Intro to Mass Comm Study Guide (Test #1)
Intro to Mass Comm Study Guide (Test #1) MC 1301
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Kubenka on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 1301 at Texas State University taught by Laurie Fluker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Study Guide Test 1 THE EVOLUTION OF MASS COMMUNICATION Communication process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create share understanding DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION TYPES Intrapersonal communication 0 Communication one has with oneself 0 Forms 39 Speaking aloud 39 Eye contact I Winking 39 Daydreaming o Often called quotsilent languagequot Interpersonal communication 0 Includes all aspects of personal interaction or contact 0 Interacting with another exchanging information and views 0 Usually 2 individuals but can be others not a large group 0 Athoughtful exchange debate 0 Mass communication 0 When messages are sent through technology 0 Similar to interpersonal communication much more difficult that the other types PROBLEMS WITH COMMUNICATION A message that challenges a person39s experience can be rejected distorted or misinterpreted Noise 0 Anything that interferes with the transmission of a message may occur 0 Feedback 0 Which is crucial may be misinterpreted unclear delayed etc GEORGE GUESS A Edilany AllniIn mnIlnnr Plnnrnllnn 0 Handicapped amp uneducated never learned to readwrite English though he wanted to 0 Cherokee felt they were meant to hunt George felt such a system would give independence 0 He created the Cherokee Alphabet o 86 characters each representing a sound of language 0 Taught his daughter to read Cherokee nation adopted in 1825 0 System used to print 1st US NativeAmerican newspaper The Cherokee Phoenix 0 He is better known as Sequoyah honored him with silver medal English botanist names large California tree in his honor Only single person in history to create and perfect a system for reading and writing a language quotSTORYTELLINGquot DEFINED National Storytelling Assn NSA has defined storytelling as o quotthe art of using language vocalization andor physical movement and gesture to reveal the elements and images of a story to a specificaudiencequot quotSTORYquot DEFINED NSA defines a story as o quota narrative account of a real or imagined event or eventsquot 0 A sharing of experience that passes on accumulated wisdom beliefs and values 0 Explain how things are why they are and our role and purpose 0 Building blocks of knowledge the foundation of memory and learning 0 Connect and link us to past present and future quotTELLINGquot DEFINED Live persontoperson oral and physical presentation of a story to an audience Involves direct contact between teller and listener Teller39s role is to use language and other components to communicate a story Listener39s role is to bring the story to life based on the performance and on the listener39s experiences beliefs and understanding NSA39S STORYTELLING ELEMENTS 0 It is interactive teller depends on listener for response noise Cocreative process teller provides a picture listener fills in the blanks Storytelling is personal interpretive and human passes on the essence of who we are how we interpret events experiences Storytelling is a process medium for sharing interpreting and meaning to an audience CULTURE DEFINED quotthe behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social ethnic or age groupquot such as the youth culture the drug culture 0 quotthe sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation to anotherquot culture defines us September 1st and 3rd EARLY CULTURES AND STORYTELLING Oral cultures were the cultures that passed information from one generation to the next without benefit of writing 0 NO technology 0 Extremely close and elders are the most wise Storytelling were the 1st important communicators 0 Myth and history were intertwined EARLY WRITING CULTURES Sumerians created Cuneiform a picture language using a styluslike tool 0 Napolean created Rosetta Stone Egyptians were the ones that created hieroglyphs with 2000 symbols using paprus plants along the Nile amp parchment skins of goats and sheep Greeks credited with perfecting the alphabet THE PRINTING PRESS There were earlier presses but Gutenberg gave 1st printing press with interchangeable letters Took 5 years to hand write a Bible FA 1 AA I I I II I I I 50 years after the press 12 million b00Ilts published In Europe 0 Most valuable piece of technology ever created INFORMATION REVOLUTIONS Writing brought an end to the importance of oral storytelling Author Irving Fang suggests that6 information revolutions emerged 0 1st writing revolution I Began in Greece around 8th century BC I Began with convergence of the Phoenician alphabet to the east and the Egyptian paprus to the south I Ramifications III Memory no longer crucial III Knowledge