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Exam 2 Study Guide

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by: Crysta Meekins

Exam 2 Study Guide GRN 250

Crysta Meekins

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Notes from 2/16-3/1
Aging in Today's World
Dr. Watkins
Study Guide
50 ?




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1 review
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"Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Crysta has the best notes period!"
Miss Tristian Stamm

Popular in Aging in Today's World

Popular in Human Development

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GRN 250 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Watkins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Aging in Today's World in Human Development at University of Kentucky.


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Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Crysta has the best notes period!

-Miss Tristian Stamm


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Date Created: 03/04/16
● Population Pyramids (age/sex composition)   ● Life Expectancy (general)   ● What’s Population Aging? (measures)   ● What’s Demography?   ‐ “The numeric/statistical study of populations, with emphasis on the components of baby  making, moving around, and dying.”    ‐ “A way to understand and explain population change by examining the processes of  baby making, moving around, and dying.”    ● Population Composition/Characteristics   ‐ Static Characteristics (age, sex, race)  ‐ Dynamic Characteristics (gender ethnicity)   ‐ Socio‐economic Characteristics (income)  ‐ Heterogeneity (diversity)  ‐ Assumed Homogeneity  ● Demographic Equation    Pt + n = Pt + B ‐ D +inM + out M  ● Components of Change               Fertility, Mortality, Mobility              Natural Increase, Net Mobility    ● Fertility and Fecundity Defined  ‐ Fertility: number of children born to a woman or to a group  ‐ Fecundity: biological ability to make babies (men or women)  ‐ Subfecundity: things are not up to what they should be (sexually)  ●  Primary Determinants of Fertility (5 of them)   1. Ability to Procreate  2. Exposure to Intercourse  3. Control over Conception  4. Successful Gestation (fetal growth)  5. Successful Delivery  ● Influential Factors:  ‐  Biological Factors   a. ​ge (menarche‐ start of puberty, menopause)   b. Health (subfecundity, amenorrhea, nutrition, disease, smoking/drugs/alcohol, environment,  elite exercise)   c. Breast Feeding (postpartum/lactational amenorrhea‐not having your period)   d. Technology (Birth control, contraception & types)   ‐  Sociological Factors   a. Marriage Attitudes (age of first marriage, divorce)   b. Sex Attitudes (media and period/cohort effects)   c. Family Attitudes (generation effects, value of kids)    ● Defining Death   ‐ “Cessation of blood circulation and breathing.” (Clinical Death)  ‐ “Irreversible cessation of all brain activity.” (Brain Death)  ‐ “The permanent cessation of all signs of life.” (Biological Death)  ‐ Whatever a doctor decides… legal/ethical issues (Legal Death)    ● Primary/Basic Causes of Death   ­ Biotic Interference/Disease​  (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, neoplasms)  ­ Chemical Interference/Disease  ​(serological, immunological, endocrinological,  neurological)  ­ Physical Interference/Disease (any of the plumbing… pressure on organs)  ­ Physical Trauma    ● Top Causes of Death for KY, U.S., World   ● Epidemiological Transition  ‐ change in the cause of death   ● Death and Age  ­ Infant Mortality (0­1)  ­ Accident Hump (16­30)  ­ Degenerative Conditions (as age increases)     ● Life Expectancy ​ (define, calculating expected life span, comparisons)   ‐ “statistical duration of years left”  ‐ expected life span: “statistical duration of time between birth and death”  ● In Sickness and in Health   ­ Acute (broken leg, heart attack)  ­ Infectious/Communicable (rabies vs. influenza, mumps)  ­ Chronic (diabetes, arthritis, most cancers)  ­ Degenerative (Alzheimer’s Disease, osteoporosis)  ­ Outbreak → Epidemic → Pandemic              (Measles in CA → Ebola → HIV/AIDS)     ● Social Factors in Morbidity/Mortality    ‐ Personal (endogenous)   ‐ Structural (exogenous)   ‐ Interaction Examples: Habit, Preference, Access, Control   ‐ Economic Development – modes of production  *Primary (extraction): mining, logging, fishing, hunting  *Secondary (heavy industry): iron and steel industries  *Tertiary (light industry): adding value  *Quaternary (service industry): restaurant, legal services, banking services, medical services      ● Explaining Population Change    ‐ Early Perspectives/Reasons to support growth    ­ survival of species  ­ babies didn’t live that long  ­ strength in numbers (warfare)  ­ there is power in numbers  ­ religious necessity  ­ survival of the religious   ‐ Malthus – Basic Assumptions & consequences    ­ cleric and oxford economist  ­ thinking and responding to conditions of the middle to late 1700s  ­ crops were failing and people were poor    Thinking like Malthus  ● The basic assumptions  ­ people have to eat  ­ people like sex    Positive Checks  ● pestilence­famine  ● misery­vice      Preventative Checks  ● abstinence­celibacy  ● moral restraint    ‐ Marx – Class struggle and social dynamics   ­ Class Struggle  ­ Ownership (bourgeoise) vs. Labor (proletariat)    ● Interest of the Ruling Class  ­ But represented as the “common interest”    ● Capitalism...promote labor surplus  ­ so, cheaper labor means more profit    ● Population size isn’t the problem...  ­ More about who controls resources.  ­ “Dialectic Materialism”     ‐ Demographic Transition – Stages and their relation to population growth and aging. 


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