Unit 1: Study Guide
Unit 1: Study Guide BI381
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Niswonger on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BI381 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. Rebeccah Kurzhals in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 478 views. For similar materials see Molecular Genetics in Biology at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Ullll L Study Guide Chapter 1 1 Examine Figure 17 on page 5 in your textbook State one major difference and one major similarity between yeast and bacterium State on major difference and one major similarity between Drosophifaiand humans if Difference between d r osophila and humans ies are more gene dense Similarity between drosophila and humans both have introns Difference between Bacterium and yeast Bacterium is prokaryotic and therefore has no Introns and yeast is eukaryotic Simiiarity between bacterium and yeast both are small and gene dense 2 What are the 3 components of a nucleotide of DNA 1 Deoxyribose 2 Phosphate group 3 Nitrogenous base 3 What are the 4 bases that make up DNA Not just the letters Purine Adenine Guanine Pyrimidine Cytosine Thymine 4 What is the complete set of genetic information encoded in an organism s DNA called Genome 5 In several sentences relate the terms diploid and homologous chromosomes In your answer demonstrate your understanding by explaining what each term means and how they are related to each other To be diploid the nuclei contain 2 complete copies of the genome and so 2 identical chromosome sets These 2 identical chromosome sets are called the homologous chromosomes Minor variations can occur 6 Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells In the nucleus mitochondria and chloroplasts 7 What is transcription Synthesizing DNA from an RNA template 8 What is a telomere The tip of a chromosome They contain specialized DNA sequences needed during chromosome division The prevent chromosome from quotfraying 9 What is a centrornere it is the constricted region of a chromosome It acts as an attachment point to move the chromosome during cell division Scanned by CamScanner i i I I i Unit 1 Study Guide 10 Write several sentences to explain the relationship between M and mm In your answer demonstrate your understanding by explaining what each term means and how they are related to each other A codon is a group of 3 nucleotides The codon specifies for the amino acid that will be produced A long chain of amino acids is a polypeptide 11 Where does the variation on which natural selection acts originate Comes from mutations changes in the nucleotide sequence 12 How many different alleles of a particular gene may exist in a population of organisms How many alleles of a particular gene can be present in an individual organism Why Many different alleles can be present in a population due to genetic mutations However a diploid organism can only have 2 alleles because they inherit 1 allele from each parent 13 What is a mutation and what causes mutations Where must a mutation occur in order to pass it on to the next generation A mutation is a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence During DNA replication if a repair enzyme makes a mistake or there is exposure to a chemical mutagen a mutation occurs If a mutation occurs in a germ cell it can be passed on to the next generation Chapter 2 14 Write several sentences to explain the relationship between allele and geniegln your answer demonstrate your understanding by explaining what each term means and how they are related to each other A gene is a unit of heredity that is transferred from parent to offspring Alleles are variation of the same gene and a diploid organism receives 1 allele from each parent 15 Mating two organisms produces a 31 ratio of phenotypes in the progeny What are the parental genotypes Use A and a to represent the alleles Parent 1 Na Parent 2 Ma 16 Mating two organisms produces a 11 ratio of phenotypes in the progeny What are the parental genotypes Use A and a to represent the alleles Parent 1 MA Parent 2 aa 17 Mating two organisms with different phenotypes produces progeny with only one phenotype What are the parental genotypes Use A and a to represent the alleles Parent 1 AA Parent 2 aa Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide 18 If you had a fruit fly that was a phenotype R what test would you make to determine if the fly39s genotype was Rr or Rr Test cross it with a recessive quotrr If it is Rr then a mutant type will be produced RR would produce wild type 19 In a particular population of mice certain individuals display a phenOWPe called Short tail which is inherited as a dominant trait Some individuals display a recessive trait called quotdilutequot which affects coat color Which of these traits would be easier to eliminate the dominant trait in one generation The short tail dominant allele would be easier to eliminate because you can cross it with a homozygous recessive trait and you would eliminate the dominant trait in one generation 20 Holstein cattle are normally black and white A