boundless III Elders no longer revered III Cultures divided 0 2nd printing revolution I Began in Europe in 2nd half of the 15th century with the convergence of paper originally from China and a pointing system established by Johannes Gutenberg I Marked the beginning of the modern world I Ramifications III Info spread through many layers of society royalty and church no longer all powerful III Printing lends itself to massive political religious economic educational amp personal changes Martin Luther 1st mass communicator III Period called the quotReformationquot or the Renaissancequot the end of feudalism 0 3rd mass media revolution Began in western Europe and eastern United States I Began with the convergence of I Changed the way info was conveyed I Ramifications III For the 1st time newspapers amp magazines reached out to the common man with news about events near amp far and narknonrl onnrlc 39Fnr calm PUUIu6 U BUUUJ IUI QUIL III Photography became popular III Public schools and libraries begin to spread III Literacy is possible for the masses 0 4th entertainment revolution I Began in Europe and America toward the end of the 19th century with such technologies as stored sound affordable cameras and motion photography 39 Stories printed and sold cheaply just like cars on an assembly line entertainment could now be infinitely duplicated 39 Ramifications III Entertainment will change American audiences forever chapter 3 III Eventually the audience than many spend working 0 5th Communication Toolshed Home Revolution 39 Evolved during the middle of the 20th century transforming the home into the central location for receiving info amp entertainment 39 Including telephone broadcasting recording improvements in print technologies and cheap universal mail services I Ramifications III Radio keeps families entertainment foreshadows fascination with programming for television III Birth of tv changes all other media radio loses programs amp becomes ajuke box general magazines lose prominence 0 6th The information Highway 39 Describes today39s convergence of electronic technologies 39 Has created an uncertain situation for future of all media 39 New media now extremely popular young people spend large amount of time utilizing new media OVERVIEW OF MEDIA CHANGES 4000 BCE written language began 1455 Gutenberg39s Bible is published 0 1960 US transitions to info society 0 1975 1st personal computer introduced SATCOM 1 a satellite that remained above a fixed point on the earth39s service 22300 miles above the Equator 1982 CD 1st digital music recording medium 0 1991 World Wide Web begins 0 1995 1st digital hit movie Toy Story 1996 Telecommunications Act of 1996 changes US media policy 1998 First US HDTV broadcasts new Copyright Act 2007 Internet reaches 75 of American homes 2009 US transition to digital television BROADCAST MEDIA IN 5TH6TH REVOLUTIONS Until 1948 network radio dominated Traditional listeners abandoned network radio for TV during early 1950s In the 1950s television became the preferred medium for Americans to receive their news SEPTEMBER 3RD THE YOUNG GENIUS Steve Jobs Born 1955 Child up for adoption Dropped out of Reed college after 6 months Launched Apple computers in 1976 TODAYS MASS MEDIA ISSUES Budget cuts hurt the industry of news organizations CONVERGENCE content available on multiple media platforms allows people to access content on multiple media Media ownership problematic because a handful of companies own most of the media CONGLOMERATION media being bought by non media companies Changing media audiences PROBLEMS AT HAND Audience fragmentation cable and changing audiences Impact of new technology CHANGING AUDIENCES 0 Silent generation 0 O 0 Born 19281945 age 7087 Lived through Great Depression WWII invention of the TV cure for polio FDR Elvis JFK Because of their perseverance they are often called the GREATEST GENERATION Baby boomers 0 000 O 0 19461964 age 5169 more babies born than ever before 70 white 40 of Americas population By 2030 1 in 5 Americans will be older than 65 Lived through the Vietnam War assassinations 6 major cultural revolutions Fo forit enthusiastic attitude Where and are aware that they were a quotgenerationquot 0 Generation X 0 O 0 19651980 age 3550 quotleast supervisedquot Self focused skeptical individualistic cable TV computer generation video games NOT aware that they were a generation often misunderstood Millenials O 0 19801999 1634 Gen Y MTV and Boomerang generation and most supervised generation ever helicopter parents Not selfsufficient not selfish socially active close to parents Formative years include 911 Columbine earthquakes quotGreat Recessionquot hurricane Katrina the Gulf Spill Obama elections 23 voted for him Teen pregnancy and crime all down however cigarette smoking marijuana drinking smoking al UP They face college and credit card debt 0 Generation Z 0 Born 2000 now 15 and younger