Exam 1 Outline
Exam 1 Outline HIST289V
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by HIST289V on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST289V at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dr. Howard Smead in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see What Does it Mean to be an American? in History at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
American Exceptionalism Idea is that America is qualitatively different from other countries “A City on a Hill” - Winthrop democratic ideals, personal liberty “The World’s Policeman” Some, like Charles Murray, argue that American Exceptionalism is no longer a valid argument but that it once was. Is America still exceptional? Alexis de Tocqueville Upheld the sense of American exceptionalism Josef Stalin Mocked the idea of American exceptionalism Generations of American History GI Generation (1901-1925) Silent Generation (1926-1945) Baby Boom Generation x Millenials Generation Z Modern USA is more purple than either red or blue Seeds of future conflict contained in American Revolution Class, race, religion Demographic and economic forces undermined paternalistic nature of society Started the end of deferential politics Kinship ties and patronage that held people together, began to weaken Yeomanry less dependent on aristocratic planters Citizens had economic independence Challenged their authority Evangelical religion: religious dissent became political dissent A rebellious sense among the American people existed Evidenced even as recent as the Obama administration Boston Tea Party (1773) Resistance to Tea Tax Pushed for their right to be taxed by their own elected representatives “Sons of Liberty” Revolution was about Home Rule but it was also about Who was to Rule at Home American Patriots – who were they? Citizen soldiers Free men and women Solid, hard-working yeomanry Enlightened intellectuals who despised slavery A group formed primarily for a debating society, but their stance on British control caught on amongst the people of the colonies Also involved groups of drunkards, laggards, prostitutes, pirates Generally didn’t care for either side Represented the bulk of America at this point Why did the colonists rebel People were already in the process of unrest “Anger rather than enlightened debate defined the political movement.” Localism and self-government and relative isolation bred Colonists With Attitudes Violence characterized colonial society Rebellions, riots, tarring and feathering, mobbing, religious violence, Indian massacres, slavery Americans were rebellious, but needed to learn a deal of morality before they completely branched off Founding fathers knew this Founding fathers Established a republic Feared a democracy, or a “mobocracy” Constitution was conservatively written as a result Possessed a fear for government run by the people, especially those who were undisciplined, which was a trait for much of America at the time Enforced civic virtue Rush’s “scientific” ideas about… The Indians Impressed that Indian culture had no insanity Still, Indians were considered unclean savages Too lazy, incompetent to work As a result, he did not foresee a future for them Slavery Condemned it, identified as an original Abolitionist Believed Blacks were not inferior to whites in their intellectual ability Poor Science (pseudo-science) Thought that black skin color derived from leprosy Unintentionally fueled white prejudices as a result Portrayed blacks as “patients” Solution for converting slaves into “republican machines” Place all diseased into a hospital Thomas Jefferson Virginia planter elite, highly educated, owned hundreds of slaves Views on African-Americans Conceded Negroes were equal to whites in a moral sense, however had doubt about the intellectual abilities of blacks Thought that much of blacks’ ability was centralized in the body, as opposed to the mind Subscribed to the idea that blacks had a “Sambo” personality Sambo: Childish or savage He owned slaves of his own and had no problem with severely punishing slaves or selling them to the South He stated that slavery corrupted the morals of slaveholding society, but he was not one to attempt to end it at all Opposed amalgamation Played the role of a hypocrite in basically all of his stances on slavery It is widely assumed that Jefferson had an affair with Sally Hemmings, a slave on his Monticello plantation In recap, a closed slave system and colonization of freed slaves was an imperfect and at best partial solution to a seemingly insoluble dilemma Jefferson on Native Americans Realized that the Revolution was a disaster for the Native Americans Tribes began to ally with the British because they provided at least a slim chance of protecting their land Antagonized the Americans’ view of Indians even more so Allowed Indians to be removed or assimilated, but would not allow them to stand in the way of American expansion Believed that they could be civilized and assimilated into their culture In recap, he was fine with Indians being either assimilated or exterminated All in all, Jefferson certainly had a vision of America and the white race was at the center of it Jefferson on Government Saw America as a nation of small farmers Entertained the lifestyle of owning enough land to guarantee self-sufficiency and personal independence Supported a weak central government and strong state governments Operated under strict constructionism: a literal interpretation of the Constitution Big supporter of the individual rights granted to citizens Supported France as a trade partner Supported independence