – the place where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness Levels of Analysis Biological analysis focuses on brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics Individual analysis focuses on individual differences, perceptions and cognition, and behavior Social analysis focuses on the interpersonal behavior and social cognition Cultural analysis focuses on thoughts, actions, and behaviors Psychoanalysis – a method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed Behaviorism – a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behaviors Cognitive psychology – the study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision-making Cognitive neuroscientists study brain activity Cognitive neuroscience – the study of the neural mechanisms underlying thought, learning, perception, language, and memory Social psychology – the study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Personality psychology – the study of characteristic thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in people and how they vary across social situations Study how genes, circumstances, and cultural context shape personality Other Subfields in Psychology Developmental psychology – study how people change across the life span Cultural psychology – understand how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in the cultures in which they are raised Clinical psychology – factors that cause psychological disorders School psychology – problems that occur in educational settings Industrial/organizational psychology – study of behavior and productivity in industry and workplace Forensic psychology – legal settings Sports psychology – work with athletes to improve performance Health psychology – study factors that promote or interfere with physical health Chapter Summary: Practicing critical thinking skills improve how people think, and should be used when evaluating research. Errors in thinking and decision-making can result in faulty conclusions. Nature and nurture depend on each other. Brain and mind are one. Formal psychology began in1879 by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany. Structuralists used introspection to break down underlying components of conscious experience. Functionalists believe it is more important. Gestalt says the sum of the parts is different than the whole. Freud believes in subconscious impacts. Behavior is changed by consequence. People are powerful sources in shaping behavior. Psychological disorders are shaped by nature and nurture and there is no universal treatment. Culture norms specify how people should act, transmitted through learning. In class notes… Science of Psychology Psychological science – the scientific study, through research of: Mind Brain Behavior (observable actions) Biological level of analysis – anything dealing with chemistry (genes in brain etc) Individual level of analysis – personal differences (memories, personality, gender) Social level of analysis – group contacts Cultural level of analysis – norms we have across a particular culture Mistakes in psychologist studies: Ignoring evidence (confirmation bias) Failing to accurately judge source credibility (backing up w/ evidence) Misunderstanding and not using statistics Seeing relationships that may not exist Using relative comparisons (how information is framed) Accepting the after-the-fact explanations (hindsight) Mental heuristics (shortcuts) Failing to see our own inadequacies Bias in the News: Just world fallacy victim blaming Strong belief that the world is inherently fair leading towards people blaming victims, people deserve what they get Classic foundations of psychology: Nature/nurture Mind/body o Initially treated as very separate, but today there is an interaction Philosophy science o Introspection – you can systematically talk about your experiences Structuralism – conscious experience can be broken down into component parts Functionalism o Mind is too complex to be broken down, must be looked at as a whole with interactions o Influenced by the theory of evolution Gestalt – kept the notion that perception is still subjective and dependent on context o “Whole is not the sum of its parts” Contemporary foundations: Freud behaviorism cognitive social psychology Freud psychoanalysis (classic sit on the couch and talk things through) emphasis on unconscious Behaviorism (Watson & Skinner) emphasis on observable environmental behaviors Cognitive Revolution Back to emphasis on mental functions Social Psychology Power of situation, why people engage in certain things in social situations Ex. WW2 iClicker: Patients who are led to believe that a pill will lower blood pressure (but they don’t know it’s actually a sugar pill) experience a drop in blood pressure. This concept is: Mind-body issue This historical event helped give rise to the cognitive revolution in the foundations of psychology: The development of and increasing use of computers (info-processing) In-class notes… Research Methodology Primary goals of science 1. Description – what is going on, describing a behavior/phenomenon a. Descriptive studies 2. Prediction – a. Correlational studies 3. Control – can I isolate this factor, control it, and determine if it solely controls one outcome? a. Experimental studies 4. Explanation – can I say that that factor causes the outcome? (all about making a causal statement) a. Experimental studies Scientific Method 1. Create theory – based off observations (more broad that hypothesis) 2. Hypothesis – based on theory (more specific than a theory) 3. Research – testable hypothesis, test yields data a. Support or fails to support theory Considerations for all types of study designs Safety Informed consent Confidentiality/anonymity iClicker… A researcher suggests that presenting possible suspects in a lineup one person at a time instead of in a group would lead to more accurate identification of the true suspect. This statement represents a hypothesis. In class… Random samples provide a grater likelihood of giving a representative of the population Internal validity – degree to which