HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) Exam 2 Study Guide
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) Exam 2 Study Guide HIST 1020
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Exam 2 (Page:1) HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE IMPERIALISM India became the “jewel and the crown;” it was the most important of the British colonies. Britain had a presence in India before the period of imperialism o East India Company: joint stock company, company of investors, royally chartered, traded in the East Indies (17 century) o India was under control of the Mughals, who were Muslims – bestowed a period of political unity (they allowed the East India Company in and allowed them to build forts) o They were buying Chinese goods in addition to Indian goods (British developed an appetite for coffee and tea) The event that destroyed Mughal power in India was the Sepoy Revolt (1857). o Sepoy – an Indian soldier in the British army o Sepoy Revolt – the British military was asking the Sepoys to use a new cartridge in their rifles (had to tear off paper with mouth, but there was animal fat in it – so this was a social/cultural problem because they couldn’t eat meat), this resulted in an uprising on behalf of the Sepoy troops, it takes the British a year to end this revolt, during this time thousands of British soldiers died and hundreds of thousands of Indians died When the revolt was over, British soldiers made the Indians eat meat – the British government was able to clamp down on the peoples of this area. It was the end of Mughal power in India; it was replaced with British control. They passed acts to create a branch of government over India. o Government was known as the Raj. The Raj was huge and elaborate – Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1877. o The British really just wanted control over trade in India. They began especially importing coffee, tea, and exporting opium to China. Opium was being sold in the 19 century to China. China will go to war with Britain over the huge exports of Opium to the nation. Impact of British rule in their imperialized nations (i.e. India): o Western Education – it was a good thing for Indian elites, but a lot of the Indians didn’t have access to the education o Railroads – the British built railroads across the nation o Banking and Mining – this helped the Indian economy and overall was a good thing o Landholdings – India went from a place where land was held by small, collective villages, when Britain came in they encouraged the production of cash crops, this destroyed the idea of the village, wealthy land owners were encouraged to buy huge plots of lands and grow these goods, peasants were driven off the land and into cities to look for work (they lived in extreme poverty) o Textile Industries – the production of cotton and silk textiles was very important to India (known for their printed cloth), the British drowned their companies with cheap cotton and goods, this destroyed the hand crafted Indian cotton industry o Caste System – the British presence made this system rigid, they didn’t understand the fluid system already in existence, they reinstated the four main castes and got rid of all the subcastes o Poverty – the British presence made a lot of the Indian population poorer The Scramble for Africa began with the Berlin Conference of 1885, which was a great meeting of European powers to decide how they would partition Africa. They wanted to seek treaties with Africans already there (offer protection to local African rulers and their people). o These protection treaties became their way of legitimating the scramble; it became a freeforall to take over Africa. o The machine gun gave Europeans a huge advantage over the Africans in trying to take control. Europeans even went to war with each other over these new lands. Exam 2 (Page:2) Boer War: took place in South Africa, the Dutch were the first Europeans to move into South Africa (Boers: “farmers”), they spoke Afrikaans and were referred to as Afrikaners, the British start to move in around 1790 The Boers move north (Great Trek) to try and get away from the British, they move into the Orange Free State and Transvaal. They find diamonds, and now the British want in on this industry. Cecil Rhodes – British businessmen who wanted to control the diamond and gold industry (did open a diamond industry) This led to a war between the British and the Dutch (Boers/Afrikaners), and they eventually establish the Union of South Africa. King Leopold II (Belgium) taking of the Congo really sparked the beginnings of the scramble. He took that colony with the help of Henry Stanley, who went in and negotiated a number of treaties (“protection treaties”) to gain power over the peoples. The Congo became like Leopold’s own personal colony. o Regime of Terror – he used force of power to force the people to cooperate and listen to him (extreme terrorism) o Force Publique (FP) – the police force Leopold used, was an unthinkable phenomenon, went into villages and forced people to accept his policies, wanted people to agree with his labor policies (enslavement) Rubber and ivory are the two commodities Leopold is trying to extract from the colony. He was very brutal, as high as 10 million people died under Leopold. The FP would rape or even kill people who didn’t comply. This was the most brutal regime in Africa. He would cut off people’s hands that didn’t comply. o Edmund Morel – office worker in Liverpool, England, journalist, his suspicion was aroused when he saw ships coming in with rubber and leaving with weapons, he began to call attention to the horrors in the Congo, brought it up with Parliament, they held hearings to determine what was happening in the Congo Nations get together and force Leopold to moderate his policies. ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR I th th Nationalism – a major force in European history in the 19 and early 20 centuries, it promotes conflict based on ethnicity, religion, etc. o MultiNational Empires – Ottoman Empire, Russia, AustroHungarian Empire (Hapsburg inheritance, includes Austria, Hungary, and other areas), there are a lot of Slavic people in the AustroHungarian Empire, and the Slavs are feeling very nationalistic, they want to break away o Balkans – this area was a hot spot (Serbia and BosniaHerzegovina in particular), it had been under control of the Ottoman Empire, but the empire has been falling apart (“sick man of Europe”), the Balkans is so complex (different Slavic people, religion, ethnicity, etc.), in the 19 century they start to come apart and form their own states (especially Serbia), not all Serbs live in Serbia (a lot live in BosniaHerzegovina), they want to bring BosniaHerzegovina into Serbia so they can all be together Diplomacy – another cause of the war, Otto von Bismarck is back, he designed a diplomatic system for continental Europe (he is all about Realpolitik – never commit to one force of action, pragmatic), he knew that a united German was not an easy pill for the rest of Europe to swallow, Russia, Italy, and Britain were not happy, negotiated a diplomatic alliance with AustriaHungary o Bismarckian System – alliance with AustriaHungary, then alliance with Russia, then alliance with Italy (Germany, Austria, Russia, and Italy), this locks up the power in Europe except for France (isolation of France was the goal) Bismarck later fell from power. The successors of Bismarck meet and do not renew the alliance with Russia. France then goes in and picks up Russia. The Germans tried to get England on their side, but the British are very suspicious. It drives Britain into the arms of France. o Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, and Italy o Triple Entante – Russia, France, and Britain Exam 2 (Page:3) Because the Triple Alliance is sandwiched between the Triple Entante, it makes them nervous about fighting a two front war. They created two balanced sides, but there will be a chain reaction when push comes to shove. Arms Race – another cause of the war, competitive to stockpile huge arsenals, industrialization allowed nations to arm their soldiers easily, but it meant that as soon as one power mobilized no one would back down o Mobilization essentially was seen as a declaration of war. Bosnia (capital is Sarajevo) and Herzegovina have a lot of Serbian nationalism, Serbia hates Austria o June 28, 1914 – the heir to the throne of Austria makes a trip to Sarajevo, the car is open, try to make life better for the Serbs in Bosnia, but a Serbian nationalist assassinates both Franz Ferdinand and his wife (this started World War I), Austria is outraged and they give Serbia an ultimatum: First, they wanted an apology from Serbia. Second, they insisted on being a part of the investigation in trying to find the assassin. Serbia agreed with a lot of it, but did not want their police force in the nation because it took away from their being. July 28 – AustriaHungary declares war on Serbia July 29 – Russia mobilizes July 31 – AustriaHungary mobilizes, Germany issues an ultimatum to Russia (says to back off and demobilize) August 1 – Germany mobilizes and declares war on Russia, Britain mobilizes fleet August 3 – Germany declares war on France and invades Belgium August 4 – Britain issues an ultimatum to Germany (asks them to respect Belgium neutrality), they essentially declare war August 6 – AustriaHungary declares war on Russia August 11 – France declares war on AustriaHungary August 12 – Britain declares war on AustriaHungary COURSE OF WORLD WAR I War started in August of 1914. Both sides went into this war thinking it would only last six weeks, but it actually lasted four years. o Everyone knew they were going to go to war; the assassination of Franz Ferdinand was just the straw that broke the camel’s back. Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s idea to invade France from the north by crossing through Belgium (which would violate international law because Belgium was a neutral state), they wanted to move in and envelope Paris (if you have Paris, you have France) o Germany did not want to be fighting a war on two fronts with France and Russia. They wanted to use this plan so they could knock France out fast and then turn to take down Russia. They did send Austrians and Hungarians to Russia to hold them down until the plan was executed. The plan did not workout that way. First Battle of the Marne (1914) – the Germans came through Belgium (the Belgians did fight back and the British came to help), but they met the French at the Marne River, the French dug trenches from Northern France to Switzerland where they held the line against the Germans (trenchwarfare), the war stayed right where the trenches were dug o TrenchWarfare – the offense in trenchwarfare was to rush the opponent’s trenches (NoMan’s Land: area between opponent trenches), they were rushing with rifles and bayonets but defending themselves with machine guns (both sides had machine guns) Trenches