in both a political and personal sense and viewed it as the hallmark of republicanism Placed no trust in special privilege (although this view was quite hypocritical) Believed that power should reside in the hands of common people Feared the permanent political class that Hamilton envisioned Saw the Yeomanry as the chosen people of God Jefferson on Economics Adopted an agrarian view on economics as well Entailed limiting the government support of trade, finance and manufacturing sectors No central bank, no internal taxes Thought the government should pay off the national debt following the Revolutionary War, supported a balanced budget Jefferson’s ideas caught on well with the nation since they were so relatable to the people Jeffersonian Republicanism Supported the common man, but also believed that the best would rise to the upper tiers of power in society A “natural aristocracy” These men would be the representatives of the People, acting in correspondence to the opinion of their People Distrusted the elitist system in place in Hamilton’s view of Republicanism Much too aristocratic for the liking of Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Lived on Nevis and St. Croix, where slaves were 50% of the population Grew up extremely intelligent and well educated Hamilton on Slavery Married into a slave owning family Eventually associated with abolitionist John Jay, who could have influenced his ideas Believed that slavery relaxes/debases society Also believed that slavery was detrimental to the slave owning population due to its association with power and lust Became a member of Society for the Promotion of the Manumission of Slaves in New York Society supported banning slavery in New York, but the movement turned out to be unsuccessful Hamilton on Government Had a distrust for pure republican, was more of a monarchist Did not trust the common people Pushed for a strong central government run by the wealthy and well-educated folk of the nation Adopted a “loose” interpretation of the Constitution Supported the “implied powers” of the federal government to use when necessary Also adopted the “checks and balances” system to restrain power Founded on the 3-branch system of government that the U.S. employs (executive, legislative, judicial) Hamilton on Economics Outlook on government was greatly influenced by his economic ideals Supported a diverse economy of agriculture, trade, finance, and manufacturing Pushed for a national bank to control monetary policy and a national debt system to establish credit Provided citizens with the opportunity to borrow money from the government “Report on Manufactures” Put tariffs on foreign goods Supported giving subsidies to domestic manufacturing Government should support business and commerce Supported Britain, realized the importance of the nation as a trade partner Crevecoeur’s Analysis of America Believed Americans were unlike any other people Crevecoeur’s New American Based off of analysis done in Nantucket, MA Free, independent, resourceful “Animated by the spirit of industry” Owns property Celebrates absence of extreme wealth and poverty Presented all an equal chance at good fortune A communitarian, not ruggedly individualistic Americans transformed the European man The European man became liberated when he arrived in the open, new land of America Noted that the nation was a land of “rough equality,” enjoyed the idea of low taxes, equal opportunity, and the absence of powerful royalty Enjoyed the opportunity to change oneself that America provided Crevecoeur’s “American Hell” Based off of Charleston, SC That society was characterized by: Greed, inequality, self-indulgence Slavery completely influenced the morals and characteristics of the society Also concluded that the American Frontier invited selfishness that damaged society A haven for drunkenness, indolence, and indulgence in the unlawful land of the woods Crevecoeur’s Stance on the Revolution Was turned off by America’s initiation of the Revolution Viewed Patriots as too pushy and that they provoked unnecessary conflict Believed that Americans prospered under the British rule Alexis de Tocqueville Known for his famous piece “Democracy in America” Coins the term “individualism” when examining America Showed the pronounced emphasis on the rights of the individual However, he also stressed that the Americans had a sense of commitment to the common good Agreed upon by social theorist Harriet Martineau A good balance of individualism and communitarianism This was different from the common man of Western Europe, who possessed a high value of the self, but did not share the same commitment to the common good Problems of American Democracy Too much power invested in the legislative branch, both federal and state Abuse of freedom, or disrespect of another’s freedom, or lack of concern for it Abusing the freedom of minorities/lack of freedom for minorities Drive for equality Excessive individualism Excessive materialism Solutions for these “dangerous democratic tendencies” Powerful, independent judiciary Strong executive branch Local self-government De-centralization of power away from federal government Freedom of religion and its practice Education of women Free association of citizenry Free press Why did Britain lose the Revolutionary War Distance US was decentralized, couldn’t pinpoint where to attack Size (territorially) of the US was massive compared to Great Britain The Direction of Early America First form of government that the US established was very weak Operated under the Articles of Confederation Featured a weak National Government Influenced