superb blackandwhite bull Charlie was purchased by a farmer for 100000 All the progeny sired by Charlie were normal in appearance However certain pairs of his progeny when interbred produced redandwhite progeny at a frequency of a about 24 Charlie was soon removed from the stud lists of the Holstein breeders Use symbols to explain precisely why While Charlie was normal in appearance he would have had to have been heterozygous for the red trait Bb Bbackandwhite Bb redand white to have produced offspring with red and white spots t You find an abnormal looking colony that is green This green and the products of meiosis ascospores were spread on I there were 188 wild type normal colored colonies and he inheritance of the 21 You are a yeast geneticis colony was crossed with wild type a plate to produce colonies In tota 180 green ones What can you deduce from these results regarding t smal0 colony phenotype Invent genetic symbols Y wt yyzgreen lfthe crosses produced a 11 ratio then the wild type cross would have not been true n a homozygous wild type YY crossed with the green colony yy it breeding Had it bee the cross must be Yy x yy green to would have had 100 wild type phenotype Therefore produce the 11 ratio 22 Seuss fish exists in two varieties in the wild either red or blue You wish to study ation in Seuss fish so you capture 3 jubenile fish in the wild raise them in individual color ual maturity you perform the following cross tanks When they reach sex Blue fish 1 it Red fish 2 45 red fish and 48 blue fish Red fish 2 x Red fish 3 73 Red fish and 27 Blue fish 3 Construct a hypothesis about the inheritance of color of Seuss fish Red phenotype is dominant to blue phenotype Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide b What must the genotype of each fist 13 be Define your symbols and state each fish39s genotype A dominant red allele a recessive blue allele 1 aa 2 Aa 3 Aa c What cross or crosses would you do to confirm your hypothesis in a State the crosses you would do and the expected outcome of the crosses If you cross the blue fish since it is a recessive trait you will get a 100 blue fish 23 A breeder of Irish setters has a particularly valuable male show dog descended from a famous female named Rhenoa Didona that was known to carry a harmful recessive gene for blindness caused by atrophy of the retina Before she uses the dog as a stud she wants some assurance that he does not carry this harmful allele Explain how you would test the dog using only crosses Because it is a male not showing the trait he would not be a carrier rxyiww aye it 31 1g ngMKI jl I 24 Which of the following events occurs only in meiosis Explain why e synapsis This pairs the homologs chromosomes before they separate which allows for crossover 25 a chromosomally normal woman and a chromosomally normal man have a son whose sex chromosome constitution is XYY In which parent and in which meiotic division did the nondisjunction take place In the father during anaphase II this resulted in sperm cells with an extra copy of the Y 27 You are a plant geneticist working with Arabidopsis thaliano You become interested in the development of trichomes small projections You perform a large screen that turns up two mutant plants A and B that have no trichomes These mutants seem to be potentially useful in studying trichome development If they were determined by singlegene mutations then finding the normal and abnormal functions of these genes would be instructive Each plant is crossed with wild type in both cases the next generation F1 had normal trichomes When F1 plants were selfed the resulting F239s were as fonows F2 from mutant A 602 wild type 198 no trichomes 31 F2 from mutant B 267 wild type 93 no trlchomes 31 a What do these results show What can you conclude about mutant A and mutant B Include proposed genotypes of all plants In your answer Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide These results show a 31 wild type to mutant ratio This would conclude that the mutant A and B plants would have to be aa homozygous recessive Crossed with a wild type they would produce 100 Aa crossed with self would produce a 31 wild type mutant phenotypic ratio b Is it possible to predict what would happen if you crossed the original mutant A with the original mutant 8 YES mutant A laa x mutant B laa You would get 100 mutants All would be genotype laa and phenotype no trichomes 28 This pedigree is for Huntington disease a lateonset disorder of the nervous system The slashes indicate deceased family members a Is this pedigree compatible with the mode of inheritance for Huntington disease mentioned in the chapter YES b Consider the two newborn children in the two arms of the pedigree Susan V1 in the left arm and Alan V Z in the right arm Study the graph in Fig 2amp24 and form an opinion on the likelihood that they will develop Huntington disease Assume for the sake of the discussion that parents have children at age 25 This shows an autosomal dominant disorder It does not skip a generation and is eliminated in one generation There is a 0 change they will develop it 29 Duchene