were dug 78 feet deep. Life in the trenches is so bad. They would rotate you to the front for about seven days then let you rest for about three days. There was much mud in the trenches. Soldiers were often up to their arms in mud, which was filled with rodents and waste. It became a War of Attrition, which means they just tried to ware the other side down. NoMan’sLand was reinforced with barbed wire. You had to either go over or crawl under the wire so many people were killed. Battle of Verdun (1916) – some 200,000 shells were dropped here and there were 700,000 deaths Battle at the Somme River – British lost 60,000 men in one day Exam 2 (Page:4) The issue became how to break the stalemate. They brought new allies in. The Germans brought in the Ottomans, and the French and British brought in the Americans. Americans wanted to stay out of the conflict; even the President (Woodrow Wilson) didn’t want to get involved. The problem that brought the Americans in was submarine warfare. o Lusitania – British ship that the Germans sunk (there were hundreds of Americans on this ship), this angered the Americans and later led them to get involved Americans forced the Germans to stop submarine warfare, and they did for a while, but when the Germans resumed the Americans got involved (April of 1917). o American involvement helped break the stalemate. The nations also tried to create diversions. Battle of Gallipoli – wanted to create another front, this was an amphibious landing, there were several casualties at this battle T.E. Lawrence – was an Englishman who had lived for ages in the Middle East, knew much about Muslim, they used him to stir up Arab nationalism against the Ottoman Empire There were many major technological developments – tanks (attempt to be able to cross NoMan’sLand), planes (use is limited but engaged in dogfights and were able to drop a few bombs), gas (chemical warfare, there were many deaths from the use of gas, they used tear gas which temporarily had an effect on the opponent, they used chlorine gas which killed people by suffocating them, the most hideous was mustard gas which caused people to blister and kill you inside out) Internal revolution led to the withdrawal of Russia from the war. The Bolsheviks took over and pulled Russia from the war. The French, British, and Americans came out the victors. They were mad and they want retribution. Treaty of Versailles: there were a number of results from this meeting after the war o “War Guilt” Clause – "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." o Territorial Provisions – the Germans had to give AlsaceLorraine back to France, they also lost their colonial territories and lost territory in the East which was given back to Poland, the Ottoman Empire is broken up (Turkey is left and the new state Yugoslavia is created) Effects of the war – the war effected all people in all the nations involved o Loss of life – Germany (2 – 2.5 million), Russia (1.75 million) France (1.5 million), Britain (1 million), Italy (500 thousand), Unites States (100 thousand), and about 20 million total were wounded o Colonials – the colonies fought on behalf of their mother nations o Women – had to keep the home front working, took jobs in factories, led to women’s movements o Psychological impact – people don’t think the same, there was a lost generation o Fascism – people had to rework their governments to try and recover from the war, which led to the creation of Fascism RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Russian Revolution started by the middle class but becomes a war of the proletariat, it was led by professional revolutionaries, on the eve of Revolution: o Economic and Social Change – Russia was very late in industrializing, but it happened very suddenly and very rapidly, the middle class was becoming bigger and more prosperous thanks to industrialization (middle class now wants political power that it has not had because Russia was a monarchy ruled by a czar [Nicolas II and Alexandra Romanov at the time]), the czar and aristocracy have all the power, government tried to print more money to help the economy but it just caused inflation Duma – Russia’s form of parliament, doesn’t always have good relations with the czar (Nicolas considered getting rid of it) o Peasants – 80% of the population were still peasants, serfdom was only emancipated in 1861, peasants are very frustrated and want their own land Stolypin – carries out some land reforms in which some peasants got their own small land holdings for private use, the rest were forced to work for the Mir (a collective farm that Exam 2 (Page:5) belonged to the village and was owned by the village), it was better than serving for the aristocracy o World War I – Russia was deeply involved in WWI, Russia was the Eastern Front, they fought valiantly and committed 15 million troops to this cause (lost half of them to war or desertion), Russia is starving after the war, the war disrupted railroads so food couldn’t be transported, it’s so bad that in 1915 Czar Nicolas went to the front to try and save the war effort, the government looks so bad because they are losing the war and people are starving Rasputin – con artist, disreputable, convinced Alexandra Romanov that he can cure her son (the heir to the throne) of hemophilia, the hemophilia stops for a bit and Alexandra allows Rasputin to gain political power, he shares his power with his corrupt/incompetent friends The Two Revolutions – the revolution took place