you are certain that the effects of the outcomes of interest are due to the independent variable Inside the study, how tightly controlled the variables are External validity – degree to which the findings of the study can generalize to other places and times Variables measured in real world way Does it apply to other settings Descriptive studies 1. Naturalistic observation a. Pro – people act the way they are (less bias on the part of the participant), broad view b. Con – target behavior might not occur, farther from study 2. Participative a. 3. Case Study a. Study of one entity bc there is something atypical about them 4. Self-reports a. You reporting on how you feel b. Interview c. Self-serving bias, say things that are socially desirable Correlational Examines how two (or more) variables are related/associated as they are Researcher does not step in to manipulate variables, only measure 2 graphical forms o scatterplot negative = as one variable goes up, the other variable goes down (opposite direction) positive = as one variable goes up, the other goes up too (same direction) directionality problem - can say linked/related, but cannot make causal statement third variable problem – could be an external variable which affects the other two variables Experimental a way to make causal claims experimenter manipulates the independent variables random sample Chapter 2 Primary goals of science – description, prediction, control, explanation describe what the phenomenon is, when it will occur, what causes it to occur, and why it occurs first step in critical thinking is to question everything; ask for definitions scientific method – a systematic and dynamic procedure of observind and measuring phenomena, used to acieve the goals of description, prediction, control, and explanation; involved an interaction among research, theories, and hypotheses research – a scientific process that involves the careful collection of data theory – a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observes and makes predictions about future events should be falseable (able to be proven false) and create a lot of hypotheses hypothesis – a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on 1. form a hypothesis 2. conduct a literature review (review of the scientific literature related to your theory) 3. design a study 4. conduct the study 5. analyze the data 6. report the results replicated – repetition of a research study to confirm the results variable – something that can vary and that a researcher can manipulate, measure, or both independent variable – the variable that gets manipulated dependent variable – variable that gets measured (the outcome after the manipulation) operational definition – a definition that qualifies and quantifies a variable so the variable can be understood objectively descriptive research – research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically measuring, recording, counting 3 types of descriptive research methods 1. case study – a descriptive research method that involves the intensive examination of the unusual person or organization a. observing, recording, and describing 2. observational studies: participant observation – a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is involved in the situation naturalistic observation – a type a descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior reactivity – the phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being observed observer bias – systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations experimenter expectancy effect – actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer self-report methods – methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in surveys or questionnaires correlational studies – method that describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempts by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them Chapter 3 Neural Networks Neurons that form a circuit Neurons – basic unites of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system Central nervous system – the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – nerve cells in the body that are not part of the CNS Includes somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) nervous system Types of Neurons Sensory neurons – detects information from the physical world and pass that information along in the brain, usually through the spinal cord o Somatosensory neuron – sensory nerves that provide information from the skin and muscles Motor neurons – direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement Interneurons – communicate within local or short-distance circuits (local area) Neuron Structure Cell body (soma) – the site in the neuron where info form thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Dendrites – branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect info from other neurons Axon – a long, narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which info is transmitted to other neurons Terminal buttons – small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse – the gap between the sending and receiving neurons (the place where chemical reactions take place and communicate) Resting membrane potential – the electrical charge of a neuron when its not active Polarized – when a neuron has more negative inside than outside (which creates the electrical energy necessary to power the firing of the neuron) Sodium and Potassium Sodium channels allow sodium ions but not potassium Potassium channels allow potassium ion but not sodium Usually more potassium than sodium is inside the neuron Sodium-potassium pump – increases potassium and decreases sodium inside the neuron to help maintain resting membrane potential Action potential – the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons (aka neural firing) Changes in electrical potential lead to action Neuron receives chemical signals from nearby neurons through dendrites Chemicals tell the neurons whether to fire or not Excitatory signals – Depolarize the cell membrane, increase likelihood of the neuron firing Inhibitory