Exam 1 Review
Exam 1 Review BIOL 1040
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anointyd Collins on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
All living things do the following grow reproduce homeostasis sense and respond to environment and obtain and use energy Cell a structural unit of living organisms Cell membrane phospholipid lipid fat that forms the cell membrane bilayer w embedded proteins that forms the boundary of all cells Hnifi Cell Nueleelue 1 Ribsme Nueleer Ly m me Emeelepe f L l 5 Muelleue Emdepleemi Cyteple em Hetie u u m Cell Membrane E lgi 139 Miteehendrin peretue Covalent Bond strong chemical bond sharing of a pair of electrons Hydrogen Bond a weak attraction between an atom with a partially positive and another with a partially negative water molecules MHDWEFS Polymer of three monemera Plymer of ve monomers Monomers Polvmers Amino Acid Protein Nucleotide Nucleic Acid Monosaccharide Carbohydrate Glycerol amp Fatty Acids Lipids water is both cohesive and adhesive which makes it very sticky Cohesion molecules that cling to one another Adhesion molecules clinging to a surface Water is also a polar molecule polar molecule electrons aren t shared equally between atoms Results in a molecule with a partially negative charged end and a partially positively charged end A Solution a solutesolvent Hydrophobic VS Hydrophilic molecules that molecules that don t dissolve dissolve in in water water lon electrically charged atom becomes charged from the loss or gain of electrons Iconic Bond strong attraction between oppositely charged ions lli Heutlral lESIE 1 3 4i 5 9 Ill 11 121314 Battery Liamun Wine Normal lstlllle aking 5ft immhia We Mid Jlui e Fain Water 5421M Snap pH measure of concentration of hydrogen ions H in a solution Acidic increases hydrogen ion concentration Basic reduces hydrogen ion concentration Cell Structure and Function Worksheet Review When and how was penicillin discovered In 1928 Alexander Fleming made an observation He realised that the fungus on his culture plate was somehow inhibiting the growth of bacteria 2 What is the source of penicillin Penicillium Chrysogenum a mold fungi 3 How do antibiotics inhibit bacteria growth Most bacteria produce peptidoglycan bacteria target this and destroy the cell wall 4 Other than bacteria What kind of cells have a cell wall plant cells and fungi have cell walls just not made of 5 When did penicillin start being prescribed 1945 6 Why is penicillin no longer effective against most strains of staphylococcus aureus This was the first bacteria used with penicillin This bacteria has acquired an enzyme that snips the central ring of penicillin By not taking the antibiotic properly 90 of the strains of this bacteria are immune 7 Cell Theory All living things are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells 8 Two main types of cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic Bacteria Animals Plants Fungi Protozoa Prokaryotic No nucleus or other organelles DNA is in cytoplasm Eukaryotes DNA in nucleus 9 Name structures common to all cells Cell membrane Cytoplasm DNA Ribosomes 10 Describe how the functions of the nucleus ER and Golgi apparatus are connected Nucleus contains DNAinstructions for making proteins surrounded by the nuclear envelope gt copy of DNA instructions leaves nucleus to go to Endoplasmic reticulum ER network of folded membranes Rough ER ribosomes for making proteins Smooth ER makes lipids gt drops off proteins to golgi apparatus Golgi Apparatus stacked membranes that package and transport proteins in vesicles gt proteins are packaged and moved to nal destination bloodstream cell membrane locations within the cell 11 Lysosomes recycling center of the body that contain enzymes that digest break down worn out cell parts or molecules so they can be used to build new cellular structures 12 Two molecules that contain DNA other than nucleus Mitochondria gt cellular respirationChloroplasts Plants only gt photosynthesis 13 What theory explains how mitochondria and chloroplasts acquired DNA Endosymbiosis prokaryotic cells engulfed other prokaryotic cells 25 billion years ago forming eukaryotic organelles One cell engulfed another cell and they are coeXisting together Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria DNA ribosomes size cell division 14 Cytoskeleton Network of protein fibers Cell support Cell Movement Anchoring Organelles Cell Division 15 Which structures distinguish plant cells from animals Central water vacuole cellulose cell wall chloroplasts E9 ALL CELLS HAVE A CELL MEMBRANE DNA CYTOPLASMRIBOSOMES Cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer w embedded proteins Cell membrane is SEMIPERMEABLEA blocks large molecules glucose amino acids hydrophilic molecules due to hydrophobic molecules and charged substances ions gt Allows small uncharged hydrophobic substances oxygenC02 SIMPLE DIFFUSION movement of uncharged molecules across the phospholipid bilayer from the side with the higher concentration to the side with lower concentration NO ENERGY IS USED OSMOSIS diffusion of water from an area of low solute to an area of high solute More solutes on the outside Hypertonic greater solutes of the cell Water wants to move to where there is more solutes so it moves outside and the cell dehydrates Reverse Osmosis gt Water goes into the cell because there is a higher concentration inside Isotonic same concentration of solutes CELL MEMBRANE PROTEINS 1 Transport gt move ions and hydrophilic molecules in and out of cell 2 Recognition gt identify cells 3 Receptor gt binding sites for chemicals and proteins 4 Enzymatic gt metabolic functions make or break things down FACILITATED DIFFUSION proteins the helper transport largehydrophilic molecules and ions from high to low concentration NO ENERGY REQUIRED ACTIVE TRANSPORT use of energy and a protein to move largehydrophilic molecules and ions from low to high concentration For example bacteria can pump out antibiotics Protein Energy Ions Simple NO NO high to low Diffusion concentration Facilitated YES NO high to low Diffusion concentration Active YES YES low to high Transport concentration The two major components of cell membrane are phospholipids and proteins Plasma membranes regulates passage of material into or out of the cell Hydrophilic large molecules enter cells from an environment with a very high concentration of sugar by facilitated diffusion If water was moving from solution A to B it is moving because solution B has a higher solute concentration than A Hydrophobic molecules can cross a cell membrane Via simple diffusion Plants like to be surrounded by hypotonic molecules
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