Study Guide Intro to Geo Exam 2
Study Guide Intro to Geo Exam 2 100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Fort Hays State University taught by Kenneth R Neuhauser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geoscience at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Intro to Geology Notes GSCI 100 Section B Spring 2016 - Section 2 Metamorphic Rocks Meta = shape Morhpic = change Metamorphism = a process – the product is a variety of metamorphic rocks – change of form & composition of rock due to P+T (pressure, temperature) New minerals and textures are formed Metamorphic rock: rock recrystallizes in solid state Metamorphic Processes o Temperature: New minerals stable at new temps o Pressure: either directed stress or uniform stress o Fluids: aid the exchange of ions in the ‘solid state’ -Mineral sizes increase or decrease -Minerals “reoriented” + recrystallized = new textures (foliation + lineation) Types of Metamorphism o 1. Regional: widespread T+P increases at depth due to geothermal gradient + tectonic forces o 2. Contact: intrusion of magma against colder (country) rocks [thermal] baked zone chill margin Where magma meets the rock around it – the magma is cooled there, and the rock is heated there o 3. Dynamic: due to folding and faulting Breaking and grinding along fault lines o 4. Impact: Sudden impact, meteorite impact Shocked quartz, pseudotachylite Shatter cones: best place to see them = Sudbury, Ontario Tektites & microtektites = when rock is heated and goes into the air, it becomes like rain, and then cools – has a tip like obsidian Lightning + nuclear tests Fulgarites = caused by lightning impact Metamorphism o Grade = intensity of o Prograde = increase in temp o Retrograde = decrease in temp o Parent Rock = original rock (Prolith) Parent rock of marble = limestone Parent rock of a quartz sandstone = quartzite Classification o Based on texture + Low grade composition o Shale - Low P+T o Slate o Phyllite o Schist o Gneiss High Grade -High P+T o Migmatite Stability of Minerals o Narrow P+T range = index mineral Meta. Facies = group of minerals o Glaucophane = a blue amphibole, high P low T Augen Gneiss = eye shapes Boudins = sausage shape Non-foliated = no banding Riecke’s Principle = As P increases solubility increases Stylolite = black organic material that doesn’t dissolve Mass Movement Slope stability factors o Main force = gravity o Composition + structure o Amount of water Triggering Mechanisms o Overload o Undercut o Vibration Earthquake o Add water Role of water: Adds weights Weathers= physical & chemical acts as lubricant and buoyant Water is bad o Fires and Deforestation increase erosion o Angles of slopes o Vegetation Mass Movement Types o Falls o Flows o Slides o Slumps Creep #1 for $ o Creep = #1 most expensive and most frequent mass movement Solifluction o Artic form of creep = areas where there is permafrost, when there is a warm day, it warms a little and expands, presses upwards on the top layers of ground Subsidence o Hydrocompaction Vertical downward drop of the ground – like the Corvette museum that collapsed o Fluid removal Oil o Solutioning o Mining o Organic Shrinkage 1970 – Wetlands Act was passed – they drained wetlands and when organic material is exposed to oxygen, the ground collapses – now this is illegal to drain wetlands o Crawford sinkhole along I-70 Since 2004 – sinking 3-5” year Fluid removal, pressure removal, grains collapse Anthropogenic = human caused Liquefaction = wet sands or clays turn to liquid when shaken Mitigation o Ways to keep the ground from moving o Bolts, nets, terracing, etc. o Shotcrete = a type of concrete that set up really quick and hard Streams Hydrology = study of surface water Water is the most important erosional agent Evapotranspiration o Evaporation = chemical o Transpiration = biochemical Drainage Basin (largest in US is Mississippi River Drainage Basin) o Headwaters = where is all starts o Tributaries = where branches begin o Trunk = o Distributaries = River System Parts o Natural levee – how formed? o Alluvium = all the material deposited by streams o Uplands, floodplain, valley, bed 3 loads o Transportation of the load by a system o Solution – material dissolved in the water o Suspension – lifting and carrying o Traction – pushing, rolling, or sliding