Chem Test 2 Study Guide
Chem Test 2 Study Guide Chem 032
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Grace on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 032 at University of Vermont taught by Professor Ruggles in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
CH13 Rate/Reaction Order/Mechanisms: Reaction order not dependent on stoichiometry Mechanisms are individual reactions that make up the whole reaction Stoichiometry in mechanisms is very important to order Rate determining step: slowest mechanism reaction (step) Overall rate is based on rate determining step Rate is in terms of starting materials CH14 Equilibrium (=lib) An equilibrium is a reaction that has a forward and backwards direction SMPROD An equilibrium is established when the rate forward equals the rate backward or when [sm] and [prod] remain constant k1[SM] = k [1ROD] Keq k /1 =-1PROD]/[SM] If eq > 1 ... then [PROD] > [SM] at equilibrium [PROD] are favored [PROD] are more stable If eq < 1 … then [SM] > [PROD] [SM] are favored =lib constant K eq Reaction Quotient = Q = [PROD]/[SM] not at =lib, just wherever you are in establishing it Writing Equilibrium Equations 1. Stoichiometry and order are directly related 2. Solids do not appear in equation (no concentration or pressure) 3. Pure liquids do not appear in equation (solvent = H O) 2 a. aA + bB cC + dD *Be able to relate one K to another* eq Assumptions eq> 1 x 10 and have [PROD] initial 4 eq < 1 x 10 and have [SM] initial The assumption is that the change will be small relative to [ ]initial Le Chatlier- when a stress is applied to an equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift to alleviate the stress. Stresses: volume, pressure, concentration, temperature Volume Change (gas) Increase in volume results in =lib shifting to side with more moles of gas Decrease in volume results in =lib shifting to side with less moles of gas Pressure Change (gas) Decrease in pressure results in =lib shifting to side with more moles of gas Increase in pressure results in =lib shifting to side with less moles of gas Concentration Changes To remove a compound from the =lib, the =lib will shift to produce more of that compound Add more of a compound from the =lib, the =lib will shift to the opposite side of the compound added Temperature Changes- write H on SM or PROD side Exothermic (-) (H is PROD) -- Increase in T shift to SM -- Decrease in T shift to PROD Endothermic (+)(H is SM) -- Increase in T shift to PROD -- Decrease in T shift to SM CH 15 Acids and Bases 1. Arrhenius Definition + a. Acid= source of H (protons) b. Bases = source of OH (hydroxide) 2. Bronsted-Lowry Definition * + a. Acid = an H donor b. Base = an H acceptor 3. Lewis Definition (extremely general) - a. Acid = an e acceptor b. Base = an e donor Auto- Ionization of Water + - H + H O2l) + H O(2) H O (a3) + OH (aq) (endothermic so H on SM side) K = 1x10 -14= [H O ][ OH ] = (x)(x) w + 3 -7 [3 O ] = x = 1x10 @ 25C pH = -log[H O ]+ 3 -7 pH = -log(1x10 ) = 7 (neutral) neutral solution [H 3 ] = [ OH ] - pH < 7 (acidic) pH > 7 (basic) amphoteric- acts as an acid and a base (H O) 2 ACIDS 1. Inorganic Acids (no carbon) a. STRONG because conjugate bases are very stable b. HCl, HBr, HI, HNO , H3SO 2 H P4 , 3ClO4 4 c. Exception: HF (weak) 2. Organic Acids a. WEAK because conjugate base not as stable b. CH C3 H,2CCl CO 3, --2CO H 2 c. Exception: CF CO3H is2almost as strong as HCl Ranking Inorganic Acids 1. The acid is stronger the more oxygens it has 2. If the acids have the same number of oxygens, then the more electronegative the central element, the stronger the acid Ranking Organic Acids 1. Inductive effect is created by substitution of electronegative elements close to the ---CO 2. The more in number and closer they are the stronger. Example: CH CO H3v C2l CO H (st3ong2r!) BASES Strong- MOH, LiOH, NaOH, KOH, M (OH) 3 3 Weak (amine bases)- (R) N 3 Inductive effect (opposite of acid) the greater the inductive effect the less basic Assumptions for Acids/Bases 1. Strong if there is complete dissociation, meaning there are no starting materials left over; tipoff: no K oraK giveb (K or K >a 1) b 2. Weak if K oa K givbn or you are trying to solve for, use assumptions and ICE table; (K ar K <b 1) 3. Conjugates- K andaK switcb; (K )(K ) =aK b w + a. Conjugate Base: RCO M 2 b. Conjugate Acid: R HNX3 -
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