by the idea of local government, fear for tyranny Flirted with bankruptcy Shays Rebellion Illustrated how broken the government form was Militia man has to use money out of his own pocket to put down the rebellion Issue over representation and taxation Based on the idea that the national government should provide more protection for its people Greatly influenced by two main figures: Hamilton and Jefferson Declaration of Independence Does not have force of law at all More just a document voicing what America stands for Constitution Acted as a document that “fixed” the country after the Articles of Confederation Largely the product of James Madison Preamble states some of the powers that the National Government will now have, assesses many of the problems that were seen in the Articles of Confederation Bill of Rights Consists of the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution Dealt with mainly the rights of the people Provides the peoples’ protection from the National Government Changes after the Revolution Demographic Problem of slavery Loyalists went either to Canada or back to Britain Westward expansion Led to the Indian problem, higher populated areas in places like Kentucky Freedom became the main dynamic Economic North vs. South dichotomy Manufacture Free Slaves Boost domestic trade The colonies formerly just supplied for Britain Political Articles of Confederation States own the majority of the power Power to tax is with the states The republic is weak National Convention Formed the Constitution Benjamin Franklin: the nation would be featuring a “Republic, if you can keep it” Meant that there is no blueprint for it It was almost like an experiment at the time The government form also put a lot of trust in the people, which the framers were reluctant to do Republicanism Highlights liberty and inalienable rights as central values Is able to support an activist government Prohibits inherited power Expects citizens to exercise individual power Factions over federalism emerge An argument about where the power should lie in America Federalist Supported a stronger national government, more connected union Included Madison, Washington, John Adams, Hamilton Formed into the Federalist Political Party, but dissipated by the Election of 1820 and turned into the Whig party Much later, it would form into the Republican Party Anti-Federalist Opposed national/consolidated principles, supported states rights over national power Supported the principle of the Articles of Confederation Included Jefferson, Madison, Burr, John Randolph of Roanoke, Jeffersonians, Became known as the Jeffersonian Republicans, then the Democratic Republicans, then finally the Democratic Party Market Revolution Early 1800’s Represented the expansion of trade in agricultural products and manufactured goods Happened on both the domestic and world stage Farmers were no longer just supplying for themselves but for people around the nation and around the world Formed a stronger connection in the country Led to much more advanced transportation routes and methods New roads, canals, and railroads (later) Questions arose: should the government get involved in this market expansion? In the west, it would make sense for the government to fund the expansion in this undeveloped land for trade and living purposes Rather, in New England (a much more developed and civilized society) they did not need much government help at all Transportation improvements Canals Erie Canal Cut transportation costs Increased the frequency of trade Railroads Developed in 1840’s, but it did not have its biggest impact until after the Civil War Turnpikes Stage Coaches Steamboats Basics of slavery Involuntary servitude; human bondage; tyranny Never critical to the economy outside of the Southern states Slavery, in addition to the cotton gin, was a staple in the Southern economy The brutal labor system was justified by racism New World slavery was the only example of enslaving solely people of another race Slaves were treated as property; like an inanimate object Sanctioned by the Constitution 3/5 ’s Clause (counted slaves as 3/5 of a person) Slave trade will be legal until at least 1808 Fugitive slave clause Invention of the Cotton Gin caused the cotton industry to boom Invented in 1794 by Eli Whitney Northerner who also manufactured the Springfield rifle Made some people extremely wealthy, but forced an added burden on the slaves of the South Cotton became the most profitable crop in America for many years until roughly 1840 Why slavery increased in the South and decreased in the North South Slavery was a massive element to the economy Slave trade was cut off, making slaves more expensive Had an agrarian economy, which was more labor intensive North Industrial economy Labor was done by machine mainly What caused forced labor in the first place Geography Did not have a large supply of workers in early years of the New World Couldn’t get colonists to do the manual labor England had no system of naturalizing immigrants in the colonies In the Western Hemisphere, sugar was the most popular slave crop, not cotton Manifest Destiny Term was coined by John O’Sullivan in 1845 Argues that it is America’s God-given destiny to take land Encourages the expansion of slavery Slavery expands to Texas and out into New Mexico territory by 1857 The First Sectional Crisis 1820: a time that featured 11 slaves states and 11 free states Argument exists over the expansion of slavery, not necessarily the existence of slavery There became a political equilibrium in the Senate, however the House was dominated by free states In 