load along the bottom of the channel o Saltation – bouncing Rivers Erode o 1. Hydraulic o 2. Scouring water goes round and round – forms potholes o 3. Solution Stream Gradient = vertical drop over horizontal distance o Niagara falls has a steep gradient Terrace formation + Neotectonics Stream Types o 1. Braided Streams Sediment>than amount stream can carry – steeper gradient + courser grains Wide channel, narrow, floodplain Features: sand+ gravel bars Common in: Glacial, desert + mountain regions o 2. Meandering Stream Sediment in “Equilibrium” Gentle gradients, fine-grains Wide flood plain, skinny channel As a river flows it has major force on the OUTSIDE of the bend – erosion occurs on the outside bends Deposition occurs on the inside of the bend – also called the point bar Lateral migration = erosion on outside, deposition on inside Point bar creates Fining upward package Oxbow lakes = abandoned meander channels Drainage Patterns o Most common = dendritic o Rectangular o Trellis o Radial Discharge = width x depth x velocity Volume passing given point over given time [m /s]3 Stream gauges USGS Flooding o Past o Flood frequency o Mitigation (fix things) Urbanization causes Runof How to reduce runof o Retention ponds – 27 st. –Hays o Contour plowing – terracing o Strip planting – mulching Flood Mitigation o Levees – FHSU Big Creek o Channelization = build cutofs o Flood walls & gates o Establish flood zone laws o Risk assessment = GIS & remote sensing o Displaces problem downstream Ultimate Base level (sea level) Alluvial Fans (Stuf deposited by rivers) Land-Locked deltas Delta Types o All deltas produce coarsening-upward packages o CONTROLLING FACTORS: o Fluvially (Rivers) – Mississippi = Fluvially dominated o Wave – Rio Grande o Tide – Mekong Groundwater 3 categories of water o Meteoric Weather related – moves their the water cycle quickly o Connate Trapped water – usually under ground or under saltwater o Juvenile Water vapor – usually comes out with volcanos – it has been underground for billions of years Hydrology = study of groundwater Groundwater = largest source of economically available fresh water for humans Biggest uses: irrigation 40% thermoelectric 40% o The other 20% is split up between living, engineering, and recreation Infiltration Rate Controls o Rate & Type of precipitation o Porosity & permeability o Slope of the land – the flatter the better (soaks in faster) o Evapotranspiration rate o % of vegetation – good, keeps moisture there – cottonwoods aren’t good Groundwater terms o Zone of aeration Mostly air o Zone of saturation Mostly water Porosity [P] = total pore space % = capacity to store Permeability [p] = fluid speed through pore space = capacity to transmit Ideal zone = Gravel = med/high P, high p Sand = med. P, medium p Clay = high P, low p Aquifer: material with high P + p Aquitard: material “retards” flow; medium P+p Aquiclude: material “excludes” flow; low P+p Water Quality o Standards state and federal o Na, Ca, Cl, SO4, HCO3, Fe = Good o Pb, Se, Cr, As, Hg = Bad o E. coli – bad o Giardia lamblia – bad o Cryptosporidium – bad Best for cleaning plumes = sand o Especially sewage and bacteria Gasoline is an LNAPL – it floats on top of the water Perc = perchloroethylene DNAL = perc 66,000 anthropogenic chemicals in the world o 70% NOT tested for toxicity – 2% completely evaluated o Easy tests = urine, sweat, saliva Where can we get more water o Rivers, lakes, + swamps o Groundwater – drill more wells o Recycling – Union Ice machine waste water (used to water the grass) o Desalination - $20million/unit o Icebergs – future? o Remote Sensing Hays Water sources o Smoky hill river – south of hays 60% - alluvium o Big Creek – 40% o Dakota Sandstone 5% max – very salty o Air stripper $ o Arkansas River o Smoky Hill River – south of Russell o Lake Wilson or Kanapolis o Cedar Bluf Resevoir o Kansas Water Transfer Act Basic Water Doctrines o Riparian = landowner has 1 rights, state controls most, more quality problems than quantity in Eastern US o Prior Appropriation = holder need not be riparian, may have no rights – it’s the 1 person to USE or DIVERT has primary right (west) o Dowsing = rhabdomacy – water witching Saltwater intrusion – usually coastal – not common in Kansas Geothermal
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