in two phases o The First Revolution – takes place in March of 1917 (it is the middle class revolution) in St. Petersburg (Petrograd), it was started by women for the most part because there wasn’t enough food (food riot), by the evening of March 8 there were over 2 million people rioting, Nicolas’ response was to send in troops and he abolishes the Duma, the troops are sympathetic to the poor people rioting so they take a vote to not fire on the crowd (disobey orders), they actually joined the other side which is rapidly becoming a revolution, three days later the Czar abdicated the throne, the Duma became the new provisional (temporary) government, the Duma had to address all the social problems and address the war, they stay in the war and it ends up going very badly Kerensky – the man the Duma chose to lead the new government, he was sort of a social reformer and was pretty radical, chose to be the prime minister Soviets – councils of workers, formed in all the major towns and cities in Russia, in St. Petersburg there will be a central soviet, this is not the provisional government, it is a Shadow Government, the proletariat organized this, there are Marxist inspired political parties in Russia who helped to form this soviets Bolsheviks – worked with proletariat and worked to overthrow the provisional government, would lead to the Bolshevik Revolution Lenin – Marxist, very bright, spent some time in jail for criticizing the czar, was exiled from Russia, but after all this happened he returned to Russia because he thought it was time to bring about the Marxist Revolution (the Germans helped him back into Russia to end WWI), began to campaign in Russia for another revolution, puts his own spin on Marx (Marx said the proletariat would rise on its own and you couldn’t force it to happen, it had to be an fully industrialized nation for revolution to take place), but Lenin said the time was now and he said you got to fast forward things by using the intellectuals to indoctrinate people The Bolsheviks campaigned with the help of Trotsky and Stalin to try and convince soviets to join their side, their slogan was: “Peace, Land, and Bread” (pull Russia out of the land, give people their own land, and make sure no one was starving in Russia) o The Second Revolution – Bolshevik Revolution gained control of St. Petersburg which allowed them to control all the soviets, this will lead to a civil war in Russia (the whites [counterrevolutionaries] vs. the reds [Bolsheviks]), this civil war even got foreign support from Britain, the U.S., and France because they were all afraid of Bolshevik takeover The war is over with Red (Bolshevik) victory in 1922, even before the war was over they started creating a new form of economy (War Communism/Military Communism), shortly before the end of the war Russia was in such an economic crisis that Lenin embarks on something dramatic: o New Economic Policy (NEP) – created by Lenin, reverted to capitalism to try and jump start Russia’s economy, gave land to peasants which allowed them to farm their own land and sell their goods, took industries and gave them to private hands, but the government kept control of the heavy industry, tried to inspire productivity, amazingly it worked, Stalin had some issues with this Exam 2 (Page:6) o Russian Constitution – does not make one reference to the Bolshevik/Communist party, Russia is becoming a totalitarian state (one party state that controls everything), it controls the Politburo (subset of central committee where ideas were shared) Propaganda became an art form in the 20 century, and everyone government used it in some way. Propaganda tends not to be very subtle. SOVIET UNION UNDER STALIN Lenin had two successors: Stalin and Trotsky o Trotsky – subscribed to the theory of “Permanent Revolution” (the Revolution needs to be made international right away for Socialism/Marxism to work) o Stalin – you have to build socialism at home first, make it work in Russia before you expand the revolution Stalin actually studied to become a priest, but then he became linked up with Marxist revolutions and spent time in prison, he edited the Bolshevik party newspaper for awhile, by the time of the revolution he was one of the people in charge of the revolution (alongside Lenin) o Stalin beats out Trotsky to become the new leader of the Soviet Union Politburo – policy is formulated here, it is a subgroup of the central committee o Stalin used his power to put his friends in power, he came out on top and Trotsky lived in Mexico until 1940 when Stalin’s people found him and killed him Totalitarian State – ruled by a dictator and one political party, motivated by the idea that the state is always fighting an enemy (Stalin continued to set this up) Five Year Plan – 1928, policies under Stalin o End of the NEP – Stalin despised this, he felt it created a class of little capitalists (Kulaks: land owning, wealthier peasants), which he hated, he wanted to compete internationally as a super power so he launched the Five Year Plan o Goal – the goal was to transform Russia into a international, industrial power, idea was that major improvement in farming would help with the industrialization Triple the output of heavy industry Double the output of lighter, smaller industry Increase by 50% agricultural productivity (to feed and support) o Collectivization – the peasants of Russia always wanted their own land, this required the peasants to turn their land, livestock, and any farming tools they had