Drug list Pharmacology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ko Min on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pharmacology at Republic Polytechnic taught by - in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see in Pharmaceutical Sciences at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Drug Competency Test Drug list – Year 2 DPHM P Class = Pharmacological class Drug T class P * Indications Dose Side Effects Contra- Counseling class Indication Therapeutic class (T class): Antacids (some may be combined with simethicone, a surface active agent to reduce flatulence) Al(OH)3 Aluminium containing Dyspepsia 10mL or 1-2 tabs to be Constipation Hypophosphat may impair antacids chewed 3-4 times daily aemia; absorption MgCO 3 Magnesium containing Diarrhea of some antacids drugs Mg(SiO 3 2 Note: Carbonate or bicarbonate based antacids will produce carbon dioxide (gas which may cause flatulence or belching) Sucralfate Chelates and Benign Gu and DU 2g 2x daily om and on or 1g Constipation NA Do not take T. Class compelxes gastritis, stress qds 1 hr before meals and at indigestion Mucosal ulceration bedtime Max 8g daily remedies protectants with this Hyoscine Anti-muscarinics Symptomatic relief of Each tab 10mg Constipation, Myasthenia May cause T Class GI or urinary conditions 1-2 tabs, 3-4 times daily urinary retention, gravis, and constipatio Antispasmo with smooth muscle dry mouth. prostatic n, (due to dics spasm; bowel colic Rarely nausea, enlargement reduced GI vomiting, giddiness motility Therapeutic Class: Anti-secretory drug. Note: All enteric coated (E/C) forms swallow whole. Do not chew or crush. Do not exceed the prescribed dose Famotidine H2-receptor Dyspepsia, Each tab 20- mg (1) GI effects: nausea, vomiting, Take 30 antagonist Benign GU, DU, RO 1-2 tabs 2 times daily diarrhoea anorexia, mins (reflux oesophagitis), Ranitidine Each tab 150mg (2) CNS effects headache before 1-2 tab 2x daily Dizziness, agitation, restlessness, food. tremor Cimetidine GERD, NSAID-induced Each tab 200mg (3) Others: Avoid ulcers. 1-2 tab 2x daily or 800mg on Rashes, malaise, impotence has been indigestion o reported (males only). remedies. Omeprazole Proton Pump Each cap either 10mg or Inhibitors 20mg 10 - 40mg once daily For Omeprazole ZES - 20-120mg daily divided MUPS tablets dose dispersed in water Esomeprazole Each cap 20 - 40mg once daily or juice ZES - 80-160mg daily Lansoprazole 30mg om Misoprostol mucosal protectants Prostaglandin analogues. 800 mcg daily in 2-4 divided (1) GI effects diarrhoea Take with Avoid if Benign GU and DU, dose with food and at bed time dyspepsia, flatulence, or after pregnant or NSAID-induced ulcers. nausea and vomiting food. intending to If bdominal pains are severe, reduced get pregnant dose or stop. (2) CNS effects dizziness (3) Others abnormal vaginal bleeding, rashes, Therapeutic class: Anti-diarrhoea Kaolin may be combined with pectin – Kaopectate suspension Kaolin Bulk-forming agents Diarrhoea, 10 to 20mL 4 hourly None known. Allergic NA Note: Loperamide Co-phenotrope Each tab 2mg (1) GI effects Avoid in GI Not for Co-Phenotrope Diphenoxylate 2.5mg should be avoided in Stat 2 tab (4mg) the 1 tab Atropine 0.025mg per tab patients with (2mg) after each loose stool up Nausea, flatulence, stenosis, children 1) acute respiratory vomiting, abdominal paralytic ileus, below 12 to 5 days. pain abdominal years old. Pharmacological class: depression Max daily dose: 6 to 8mg (3-4 (2) CNS effects distension Antti-motility drugs 2) raised intracranial x) daily. headache, ulcerative Note: Anti- pressure Chronic diarrhoea: Max daily motility 3) head injury dose: 16mg daily. Dizziness colitis. (3) Others agents may 4) prostate 1 -2 tab 3-4 x daily dry