signals – Hyperpolarize the cell, decreasing the likelihood of the neuron firing Myelin sheath – a fatty material, made up of glial cells, the insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon Between the myelin sheaths are nodes of Ranvier Nodes of Ranvier – small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath All-or-none principle – the principle that when a neuron fires, it fires with the same potency each time Presynaptic neuron – the neuron that sends the signal Postsynaptic neuron – the neuron that receives the signal Inside the terminal buttons are neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters – chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron Receptors – in neurons, specialized molecules on the postsynaptic membrane Three major events that stop the neurotransmitters influence: Types of neurotransmitters 1. Acetylcholine – the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles; it is also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming 2. Epinephrine – a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening 3. Norepinephrine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and attention 4. Serotonin – a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity, including emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming 5. Dopamine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement 6. GABA – gamma-aminobutyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system 7. Glutamate – the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system 8. Endorphins – neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward Broca’s area – a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language Brain stem – an extension of the spinal cord; houses structures that control functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm Cerebellum – a large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance Thalamus – the gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory information before the information reaches the cortex Hypothalamus – a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions, including body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; it also influences our basic motivated behaviors Hippocampus – a brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories Important for navigating our surroundings (ex. taxi drivers have larger hippocampus than regular drivers) Amygdala – a brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information Basal ganglia – a system of subcortical structures that are important for the planning and production of movement Cerebral cortex – the outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted surface of the brain; the site of all thoughts, perceptions, and complex behaviors Corpus callosum – a massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows information to flow between them Four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal o Occipital lobes – regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain important for vision (includes primary visual cortex) o Parietal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex in the front of the occipital loves and behind the frontal lobes, important for the senses of touch and for attention to the environment Left hemisphere receives touch from the right side of the body Right hemisphere receives touch information from the left side of the body Info directed to primary somatosensory cortex o Temporal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex below the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes, important for processing auditory information, for memory, and for object and face perception o Frontal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex at the front of the brain, important for movement and higher-level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex – the front most portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality Hormones – chemical substances, released from endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream to targeting tissues’ the tissues are subsequently influences by the hormones Gene expression – whether a particular gene is turned on or off Polygenic – traits that display a wide range of variability (height and intelligence) influenced by genes and environment Independent variable is manipulated by the researcher Dependent variable is the outcome Biology and Behavior Dendrites – receive chemical neurotransmitters from neighboring neurons Cell body – processes all the information received from the multiple dendrites Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine – motor control over muscles, learning memory, sleeping , and dreaming Epinephrine – energy Norepinephrine – arousal, vigilance, and attention Serotonin – emotional states and impulsiveness, dreaming Dopamine – reward and motivation, motor control over voluntary movement iClicker question: When the brain grows, the dendrites branch out further. Areas of the brain From back to front: basic processes to evolutionary newer luxuries Brain stem Cerebellum Connected to brain stem Related to motor control and movement Subcortical structures Basal Ganglia – movement, reward Thalamus – sensory gateway *Hippocampus – memory (coordinates every part of a memory) *Amygdala – emotion Hypothalamus – regulates body function (ex. temperature, hormones) Cerebral cortex – outermost layer of brain and most evolutionarily new Made of lobes: Parietal – touch Occipital– vision Temporal – hearing/memory Frontal – (abstract) thought, planning iClicker: Conclusion that can be made form Phineas Gage: Brain plasticity Stimulation in environment that fire neurons Brain development is lifelong but there are critical periods How the brain changes We know what we know from case studies and animal studies Genetics and the Role of Twins Studies Most characteristics that we care about are polygenic (multiple genes have an influence) Genetics are a system: changing one thing will create a ripple effect Warrior gene = MAOA gene
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