into the government, but the peasants resisted and destroyed their equipment and livestock instead of handing it over, this set Russia back greatly (major famine hit), Stalin ordered party workers to go out and get rid of the Kulaks: a class of peasant farmers who owned their own land o Factories – they met the objectives Stalin set forth, he did it on the back of the proletariat, Stakhanov (met 16 times over his objective in the factory) Results – Russia became the 3 industrial nation in the world Life in Russia under Stalin: o It was a regime that ran on terrorism, Stalin purged millions of people for political reasons (one of the worst regimes in history), went after anyone who showed capitalist favor, there were show trials where people who were suspected of capitalist tendency were put on fake trials where they would be sentenced to execution, a lot of people were shipped off to the Gulags in Siberia (death camps) Casualties: 20 million perished between 19301941, 10 million (collectivization), 89 million (arrested), 1 million (executed), 30,00040,000 (officers) o There was a great food shortage during this time, there were huge shortages in housing and other necessities, Russia became the world’s first socialist country o There was huge censorship of writings, media, and more, people were forced to think how the government thought, propaganda was widespread Lysenko – did experiments with biochemistry with wheat plants to prove Marxism, the government loved him because what he said about organisms ran parallel to what the government was teaching HITLER AND THE RISE OF FASCISM Exam 2 (Page:7) Fascism and Communism are really opposite, but some things overlap. o Similarities – both created totalitarian, oneparty states, both created states that abolished civil liberties, both also have highly regulated economies o Differences – there are a number of these Communism – evolves from an enlightenment idea of optimism, thought they could create a better, perfect, classless society, they believed in the perfectibility of human beings, clear ideas and doctrines, all about the proletariat, collectively owned businesses for a regulated economy (universalist) Fascism – very nationalistic, think in hostile, pessimistic terms, they are super racists, it’s vague, hatred is a motivator, all about the middle class, the support came from the middle class, privately owned businesses but very regulated economy, government tells you what to pay people, what to produce, etc. (nationalist) Causes of Fascism: the Great Depression played a major role in this o The Great Depression – in the Fall of 1929 people were speculating wildly on Wall Street (buying and selling stock/trying to get rich fast), consumption of goods wasn’t keeping up, people began to worry and pull their money out of the market, in October of 1929 the Great Crash occurred, everything dropped by about 40%, banks panicked and started recalling loans, then it became international because American banks had loaned money to international companies, thus the world enters the Great Depression, there is tremendous unemployment worldwide so people turned to their governments to fix it (Stalin in Russia [Five Year Plan], Roosevelt in U.S. [Public works projects], Hitler in Germany), military spending was a huge stimulant in the economy On the last days of WWI, there was an internal revolution in Germany and Wilhelm was forced to step down. o Weimar Republic – president was elected for 7 years and shared power with the parliament called the Reichstag, it had so many unsolvable problems that it faced: Occupation of the Ruhr – Germany was forced to pay France and Belgium for all the damage from WWI with Treaty of Versailles, the Ruhr Valley was an industrial zone rich in mineral deposits in Germany, Germany fell behind on the payments so France moved in to take over the Ruhr so they could get their payment Inflation of 1923 – German workers refused to work for the French, and the German government supported the workers, so the Germans began printing extra money (which is a very dangerous thing), this led to hyperinflation in Germany, the Marks (money) came to hold almost no value, Germans decided they had to stop Dawes Plan – involved American loans to Germany and helped make a new reparations payment schedule to France and Belgium, people of the middle class were forced down to the level of the proletariat o Rise of Hitler – was born in Austria, wanted to go to art school in Austria, he lived in Vienna for awhile, served in German army in WWI National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) – Hitler hooked up with this group after WWI, picked up a lot of veterans after the war who couldn’t settle into civilian life, this group became prominent when they tried to overthrow the government: Munich Beer Hall Putsch – didn’t really work, but it put the Nazis on the map and put Hitler and others in jail Mein Kampf – Hitler’s autobiographical work that he wrote while in jail, this is where he laid out all his hatred towards the Jews, Communists, and more, he also laid out his plan, told people to keep it simple After Hitler got out of prison he became very involved in the Nazi political party again, they gained momentum by use of propaganda Propaganda – they used it to convince people of the rectitude of their policies, they used the press and used the idea of repetition to repeat simple ideas over and over, appealed to emotion, he said when you lie make it big, bold, and audacious, in 1928 