mouth, prolong the enlargement drowsiness rashes. duration of Due to more intestinal pronounced transit adrenergic effects. May cause transient bradycardia. Charcoal Absorption of toxins in 1-2 tabs 4-6 x daily Black or dark colored NA NA Pharmacological class the GI during food stools Adsorbent poisoning Therapeutic Class: Laxatives Lactulose Osmotic laxatives Constipation: 15mL 2x daily Nausea, vomiting, Galactosaemi May cause Constipation, hepatic encephalopathy Hepatic encephalopathy: 30 to flatulence, cramps and a, intestinal “laxative 50mL 3x daily and abdominal discomfort. obstruction dependenc subsequently adjusted to produce 2-3 soft stools daily e” Ispaghula Bulk-forming laxatives Relieve constipation, 1 sachet or 2 x 5mL 2x daily Flatulence, abdominal Difficulties in Dissolve chronic diarrhoes, preferably after meal Husk distension, GI swallowing, and mix (psyllium) colostomy, ileostomy obstruction or intestinal with water impaction, obstruction, before hypersensitivity. impact stools. taking this medication. Bisacodyl Contact laxatives Each tablet 5mg Abdominal cramps, Intestinal Swallow Adult & child > 10 yrs nausea, vomiting, local obstruction, whole. Do 1-2 tabs on Children 4-10yrs – 1 tab irritation, diarrhoea, not chew or hypokalaemia rashes. crush. 5mg suppository (child) 10mg suppository (adult) Senna Stimulant laxatives 15mg to 30mg, usually at night. May cause “laxatives Docusate Max 500mg daily in divided dependent” dose. Domperido GI motility Anti- Nausea and vomiting, Each tablet 10mg (1) GI disturbance, Hypersensitivi Seek ne stimulant nausea dyspepsia, 1-2 tab 3-4x dail30 to 60 galactorrhoea, (2) ty medical and Gastro-oEsophagael vomitin Reflux Disease (GERD) minutes before food. CNS effects - Lactation attention if Max daily dose: 80mg agitation, drowsiness, palpitation g & oesophagitis nervousness, or headache. arrhythmia. Metoclopra Drugs used in Symptomatic treatment Each tab 10 mg (1)Hormonal GI Swallow mide nausea and of nausea and 1 tab 3 x daily. hyperprolactinaemia, obstruction, whole. Do vertigo vomiting, including that menstrual change perforation not chew or associated with acute Max daily dose: 500mcg / kg in (2) CNS confusion, pharochromoc crush. migraine 3 divided dose restlessness, visual ytoma disturbance, tremor, dizziness. (3) Others Rash\ Therapeutic class – Anti-asthmatics Salbutamol Asthma Each tab 2mg (1) CNS effect Tremor Hypersensitivi How to use Therapeutic Reversible airways obstruction (including 1-2 tab 3-4x daily; headache, muscle ty to drug. inhaler class nocturnal asthma and prevention of exercise- max.single dose 8 mg. Syrup Short acting induced bronchospasm) Chronic obstructive 2mg / 5mL cramps, sleep properly. disturbance beta 2 pulmonary disease, (COPD). 1-2 tsp 3 or 4x daily, not to (2) CVS effect Do not agonists exceed 8 mg 4x daily palpitation. exceed Inhalation: 100mcg / puff 1 - 2 Anticholinergic/ puffs 4x a day Tachycardia, prescribed Antimuscarinic For Bronchospasm: 2 puffs 4x arrhythmias, flushing, dose. daily ischaemia urticaria, angioedema, Salmeterol MDI: 25mcg/ puff Therapeutic 2 puffs 2x up to 100 mcg bid. hypotension class As dry powder inhalation: 50 (3) Respiratory bronchospasm, Long-acting B-2 mcg bid or 100 mcg bid if agonist necessary. Ipratropium MDI: Each puff 20mg Anticholinergic effects Acute 1-2 puffs 3-4x daily. - Dry mouth, porphyria , Nebuliser solution: 250-500 constipation, hypersensitive mcg 3-4x daily headache, dizzines to the drug Theophylline Xanthine reversible airways Each tab 200mg (1) GI effects: Hypokalaemia Swallow obstruction, severe 1-2 tabs 2x daily nausea, vomiting, risk whole. Do acute asthma & gastric irritation, not chew. chronic asthma diarrhoea, (2) CVS effects: palpitation, tachycardia, arrhythmias, (3) CNS effects: headache, CNS stimulation, insomnia, convulsions. Montelukast Leukotriene receptor Prophylaxis of 5mg / tab or 4mg per sachet (1) GI effects - Hypersensitivi . antagonists, asthma, symptomatic Adult and child > 15yr - 2 tab Abdominal pain, thirst, ty to drug (Mast cells stabilizer) relief of seasonal od dyspepsia, allergic rhinitis in Child 6–15yrs, 1 tab (2) CNS effect - patients with asthma 6mos – 6yrs 4mg od headache, Hyperkinesia, sleep walking, abnormal dreams, anxziety, aggression, depression etc, Fluticasone Corticosteroids Prophylaxis and DPI Lower respiratory tract Hypersensitivi Avoid treatment of chronic 100-500mcg daily. Maximum: infections, sore throat, ty to drug stopping Takes up to 7 days asthma and 1mg, twice daily hoarse voice abruptly. for the steroid in vascomotor rhinitis; Budesonide nasal polyps DPI 100-400mcg 2x daily Max Rinse the inhaler to work. 800ug. mouth after Continue to use Nebuliser 1-2mg 2x daily, using regularly. reduced to 0.5-1mg 2x daily. inhaler, Beclomethasone 200 - 400mcg 2x daily upto 800mcg 2x daily Prednisolone Corticosteroid inflammation, severe Each tablet 5mg GI effects, systemic Take with allergies, adrenal 8-10 tabs daily for at least 5 endocrine effects, infection, food unless Carry asteroid problems, arthritis, days infection risks, avoid you have. treatment card. asthma muscle effects. vaccination Taper dose prevent stopping abruptly. Therapeutic Class : Oral hypo-glycemic agents (OHGA). Indications: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Recognise symptoms of hypoglycaemia . Inform doctor if thirsty, incraase urinary frequency, Oral anti-diabeticand tired. All OHGAs should be taken with or after food. Metformin Each tab 250mg anorexia, nausea , Contra-Indications Start 2 tabs with breakfast 1/52 vomiting, diarrhoea , Ketoacidosis, P. class Then 2 tabs bd 1/52 Then 2 tabs tds abdominal pain , taste acute porphyria, ketoacidosis Biguanides Max 2g daily in divided dose disturbance, decrease vitamin B12 absorption Pharmacological class: Sulfonylureas Tolbutamide 0.5 - 1.5g (max. 2g) daily in divided doses. GI disturbances, Avoid in elderly (especially nausea, vomiting, glibenclamide) Glipizide initially 2.5-5mg daily max 20 mg divided dose or 15mg single dose daily. diarrhoea and constipation, Glibenclamide Each tab 5mg 1 tab daily with meals and adjust dose accordingly. Max 15mg daily dizziness, drowsiness, headache, Gliclazide Each tablet 80mg (except Diamicron MR is 60mg) hypotension, weight 0,5 to 1 tab daily, Max 160mg single dose, Max 320mg daily divided dose gain Acarbose alpha-glucosidase Each tablet 50mg Flatulence, soft stools, Inflammatory bowel disease, inhibitor 1 tab daily, increase to 3x daily, then increase if diarrhoea, abdominal predisposition to partial necessary after 6-8 weeks to 2 tabs 3 times daily, distention and pain intestinal obstruction; hernia, Max 4 tabs 3x daily. previous abdominal surgery. Rosiglitazone Thiazolidinedione Each tab 0.5mg; Start 1 tab, titrated 1/52 or 2/52. Hypoglycaemia, Diabetic ketoacidosis,w or w/o If transferred from another OHGA, start 1mg (2 tabs) abdominal pain, nausea, coma; Max Single dose 4mg; Max daily divided dose 16mg diarrhea, vomiting, Type 1 diabetes constipation, hypersensitivity, visual disturbances Repaglinide meglitinide adults initially 500 micrograms within 30 minutes before abdominal pain, ketoacidosis main meals, adjusted according to response at intervals of diarrhoea, 1–2 weeks; up to 4mg may be given as a single dose, max. constipation, nausea, 16mg daily. Elderly not recommended. vomiting. Sitagliptin dipeptidyl peptidase- 100 mg once daily GI disturbances, 4 peripheral oedema, (DPP-4) inhibitor URTI, headach Insulin