internet Google YouTube Apple 0 Love technology and learn fast 0 Most diverse populated whites only 50 NEW MEDIA Colossus ENIAC and Apple computers TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS 0 Digital communication helped in the development of the 1st computer in the 1940s Microprocessors miniature circuits led to 1st personal computers smaller cheaper and more powerful computer chip power doubles every 18 months 0 Fiber optic cable appeared mid1980s carry broadcast channels signal and digital codes 0 Various innovations from 1969 to the 1990s led to the internet and WWW AFTERMATH OF MEDIA Democratization of media anyone can be involved 0 No boundaries no news cycles quotNewstainmentquot question credibility reality programming product placement and beyond news and entertainment combined BIRTH OF BLOGS Coined in 1997 to describe a website where you post dialy scribblings journal style Focused on narrow topics 0 Can be about anything 0 Rise of blogs 0 Strom Thurmonds 100th birthday party the turning point Trent Lot 0 Blogs kept the scandal alive EBAY Begun in 1995 called Auction Web 1st sold broken lazer pointer for 1483 0 By 3907 222 million registered users PAYPAL 1998 by Mark Levchin Peter Thiel Elon Musk EBAY and Paypal will no longer be bound together July 2015 after 13 years of colaboration CRAIGSLIST Begun by Creg Newmark Expenses covered by job postings 1 million jobs posted each months 0 In summer 2015 they now own themselves 0 Over 50 million users 0 quotcraigslist killerquot Phillip Markoff SKYPE 2003 by a Sweden and Denmark gentlemen Ebay retains minority ownership with Microsoft has 70 FACEBOOK Zuckerberg Harvard 0 Originally called Thefacebookcom Also created quotSnapsequot September 8th amp 10th FACEBOOK Zuckerberg Harvard sophomore created Facebook in Harvard dorm room as a hobby Originally called thefacebookcom extended to Standford amp Yale now everywhere Zuckerberg had created quotSynapsequot a music website Chosen Time magazine39s 2010 quotperson of the yearquot 0 Facebook is the 3rd largest country if you count its population 0 20000 people on facebook every second Went public on May 18 2012 2014 MOSTTALKED ABOUT ENTERTAINERSUS Beyonce39 0 Pharrell Williams 0 Nicki Minaj Taylor Swift 0 Jimmy Fallon 2014 MOSTTALKED ABOUT TV SHOWSUS Game of Thrones Orange is the New Black 0 The Walking Dead 0 The Big Bang Theory 0 Downtown Abbey 2014 MOST TALKED ABOUT MOVIES US Frozen v v Guardians of the Galaxy 0 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle Maleficent The Lego Movie 2014 MOST TALKED ABOUT SONGS US quotHappyquot Pharrell quotall of mequot John Legend 0 quotStay with Mequot Sam Smith 0 quotTurn Down for Whatquot DJ Snake amp Lil Jon 0 quotLet it Goquot Idina Menzel FACEBOOK39S quotLIKEquot BUTTON When the button is pushed users recommend brands ideas and products to quotfriendsquot who trust them messaging is targeted more effective 0 Each month the quotlikedquot brands receive a huge amount of free advertising from customer themselves Likely to be huge ad reallocation from traditional media to Facebook particularly quotGeneration Yquot prestige brands 201539S MOST quotLIKEDquot BRANDS CocaCola YouTube 0 Red Bull 0 Nike Football Oreo Converse All Stars 0 Playstation 0 Sta rbuck39s Coffee Pepsi tunes FACEBOOK39S quotPRESTIGEquot BRANDS Apple 0 Coach Chanel 0 Burberry Tiffany amp Co 0 J Crew 0 Banana Republic Prada INSTAGRAM Facebook acquired in April 3912 for 1 billion in cash 0 App developed in 2010 by Kevin Systrom amp Mike Krieger for the purpose of helping others share their photos in a fast amp efficient way Named for quotinstantquot pictures that were once popular quotgramquot for telegrams wired to others shape of nstagram photos is a distinctive square shape similar to the Kodak amp Polaroid pics of old times INSTAGRAM 201415 FACTS 300 million monthyl active users more than 75 million dialy users 776 million US users 51 males 49 female 0 20 billion photos have been shared average of 60 million posted daily 0 Most like photo ever Kimye Wedding 0 1000 comments per second 0 Average time spent per month by users 257 minutes Busiest day ever Thanksgiving1st day of Hanukkah 2013 SNAPCHAT39S INCEPTION Begun by Stanford University students Evan Spiegel Reggie Brown amp Bobby Murphy 0 Brown expressed a desire to have pics disappear after being sent it began as quotPicabooquot the 1st ever ephemeral picture messaging app for phones Spiegel CEO drew the ghost logo quotGhostface Chillahquot Murphy Chief Techical Officer Brown Chief Marketing Officer SNAPCHAT LAUNCHES quotPicabooquot launched in July 2011 with only 127 users Snapchat launched in 2012 with 100000 users in that year 0 Brown later ousted then sued in Sept 2014 all parties settled the lawsuit con den aHy MYSPACE Begun by Greenspan DeWolfe ampAnderson in 3903 to promote bands Bought by Murdoch in 2005 for 580 million 39 r UIILICIdIIb