Study Guide #1 psyc100
Study Guide #1 psyc100 PSYC100010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by mtraub on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
1. What is Psychological Science? 2. Critical thinking is A. Criticizing the way other people think B. Systematically assessing information to reach conclusions supported by evidence C. Questioning everything you read or hear and refusing to believe anything you have not seen for yourself D. Becoming an authority on everything so you never have to rely on other people’s judgements. 3. Match each example with the psychological reasoning skill it describes: Misunderstanding or not using statistics, Failing to accurately judge source credibility, Self- serving bias, and Taking mental shortcuts A. A blackjack player wins three hands in a row and lowers her bet, assuming the next hand must be a loser B. A person takes an herbal treatment to improve sleep because the package says the treatment is 100% effective C. A student thinks he deserves and A on a paper on which he received a D D. Your roommate insists on going to Florida for spring break because it is the ﬁrst place that comes to mind. 4. Patients who are led to believe that a pill will lower blood pressure (but they don’t know it’s actually made of sugar) experience a drop in blood pressure. Which concept does this example best relate to? A. Hindsight Bias B. Self-serving Bias C. Mind-Body issue D. Nature/Nurture issue 5. What historical event helped give rise to the cognitive revolution in the foundations of psychology? A. The goal of explaining the atrocities during WWII (social psychology) B. The creation of introspection for assessing unconscious experiences (structuralism) C. The ability to assess brain activities using MRI or PET scanners (neuroscience) D. The development of and increasing use of computers (information processing) 6. Which of the following statements is TRUE of theories and hypothesis in science? A. A good hypothesis will support a number of different theories. B. Good theories lead to a number of testable hypothesis C. Theories are deemed to be good by how much intuitive sense they make D. A & B 7. A researcher suggests that presenting possible suspects in a lineup one person at a time instead of in a group would lead to a more accurate identiﬁcation of the true suspect. This statement best represents a(n): A. Theory B. Hypothesis C. Variable D. Sample 8. Why is critical thinking so important? A. Critical thinking is important only for scientists who need to do experiments B. Critical thinking enables us to interpret information and evaluate claims C. Critical thinking is necessary for science and math, but it is not important for other disciplines 9. The main reason researchers randomly assign participants to different conditions in an experiment is that A. It is easier to assign participants to different conditions than it is to ﬁnd people who naturally ﬁt into different conditions B. Random assignment controls for any intuitions the participants may have at the start of the experiment C. Random assignment is used when there are ethical reasons for not using observational or correlational research designs D. Random assignment helps to ensure that the experimental groups are (on average) equal and that any difference in the dependent variable is due to the participants’ being in different experimental groups 10. Match each of the following with the research method it describes: Case study, correlational, experimental, naturalistic observation, and survey A. An end-of-semester course evaluation that asks students to rate the class B. Collection of data showing that on average, students who studied more hours for a psychology exam earned higher grades C. A study comparing the driving performance between people randomly assigned to text while driving or to drive without distractions D. A research report describing a person with an extremely rare psychological disorder E. A study comparing voting preferences for people in wealthy neighborhoods compared to people in middle-class neighborhoods F. A study describing how 8-year-old children interacted on their school playground G. A study comparing tumor size in three groups of mice, each given a different dose of nicotine H. A study comparing the rate of cancer in people who are nonsmokers, light smokers, or heavy smokers 11. True or Fals:e 1. Conﬁdentiality is the same as anonymity, because both mean that study results are not revealed to nonscientists 2. Even if research does not involve deception, it still needs to be approved by an IRB 3. Informed consent is required only when a research study poses a risk to safety or health 4. Students who participate in psychological research to receive course credit give up their right to privacy 5. Ethical rules govern research with both human participants and animals 6. Any team of animal researchers must include a veterinarian 7. Violations in the ethical treatment of animals in research may be justiﬁed if the study has sufﬁcient scientiﬁc merit 8. An IRB reviews proposals for research with humans, whereas an IACUC reviews animal research proposals 12. Which of the following is a technique that increases scientists’ conﬁdence in the ﬁndings from a given research