Anti-diabetic drugs Diabetes mellitus; diabetic ketoacidosis Hypoglycaemia, Need to counsel on how to (ISDM) By IM or SC – adjust dose as required. transient oedema, measure correct insulin dose rashes. and how to inject to avoid hyperlipothropy. Therapeutic class – Endocrine / hormonal preparations Pharmacological class – anti-thyroid drugs Levothyroxine initially 50-100 ug once daily, preferably before breakfast, adjust slowly tdiarrhea, palpitation, thyrotoxicosis Indications maintenance dose 100-200 ug once daily. restlessness, hypothyroidism In cardiac disease, severe hypothyroidism, and patients over 50 years, insomnia, headache, initially 25ug once daily, adjust slowly to maintenance dose 50-200 ug flushing, sweating, once daily heat intolerance, weight-loss, muscle cramp, transient hair loss, menstrual changes. Carbimazole 15 - 40mg daily, until patient becomes euthyroid, usually after 4 to 8 weeksGI disturbance, taste severe blood disorder and the dose is then gradually reduced to a maintenance dose of 5 - 15mg. disturbance, Indications Therapy is usually given for 12 to 18 months. headache, fever, Hyperthyroidism malaise, rash ,pruritus, SP Inform doctor iif sore throat, mouth ulcers, bruising, fever , arthralgia malaise, or non-specific illness develop (signs of blood disorders). Treatment may take time (weeks to months). Continue to take the tablets unless advised by your doctor. Alendronic acid Postmenopausal osteoporosis, Osteoporosis: 10mg daily or Oesophagael reaction, Contra-indications Treatment of osteoporosis in men, 70mg once weekly Therapeutic class abdominal pain and Abnormalities of oesophagus Bone metabolism prevention and treatment of Prevention of osteoporosis:: distension, diarrhoea and other factors which corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in 10mg daily or constipation, delay emptying , post menopausal women not receiving Swallow whole with plenty of headache, nausea, hypocalcaemia Pharmacological class hormone replacement therapy water. Sit upright Bisphosphonates Take 30 minutes before vomiting breakfast. Therapeutic class: S ex hormones Pharmacological class: Progestogens and progesterone receptor modulators Norethisterone Endometriosis:10 to 15mg daily for 4 to 6 months or longer, starting on day Side Effects: Indications - 5 of cycle. Menstrual disturbances, premenstrual-like syndrome, Endometriosis IF spotting occurs, increase dose to 20 to 25mg daily and reduce once skin reaction. Dysfunctional uterie bleeding stop) bleeding, menorrhagia Dysfunctional uterie bleeding, menorrhagia: 5 mg 3x daily for 10 days to Spotting or break through bleeding may occur Dysmenorrhoea arrest bleeding, premenstrual syndrome 5mg 2x daily to prevent bleeding starting from day19 to 26. Contra-Indications Postponement of Dysmenorrhoea: 5mg 3 times daily from day 5 to 24 for 3 to 4 cycle. menstruation Premenstrual syndrome: 5 mg 2 to 3 times daily from day 19 to 26 for Liver tumours, genital, breast cancer, severe arterial several cycle disease. Postponement of menstruation: 5 mg 3 times daily starting 3 days before expected onset Medroxyprogesterone Indications: Indications Dysfunctional uterine bleeding and secondary amenorrhoea: 2.5mg 1) Dysfunctional to 10mg daily for 5 to 10 days beginning on day 16 to 21 of cycle, uterine bleeding and repeated for 2 cycles for dysfunctional uterine bleeding and 3 cycle secondary in secondary amenorrhoea. amenorrhoea Mild to moderate endometriosis: 10 mg 3 times daily for 90 2) Mmild to moderate consecutive days endometriosis Progestogenic opposition of oestrogen HRT: 10 mg daily for the last 3) Progestogenic 14 days of each 28-day oestrogen HRT cycle opposition of oestrogen
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