muscular dystrophy is sex linked and usually affects only males Victims of the disease become progressively weaker starting early in life it results in progressive muscular wasting and usually leads to death before age 20 a What is the probability that a woman whose brother has Duchene s disease will have an affected child Scanned by CamScanner LI Scanned by CamScanner quot Unit 1 Study Guide There would be a 18 change she would have an affected child a a 7 P a I m MID 39K K Permit 1 if h 1 J squot 1 KW quot5 LE 4 J5 l r 3 Vi f 39 L j 34 r y Z l 6 K 2 ar 1 ctr b What is the probability that a child of an unaffected man whose brother is affected will be affected Assuming he marries a wild type female he would have a 100 chance of having a normal child 30 The ability to taste the chemical phenylthiocarbamide is an autosomal dominant phenotype and the inability to taste is recessive If a taster woman with a nontaster father marries a taster man who in a previous marriage had a nontaster daughter What is the probability that their first child will be a a nontaster girl 50 b taster girl 50 c taster boy 50 31 A woman39s father has ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency 0T0 an xlinked recessive disorder producing mental deterioration if not properly treated The woman39s mother is homozygous for the wildtype allele 3 What is the woman39s genotype Use T to represent the dominant allele and t to represent the recessive allele Tt b If the woman has a son with a normal man what is the chance the son with have OTD 50 Chance c If the woman has a daughter with a man who does not have OTD what is the chance the daughter will be a heterozygous carrier of OTD What is the chance the daughter will have OTD Carrier 50 have 0 d identify a male with whom the woman could produce a daughter with on Male tY e For the instance you identified in part 1 what proportion of daughters produced by the woman and the man are expected to have OTD What proportion of sons of the woman and the man are expected to have OTD Unit 1 Study Guide 50 daughters would have OTD 50 sons would have OTD 32 TaySachs disease infantile amaurotic idiocy is a rare human disease in which toxic substances accumulate in nerve cells The recessive allele responsible for the disease is inherited i a Simli le Mendelian manner For unknown reasons the allele is more common in populations of Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe A woman is planning to marry her first cousin but the couple discovers that their shared grandfather s sister died in infancy of Tall Sachs disease 8 Draw the relevant parts of the pedigree and show all the genotypes completely as possible I p lT O l la l T i i T LD LL39Q l E if ee l quoti O T Ls 1 OT 1 quotTi g i I y 07 2 17 b What is the probability that the cousins first child will have raySachs disease assuming that all the people who marry into the family are homozygous normal 23 chance grandfather was a carrier Probability of parent to have gene is 12 probability to pass on it 13 13 quot2 16 chance of being a carrier Two carriers 16 16 quot1 1144 16 to be a carrier 1A probability to pass on allele 16 1A 115 quot 12 1144 33 Male house cats are either black or orange females are black orange or calico a If these coatcolor phenotypes are governed by a sexlinked gene how can these observations be explained orange x black xb If females inherit both x chromosomes both colors will be displayed Males can only inherit 1 chromosome resulting in a soiid cat X inactivation in females b A mating produced the following offspring the females are calico be quot6 the females are black xbxb V the males are orange x y A the males are black xby What are the colors phenotype and genotype of the parental male and female r P gen female quotlo calico x male XbY black Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 StUdly Guide J 34 The recessive allele 5 causes Drosophlla to have small wings and the s allele causes normal wings This gene is known to be litlinked a if a small winged male is crossed with a homozygous wild type female what ratio of normal to smallswinged files can be expected in each sex in the F1 7 a I l i t 2 Jr 100 normal for males and females 4 1 l1 3 9 r i 33 3 EigaLJ quota i I 4 t I f i ii if b If F1 files were intercrossed what F2 progeny ratios are expected r s 3quot r i Males 11norrnal small females 100normal S l I g i 7 A a 1 A if ff j Tmquot r quot39 uj39 inter a t y 39 7 EA f i I is l I r 7 V Wquot i I J c What progeny ratios are predicted if F1 females are backcrossed With their father Females 11 smalnormalmales 115malnormal g 1 a 3 KS Lil 39739 fquot r I 35 The plant bleueyed Mary grows on Vancouver Islan and on the lower mainland of British Columbia The populations are dimorphic for purple blotches on the leaves some plants have blotches and others don t Near Nanaimo one plant in nature had matched leaves This plant which had not yet flowered was dug up and taken to a laboratory where it was allowed to self Seeds were collected and grown into progeny One randomly selected but typical leaf from each of the progeny is shown in