1819, Missouri, a slave state, applied for statehood This would have offset the balance of slave and free states The Missouri Compromise/The Compromise of 1820 Engineered by Henry Clay Allows Missouri to obtain statehood as a slave state However, Maine must also be admitted to the union as a free state to keep the balance The 36*30’ Line Any new state that joins the nation above the line, must be a free state Likewise, any state that join the nation below the line is a slave state Represented by where the Ohio meets the Mississippi Essentially suspends this “crisis” for a few more decades Expansion of Slavery The “Gag Rule” Bans any petition “praying for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia or any state or territory” Also bans petitions against the slave trade between the states and territories of the US In effect from 1836-1844 Before the 1800’s, it was generally accepted by most people who supported slavery that slavery was a “necessary evil” This narrative begins to fade by the 1820’s, 30’s, and 40’s It begins to be referred to as a “positive good” Slave owners argue that it is a good thing and that it must expand Mudsill Speech Given by James Henry Hammond in 1858 Pro-slavery speech Argues that there needs to be a lower class (slavery) so that there can be an upper class that leads progress, civilization and refinement In other words, he argues that society at the time is built upon slavery Compromise of 1850 Formed by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John Calhoun Deals with the same narrative of what to do when adding new states California is established as a free state, upsetting the balance Utah and New Mexico had no restrictions on slavery at the time Federal Government assumed Texas’ debt before it was annexed Slave trade was banned in DC A new fugitive slave act was passed It is now the black’s responsibility to prove that he/she was not a slave whenever confronted by a white citizen If they didn’t have any papers with them, they were thrust back into slavery Congress declared that it had no power to regulate interstate slave commerce Civil War Also known as the “War between the States” and the “War of Northern Aggression” South’s motives: not necessarily to “win” the war but to successfully secede Did not have to win to do so Causes of the Civil War “One section of the nation believe slavery is right and ought to be extended, while the other believes it is wrong and ought not to be extended” -Abraham Lincoln 11 states seceded Political Issues involved A new political reality Republican Party was formed 1854 Does not share the same views as the South South clearly in the minority South is losing its “iron-fisted control” of federal power South was mostly Democratic and the power in politics was shifting towards the new Republican Party South saw a diminishing return from compromises (the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850) Scared them away from a future compromise South was less able to block tariff increases Agrarian economy would benefit from low tariffs Lincoln was elected, who was the first openly anti-slavery president Marketed his views as being against he expansion of slavery, not necessarily abolish it as a whole Southern Leaders began acting out of self-preservation States rights, as viewed by the South Role Fundamental to the Southern point of view Acts as the central rationale for secession South thought these rights were being swallowed up by central power th Supported by the 10 Amendment of the Constitution Any power not specifically given to the federal government is given to the states Dred Scott decision in 1857 Declares that the federal government is unable to block the expansion of slavery, but the states are able to decide on their own Blacks do not have any rights Main tenets Federal government is the agent of the sovereign states Federal powers are specifically delegated All those not mentioned, remain with the states States rights as viewed by the North Also embraced States Rights Refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Act Personal Liberty laws Support of the Underground Railroad Federal government increasingly more hospital to northern point of view Economic issues at hand Divergent northern and southern economies Northerners/Non-southerners were beginning to reorient along the East-West axis Slaves were the single largest financial asset in the U.S.: $3.5 Billion Moral issues at hand South was apologetically calling slavery a “Peculiar institution” The view changed from a “necessary evil” to a “positive good” Growing abolitionist sentiment Back lash by southern “fire-eaters” James McPherson Paths of thinking became increasingly polarized throughout th the first half of the 19 century Northerners argued that it defied the value of liberty that the country was founded on Proximate Causes of the war Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 Bleeding Kansas, 1854 Republican Party, 1854 John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859 Election of Lincoln, 1860 Secession of South Carolina, one month after Lincoln’s election in 1860 Lincoln’s call for troops Lincoln Relatively unknown at the time of the election Lost in running for the Illinois Senate seat in 1858 It was not Lincoln who caused the southern states to secede, it was the fact that the Republican party won Broad themes to think about for the exam Slavery Causes of the Civil War States rights vs. central power Lack of representation in government – Colonies with Britain and then later the South with congress
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