they began staging rallies in Nuremberg (became home base for the Nazis), they addressed specific subsets of society and had them march Exam 2 (Page:8) (this moved people emotionally); Joseph Goebbels: a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 The Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, president Hindenburg chose Hitler to be Chancellor, the Nazis used the idea that a bombing in the Reichstag meant things were out of control and they needed to do something: Enabling Act – 1933, Hitler was given unlimited dictatorial power for four years so Germany could straighten itself out, the Fascist state had begun, Hitler expunged all other political parties The Nazi State – no freedom of press, no freedom of speech, state use of terrorism: o S.A. – the “brown shirts,” an army that has been around and was created by the Nazis, a lot of them, started out as a private army, a lot of unemployed people got jobs and uniforms, used them as thugs to intimidate German citizens, used violence against the citizens to gain support for the Nazis o S.S. – specially recruited because they were blondehaired and blueeyed, will be responsible for running the camps, etc. Germany had been demilitarized after WWI by the Treaty of Versailles, so Hitler began building up the German machine, this put people back to work in hopes of an economic recovery, they built new facilities, highways, cheap car (Volkswagen), and more o AntiSemitism – of all the people Hitler hated, he hated the Jews the most, Hitler was not very well educated, but he believed there was a hierarchy of society (Germans/Arians at the top and Jews at the bottom), this resulted in the Nuremburg Laws Nuremburg Laws – restricted the Jews, said there would be no mixing of the races, they gradually pressed in on the Jews, many Jews left Germany to try and escape this WORLD WAR II BEGINNINGS League of Nations: Woodrow Wilson’s idea, concept of collective security, which said they would work to mediate disputes (use arbitration) and if someone would act as an aggressor to start a war, the league of nations would work together against them [this failed miserably, not everyone was included and people didn’t have the will to uphold it] Manchuria – just north of Korea, belonged to China, in 1931 Japan invaded it as a part of imperialism, and the League did nothing (this showed people like Hitler that the League wasn’t a threat) Nazi expansion – Hitler came to power in 1933 (Enabling Act), expansion starts in Europe in 1939, Hitler outlined his ideas for expansion: o Race and Space – outlined in Mein Kamp, said Germans were the master race, so they should be able to take what they want, the German population was growing so he wanted space (wanted to expand east), he had nothing but content for the Slavic people, he believed that all the German people should be in one nation (they are stuck in the Sudetenland, Alsace and Lorraine, and Austria) Lebensraum – “living space” o Rearmament – Hitler secretly begins to rearm Germany in 1933, he started building planes, tanks, all sorts of war material, etc. (this boosted the German economy and put people back to work), it starts with building stuff secretly in 1933 but in 1935 he creates a military draft (conscription), which violated the Treaty of Versailles, he remilitarized the Rhineland 1936 – Hitler went to Mussolini to form an alliance with Italy Prime Minister of England was Chamberlain and the Prime Minister of France was Daladier (both were very concerned about what Hitler was doing) o Appeasement – Chamberlain’s idea, France wasn’t in a position to oppose it because it needed Britain as an ally, Britain said maybe there was a reason for Hitler’s actions, so appeasement was to let Hitler do what he wanted (the British people were so tired of war (pacifism) and kind of felt bad for what Germany had been going through, they also saw Germany as a buffer against Communism in Russia) o Anschluss – in 1938 Hitler rolled in and took Austria, annexed the entire country (brought Germans together with their fellow Germans), this scared the British and French, by taking Austria Hitler left things wide open to take over (i.e. Czechoslovakia/Sudetenland) Exam 2 (Page:9) Munich – Chamberlain and Daladier meet with Hitler to discuss what is going on, they decided Hitler could take the Sudetenland if he stopped after, but of course Hitler took Sudetenland and then the rest of Czechoslovakia o Pact of Steel – Hitler tightened his alliance with Mussolini in Italy o NaziSoviet Pact (nonaggression act) – 1939, if in the event of a war, Russia would not attack Germany and Germany would not attack Russia, if there were to be a war in Europe they would divide the land, Germany wants the western half of Poland and Russia wants the eastern half of Poland France and Britain had tried to get Stalin/Russia on their side, but they weren’t as aggressive in convincing Russia as Germany was WWII start on September 1, 1939 with Hitler’s invasion of Poland o Blitzkrieg – the style of fighting that the Germans had prepared for, “lighting war,” a war of rapid movement, Hitler did not want another trench war Luftwaffe – German air force (allowed them to attack very fast) In Poland, the Polish people fought back valiantly, but they were bombed so heavily, the people of Warsaw turned out to dig trenches around the city, but it was hopeless, the Soviets moved in from the East to take over their part of the land, Hitler continued to conquer lands all over Europe (Denmark, Norway, and