study? A. meta-analysisi B. operationalization of variables C. replication D. serendipity 13. Match each major neurotransmitter with its major functions Neurotransmitter Major Functions a. norepinephrine 1. emotional states, impulse control, dreaming b. glutamate 2. reward, motivation, voluntary muscle control c. acetylcholine 3. generates excitatory action potentials, facilitates learning and memory d. serotonin 4. arousal, vigilance, attention e. endorphins 5. motor control, learning, memory, sleeping, dreaming f. dopamine 6. reward, pain reduction g. GABA 7. energy h. epinephrine 8. inhibits action potentials, reduces anxiety 14.Match each lobe of the brain with its function Lobe Function a: frontal 1. hearing b: occipital 2. thought c: parietal 3. touch d: temporal 4. vision 15. Match each of the following brain structures with its role or function. Brain Structure Role/Function a: brain stem 1. primary structure for memory b: cerebellum 2. sensory relay station c: basal ganglia 3. important for emotions d: hypothalamus 4. divided into four lobes e: thalamus 5. regulates vital functions such as body temperature f: hippocampus 6. involved in reward g: amygdala 7. regulates breathing and swallowing h: cerebral cortex 8. “little brain,” involved in movement 16. True or False A. Males’ brains generally are larger than females’ brains B. Males’ brains are more likely to be bilaterally organized C. Researchers have found that sex differences in the brain are caused entirely by hormonal differences D. Sex differences in the brain indicate that males and females have essentially different abilities E. Females tend to use language-related areas for problem-solving, whereas males tend to use spatial-related areas 17. Which of the following statements about behavioral genetics is false? A. Heritability refers to traits passed from parent to offspring B. Similarities among nonbiological adopted siblings are inferred to reﬂect environmental inﬂuences C. Identical twins raised apart are often more similar than identical twins raised together D. Greater similarities between monozygotic twins compared to dyzygotic twins are inferred to reﬂect genetic inﬂuences 18. If a person shows some evidence of being aware of his surroundings the condition is known as A. brain death B. minimally conscious state C. permanent vegetative state D. consciousness 19. Which of the following is a major hypothesis theory of why we dream? A. dreams get rid of excessive energy that accumulates throughout the day B. dreams are a way of making sense of neural ﬁring patterns C. dreams help us forget information we no longer need to remember D. dreams restore natural brain waves to their original state 20. Transduction is the process of A. detecting environmental energy through a sense organ B. converting perceptions into neural activity C. converting sensory stimuli into neural activity D. perceiving information 21. Identify each of the following events as an example of absolute threshold, difference threshold, or sensory adaptation A. You catch a whiff of your neighbor’s cooking B. You ask your roommate to turn down the radio, which he does, but it does not sound softer to you C. You notice that the overhead lamp just got dimmer D. You stop paying attention to the sound of a radio, though you can hear it if you pay attention to it 22. Which of the following sequences is the correct path of light through the eye? A. cornea, pupil, lens, retina B. retina, ganglion cells, photoreceptors, lens C. lens, pupil, cornea, retina D. retina, lens, pupil, cornea 23. Sound waves travel through the ear to the auditory nerve. Identify the order in which the waves make contact with the following structures. A. cochlea, eardrum, ossicles, oval window B. eardrum, ossicles, oval window, cochlea C. outer ear, oval window, cochlea ossicles D. ossicles, eardrum, oval window, cochlea 24. Which of the following factors can inﬂuence taste preferences? A. genetics B. culture C. exposure to ﬂavors in the womb or via breast milk D. texture of the food E. all of the above 25. Which of the following sequences is the neural pathway for smell? A. olfactory epithelium, olfactory nerve, thalamus, olfactory bulb B. olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb olfactory nerve, frontal cortex and other brain areas C. olfactory nerve, olfactory epithelium, frontal cortex and other brain areas, olfactory bulb D. olfactory nerve, thalamus, olfactory epithelium, frontal cortex and other brain areas Answer key 1. The study, through research, of mind, brain, and behavior. 14. a: 2 b: 4 2. B c: 3 d: 1 3. A: misunderstanding or not using statistics B: failing to judge source credibility 15. a: 7 f: 1 C: self-serving bias b: 8 g: 3 D: mental shortcuts c: 6 h: 4 d: 5 4. C e: 2 5. D 16. a: True d: True b: False e: False 6. A c: False 7. B 17. A 8. B 18. B 9. D 19. B 10. a: survey 20. C b: correlational c: experimental 21. a: absolute threshold d: case study b: difference threshold e: correlational c: difference threshold f: naturalistic observation d: sensory adaptation g: experimental h: correlational 22. A 11. False 23. D True False 24. E False True 25. B False False True 12. C 13. a: 4 g: 8 b: 3 h: 7 c: 5 d: 1 e: 6 f: 2
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