NHM 101- Exam 1 Study Guide
NHM 101- Exam 1 Study Guide NHM 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter I 1 De nitions of Nutrients Diet Food and Energy a Nutrients chemicals in food necessary for proper function in the body provide energy structure repair b Diet the foods beverages a person takes in c Food products from plants animals i Yield energy and nutrients for growth and maintenance d Energy capacity to do work i Energy in food is chemical energy 2 Factors that In uence Food Choices a Preference b Habit c Culture d Social interactions e Availability f Income g Emotions h Values i Body Image j Health Bene ts 3 Six Classes of Nutrients a Carbohydrates b Proteins c Lipids fats d Vitamins e Minerals f Water 4 Categories of Nutrients 0 Macro vs Micronutrients i Macro required in large amounts energy yielding 9Carbs Proteins Lipids ii Micro required in small amounts do not provide energy but may help in energy release process Vitamins Minerals 0 Energy yielding nutrients i Carbs Proteins Lipids 0 Organic vs Inorganic nutrients i Organic contain Carbon Carbs Proteins Lipids Vitamins ii Inorganic Do not contain Carbon Minerals Water 5 Energy from Food 0 Units of energy i 1 calorie energy required to raise lg of water by 1 degree Celsius ii 1 Calorie 1 kcal 1000 calories 0 Energy provided by CHO fats protein and alcohol 6 Energy Density vs Nutrient Density a Energy density measure of the energy the food provides relative to its weight b Nutrient density nutrients relative to weight 7 Dietary Reference Intakes a EAR Estimated Average Requirements i Average daily amount of nutrients suf cient for 12 of population ii Cannot use this recommendation because 12 will be de cient b RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances i Daily amount of nutrients needed to meet requirements of almost all healthy individuals ii Goal intake c AI Adequate Intake i Suf cient scienti c evidence not available to determine RDA ii Based on estimates of nutrient intake by a group of apparently healthy people assumed to be adequate d UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level i Maximum daily amount of nutrients that can be absorbed consumed healthily 8 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR a 4565 of energy from carbs b 203 5 of energy from fats c 103 5 of energy from protein Chapter 2 1 Meal Planning Principles a Overall eating pattem combination of different food drink at numerous meals over time b Adequacy suf cient energy and enough nutrients c Balance enough but not too much d Kcal energy control energy input output e Variety different food groups f Nutrient density most nutrients for least food energy avoid empty calorie foods 2 MyPlate 0 Currently used 0 Five food groupsfruits vegetables dairy grains protein 3 Nutrition Facts Labels a Check serving size first and number of servings contained b Nutrients organized by heaviest to lightest in weight 4 Ingredients Label a Nutrients organized by heaviest to lightest in weight 5 Nutrition Claims on Labels a Fatfree less than 05g fat per serving b Low fat less than or equal to 3g fat c Trans fat free less than 05 g transsat fat d Light Lite 13 fewer kcal than comparison e Organic 95 grown and processed according to USDA regulations Highlight 1 Best Source of Nutrition lnforrnation Professional physicians registered dietitians RD bachelor s degree 1200 hr internship national exam continuing education credits licensure in most states Chapter 3 1 De nitions of Digestion Absorption and GI tract a Digestion Process by which food mostly macronutrients is broken down into smaller units b Absorption Uptake of nutrients by cells of small intestine for transport into blood lymph system c GI tract exible muscular tube from mouth to anus 2 Anatomy of Digestive Tract 0 Anatomy picture Digestive System o Mouth Digestion begins chewing salivary excretion commencement of carb digestion o Esophagus No digestion upper esophageal sphincter opens to intake food food moves through the esophagus lower esophageal sphincter opens to allow food to enter stomach o Stomach Strongest muscle Chyme is added to the food through release from stomach walls and the food becomes a semiliquid mass digestion of protein and fat begin in the stomach pyloric sphincter opens 3 times per minute to allow chyme into small intestine 0 Small intestine most digestion almost all absorption major location for nutrients absorption a 3 segments duodenum jejunum ileum Movement of Food Through the Digestive Tract 0 What s peristalsis a Wavelike contractions of the GI tract that move food along begins in the esophagus o The function of sphincters a Circular muscle surrounding and able to open and close a bodily opening keeps ow of food in one direction Secretions in Digestive Tract o Saliva water salts mucus enzymes initiates carb digestion Gastric juicewater enzymes and hydrochloric acid 0 Pancreatic enzymesecreted by pancreas into duodenum act on all 3 macronutrients contains sodium bicarbonate to neutralize chyme o Bile produced by liver secreted by gallbladder into the duodenum helps lipid digestion 0 Absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract a Fibers are not absorbed and continue into the large intestine o Villi amp Microvilli o Villi fingerlike projections of the small intestine wall absorbative cells on the surface 0 Microvilli tiny hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into cells 0 Diffusion 0 Simple facilitated or active transport 0 Water soluble nutrients go directly into the bloodstream liver 0 Fat and fat soluble vitamins go into the lymphatic system initially bypass liver PrebioticsProbiotics a Probiotics Bacteria found in foods and supplements that are beneficial to health b Prebiotics food for probiotics
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