down to France), by July 1940 it was over for France, the Nazis occupied France but divided it into two parts (Vichy (southern France) was a city in which the Germans set up another French government, very authoritarian/collaborationist, which meant “one who works with the Germans,” they had to do what Hitler told them to do), the French were just trying to get through it, Petain was the man in charge of this collaborationist regime, there is an underground that tried to liberate France though Battle of Britain – Hitler’s goal was to invade and take Britain, but it was difficult because England is an island and has a good navy, by this point Britain has a good air force (RAF – Royal Air Force), but they are outnumbered by the German Luftwaffe although the British pilots are superbly trained, this battle began on st August 1 , was going to be Operation Sea Lion, but Germany decided to shift their focus from military bases to industrial towns and cities (including London), night after night the Germans rain raids on the British (they dropped bombs on the cities), the British people moved to subway stations and underground homes night after night o Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of Britain during WWII, opposed Chamberlain and appeasement, he was proud of his British background, he was able to pull together a government of the left and right sides, he was an orator, the RAF were able to pull it together and defeat Germany in the air (they had the advantage of radar), the Germans were forced to postpone Operation Sea Lion, the British had won THE HOLOCAUST Hitler’s Racial Theories: The New Order o German peoples – (Aryan race: tall, light skin, blue eyes, blonde hair) were superior to everyone else; they were the “master race.” Hitler had a limited understanding of humanity and Darwinism. o Nordic Peoples – Scandinavians, Dutch, etc. were treated a little differently because they were so closely related to the Aryan race (treated pretty well) o Latin Peoples – included the French in this, Hitler had no respect for these people (he didn’t rate them as low as other people) o Slavic Peoples – he despised these people, much of his plan was to expand to the east and enslave the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe and Russia and work them to death o Jews – antiSemitism: is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group; he viewed the Jews in the most horrible terms humanly possible, he worked to rid Europe of Jewish peoples Nuremberg Laws: did everything in their power to restrict the lives of the Jews, restricted marriage between Jew and nonJew, they were deprived of university, the regulations became so specific in nature that there was even a law that said they couldn’t have dogs as pets Many Jews fled to other parts of Europe, Canada, and the United States, but a lot were not accepted into other nations Exam 2 (Page:10) Hitler began rounding up and deporting people that didn’t fit the “perfect race” to these labor camps that soon became death camps (concentration camps) o “The Final Solution” – headed up by Heinrich Himmler (he was in charge of the S.S.), they were the people that ran the death camps, in 1941 they moved to complete execution of the Jews (other people went to/were killed at the death camps: Communists, gypsies, Mennonites and other religious groups, homosexuals, mentally ill peoples) Holocaust: also known as the Shoah, was a genocide in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany and its collaborators killed about six million Jews Auschwitz – located in Poland, the largest of the concentration camps, executed 12,000 people a day, there were calls for the allies to bomb Auschwitz but they were conflicted because they didn’t want to kill the Jews there, the allies concluded not to bomb it o Around 6 million people died during the Holocaust GEOGRAPHY 1. Berlin 2. Rhine River 3. Elbe River 4. Danube River 5. Vistula River 6. Vienna 7. Budapest 8. Sarajevo 9. Gallipoli 10. Constantinople 11. Kiev 12. Warsaw 13. Leningrad 14. Stalingrad 15. Moscow 16. Yalta BOOK TERMS Great Mutiny/Great Revolt: the terms used by the British and the Indians, respectively, to describe the last armed resistance to British rule in India, which occurred in 1857 Indian Civil Service: the bureaucracy that administered the government of India, entry into its elite ranks was through examinations that Indians were eligible to take, but these tests were offered only in England Indian National Congress: a political association formed in 1885 that worked for Indian selfgovernment Java War: the 18251830 war between the Dutch government and the Javanese, fought over the extension of Dutch control of the island Nguyen Dynasty: the last Vietnamese ruling house, which lasted from 1802 to 1945 Opium War: the 18391842 war between the British and the Chinese over limitations on trade and the importation of opium in China Extraterritoriality: the legal principle that exempts individuals from local law, applicable in China because of the agreements reached after China’s loss in the Opium War Exam 2 (Page:11) Taiping Rebellion: a massive rebellion by believers in the religious teachings of Hong Xiuquan, begun in 1851 and not suppressed until 1864 Boxers: a Chinese secret society that blamed the country’s ills on foreigners, especially missionaries, and rose in rebellion in 1900 1911 Revolution: the uprising that brought China’s monarchy to an end Gunboat Diplomacy: the imposition of treaties and