the figure below 9eeo Q 6490 6 09 sr3909 WM Q Q 661 9 0694060 eeee 9990 e 0 0 eeeae Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide J a Formulate a concise genetic hypothesis to explain these results Explain all symbols and show all genotypic classes and the genotype of the original plant P 39 Lr pen pin ll EPWA 415715 FLK 3 iii I 1 Film lb quot 3 i Wl e 22 Mammal i l quots PW murmzwl 1 l I l L P Jul 393 J quotm iii b How would you test your hypothesis Be specific You would do a test cross with a green homozygous recessive plant 36 Four human pedigrees are shown in the accompanying illustration The black symbols represent an abnormal phenotype inherited in a simple Mendelian manner 7 For each pedigree state whether the abnormal condition is dominant or recessive State the logic behind your answer 1 OT 56 Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide 3 l The abnormal condition is autosomal recessive because it skips generations and reappears in females 2The abnormal condition is an autosomal dominant disorder It is eliminated when 292 breeds With a normal males if it was recessive it would reappear in their children 3 Autosomal dominant because it does not skip a generation 4 Autosomal Recessive because two unaffected individuals have affected children Allwhite branch Main shoot is variegated Figum 1921 madman m Gemrat Ammo lenrh Edition r 2012 HiramIn and W 40 In Figure 321 below what would be the leaf types from seeds produced by the apical top flower What would be the leaf types be from seeds produced by the flower on the branch to the right 1 Would produce variegated 2 Would produce wild type solid green 3 Would produce only white This is an example of maternal inheritance 42 In mice a benttail is caused by an Xlinked dominant allele and wavy fur ls caused by an autosomal recessive allele coats normally have straight fur Let w the wavy allele and w wildtype allele and B bent tail and 8 nonbent wildtype tells a if a benttail male from a pure line is crossed with a wavy fur female from a pure line what will be the phenotypic ratios in the F1 be for each sex 10 Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide 100 females are bent and straight 100 males will be nonbent and straight b It you cross an F1 female to an F1 male what will be the phenotypic ratios in the F2 in each sex Females will be 100 straight and bent Males will be 50 bent straight and 50 nonbent straight 43 In cats white patches are caused by the dominant allele P while pp individuals are solid colored Short hair is caused by a dominant allele 5 while ss cats have long hair A longhaired cat with patches whose mother was solidcolored and shorthaired mates with a shorthaired solidcolored cat whose mother was longhaired and solidcolored What kinds of kittens can arise from this mating and in what proportions Pf 3 Pedant 393 a 7 31 0quot 3 1 h m swli d a Jaw l 439 a a L Q 1 1 ll f 3 i 3 35 Pr 3 J J i J a irislast a down 4 M x S 3 2 2 74 5 r a 1 7 A 4 g I telw mm s WI J a a J 1 239 q T F 1 J I SCAM a S 0 3912 1 J 5 E 3 E I 7 Lt C ul39d low says 5 L f 2 Z 1111 patchesshort patcheslong solidshort soildlong 44 In the cross Asa Bb Cc Dd X Aa Bib Cc Dd in which all genes undergo independent assortment what proportion of the offspring are expected to be the homozygous for all four genes A CA EM c If Li A m 39 i s 5 y int L l C i all Bios 8b 4 18 would be homozygous for all 4 genes f If 3 A A 393 a a UP I I r V 2 I l 39 quot 7 9 a g 2 UH O U at 0 2 C K St r r Ci 9 C 5 if 11 L Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide 4544 7 a quot mdw39dual 0f genotVPe Aa BB CC Dd Eye is test crossed Assuming that the loci undergo in 39 1 i a dependent assortment What fraction of the progeny are expected to have the genotype Aa Bchddee A a Q gar 3 B8 lam C C 9 g r iii A a Q 1 If 3 E 7 V W e r u I J quot I I 7 7 2 T i Ch U 46 The pattern of coat coloration in dogs is determined by the alleles of a single gene with 5 solid being dominant over 5 spotted Black coat color is determined by the dominant allele A of a second gene and homozygous recessive aa animals are tan A female having a solid tan coat is mated with a male having a solid black coat and produces a litter of six pups The phenotypes of the pups are 2 solid tan 2 solid black 1 spotted tan 1 spotted black What are the genotypes of the parents Female Ss aa x male Ss Ma 12 Scanned by CamScanner Unit 1 Study Guide n 4 Consider the pedigree below for a rare human muscle disease I 39j quot 470 L EI I O e L71 t a l H n Hui Figure 325 3 What unusual feature distinguishes this pedigree from those studied earlier 0J4 introduction to Genetic Analysis Tenth Edition 0 201 2 w H Freeman and Company The mutation appears in every off spring from the affected females b Where do you think the mutant DNA responsible for this phenotype resides in the cell This is a mitochondrial disease inherited by maternal inheritance which is why all affected daughters pass it on while the sons do not 3 Topics to remember any highlighted area from the notes 13 Scanned by CamScanner
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