agreements under threat of military violence, such as the opening of Japan to trade after Commodore Perry’s demands Meiji Restoration: the 1867 ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate that “restored” the power of the Japanese emperors RussoJapanese War: the 19041905 war between Russia and Japan fought over imperial influence and territory in northeast China (Manchuria) Indentured Laborers: laborers who in exchange for passage agreed to work for a number of years, specified in a contract Militarism: the glorification of the military as the supreme ideal of the state with all other interests subordinate to it Triple Entente: the alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia in World War I Trench Warfare: fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; used in World War I with a staggering cost in lives and minimal gains in territory Total War: practiced by countries fighting in World War I, a war in which the government plans and controls all aspects of economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort March Revolution: the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which unplanned uprisings led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a transitional democratic government that was then overthrown in November by Lenin and the Bolsheviks Petrograd Soviet: a countergovernment that was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals Bolsheviks: the majority group, this was Lenin’s camp of the Russian party of Marxist Socialism War Communism: the application of the totalwar concept to a civil conflict, the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work League of Nations: a permanent international organization established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars Treaty of Versailles: the 1919 peace settlement that ended World War II, it declared Germany responsible for the war, limited Germany’s army to one hundred thousand men, and forced Germany to pay huge reparations Dawes Plan: the product of the reparations commission, accepted by Germany, France, and Britain, that reduced Germany’s yearly reparations, made payment dependent on German economic prosperity, and granted Germany large loans from the United States to promote recovery Mein Kampf: Adolf Hitler’s autobiography, published in 1925, which also contains Hitler’s political ideology Existentialism: the name given to a highly diverse and even contradictory philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the search for more values in a world of terror and uncertainty Id, Ego, Superego: Freudian terms for the primitive, irrational unconscious (Id), the rationalizing conscious that mediates what a person can do (Ego), and the ingrained moral values that specify what a person should do (Superego) Modernism: a variety of cultural movements at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth that rebelled against traditional forms and conventions of the past Functionalism: the principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve the purpose for which they were made as well as possible New Deal: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s plan to reform capitalism through forceful government intervention in the economy Popular Front: a New Dealinspired party in France that encouraged unions and launched a farreaching program of social reform Totalitarianism: a radical dictatorship that exercises complete political power and control over all aspects of society and seeks to mobilize the masses for action Fascism: a movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, antisocialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military Exam 2 (Page:12) FiveYear Plan: launched by Stalin in 1928 and termed the “revolution from above,” its goal was to modernize the Soviet Union and generate a Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity New Economic Policy (NEP): Lenin’s 1921 policy reestablishing limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration Collectivization: Stalin’s forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large, statecontrolled enterprises Black Shirts: a private army under Mussolini that destroyed Socialist newspapers, union halls, and local Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy Lateran Agreement: a 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for the pope’s public support Nazism: a movement born of extreme nationalism and racism and dominated by Adolf Hitler from 1933 until the end of World War II in 1945 Enabling Act: an act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictorial power for four years Blitzkrieg: “Lightning War,” using planes, tanks, and trucks, first used by Hitler to crush Poland in four weeks New Order: Hitler’s program, based on the guiding principle of racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples above “inferior” Latin peoples and, at the bottom, “subhuman” Slavs and Jews Holocaust: the attempted systematic extermination of all European Jews and other “undesirables” by the Nazi state during World War II Europe First Policy: the military strategy, set forth by Churchill and adopted by Roosevelt, that called for the defeat of Hitler in Europe before the United States launched an allout strike against Japan in the Pacific * I would recommend reading the following Chapter Summaries in the textbook on these pages: Pages: 812 – 814 (Chapter 26) Page: 881 (Chapter 28) Pages: 950 – 951 (Chapter 30)
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