Ungll LU see LIIC pUbeUIIILICb UI LIIC bILC Ill UlUO MYSPACE 2007 ZENITH By 2007 the site Was the fastest growing site on the web Had 70 million US users 200 million worldwide Had 1 in every 4American on the site 12 of all Internet minutes spent on the site Valued at 12 billion OOOOO MYSPACE 2008 PRESENT They reduced its workforce numerous times brought in new teams new logo steady decline Murdoch lost interest 0 June 2011 Specific Media Group ampJustin Timberlake purchased the website for 35 million the New MySpace has emerged TWITTER Founded by Dorsey Stone ampWilliams in3906 users are limited to 140 characters messages known as quottweetsquot posting answer quotWhat are you doingquot 0 First called quotStatusquot Dorsey was inspired by dispatch systems that communicated with emergency vehicles in short bursts On 11509 when US Airways Flight 1549 crashed in the Hudson River witness tweeted crash pic scooped journalists for the firs time BOSTON MARATHON amp TWITTER On April 132013 two bombs exploded near the finish line from there Twitter took over 0 Police tweet request for pics and video 5 hours after bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev tweets quotAin39t no love in the heart of the city stay safe peoplequot 0 On April 18 suspects39 images were tweeted 6 hours later MIT officer killed tweets then report that the police headed to Watertown there a tech entrepreneur tweets entire shootout from bedroom journalists are forced to get their news from twitter TWITTER TODAY 0 At 9 it now has a billion registered users amp 271 million monthly active usersworld sending 1 billion tweets ever 23 days 50 male 0 Ohama the first nresident tn tweet while nresident vlvvllllvl 39l I Illv n Iv Vvlvlvll n UV Uiivv n rillI Iv Vvlvlvll n Did not allow advertisers until 2010 now there are different ways to advertise TOP 10 TWITTER ACCOUNTS Katy Perry 0 Justin Beiber Taylor Swift 0 Rihanna 0 Lady Gaga Justin Timberlake 0 Ellen DeGeneres Britney Spears Christiano Ronaldo Kim Kardashian West TWITTER HOLLYWOOD FANS JuliaLouisDreyfus Jimmy Fallon Taylor Swift Lena Dunham Patrick Stewart FACEBOOK HOLLYWOOD FANS Reese Witherspoon 0 Shakka Stephen Amell Jerry Seinfeld Vin Diesel GOOGLE Computer science grad students Larry Page amp Sergey Brin at Stanford in 3995 founded in 3998 0 Wanted to find a way to retrieve informatio from the web Began the search engine BackRub that later became Google named for the number represented by the number 1 with 100 zeros behind it 0 In 3998 Google opened its office in Menlo Park CA GOOGLE SNAPSHOT OF 2014 Number of monthly searches 11944 billion Google share of US search market 675 Monthly unique visitors to Google sites 187 million 97 of Google39s revenue comes from advertising Reported amount interns earn a month 5969 TOP 2014 GOOGLE SEARCHES Robin Williams World Cup Ebola Malaysia Airlines Flappy Bird ALS Ice Bucket Challenge ISIS Ferguson Frozen Ukraine GOOGLE EYES THE FUTURE Getting into healthcare with smart contact lenses to help detect health problems sensors thinner than a human hair quotProject ARAquot cell phones at astonishingly low prices S50 modular phone allowing you to take pieces in amp out quotLoonquot looking to bring the Internet in the sky with balloons to billions in developing countries YOUTUBE Founded by Chad Hurley Steve Chen And Jawed Karin in 3905 Worlds most popular online video sharing site people watching hundred of thousands videos daily Obama one of the 1st politicians to take advantage his info during his first campaign was watched for 145 million hours MASS MEDIA OWNERSHIP CHAPTER 3 MASS OWNERVISIONARY Robert Ted was born in Cincinnati Ohio in 1938 father39s billboard advertising business was first experience in media Graduated from Brown University father committed suicide took over the business added radio amptv stations purchased old movies and broadcasting rights to older tv shows 0 His Atlanta UHF station rented space on RCA39s satellite in 1975 became WTBS THE FOUNDING OF AN EMPIRE Got the rights to the term quotsuperstationquot pioneered the idea of a local station being offered nationally Began in 24hour cable network Cable News Network in 1980 no one thought it was viable but the Gulf War and the Tiananmen Square demonstrations proved that such a network was needed CONCENTRATION OF OWNERSHIP More media companies are owned by fewer and fewer people 0 Should encourage the widest possible dissemination from diverse sources Marketplace of ideas shrink new and independent voices are stifled Osama vs 01 Whitewater Princess Di embassy bombings vs Lewinsky all focus on insignificant issues instead of pressing concerns THE POWERFUL MEDIA CORPORATION 2014 0 Walt Disney 0 News Corp 0 Time Warner CBSViacom NBC Universal GEComcast DISNEY 1 Owns Pixar Lucasfilm Walt Disney Studios Touchstone Walt Disney Animation Studio Disnenature Hollywood Pictures Marvel Studios American Broadcasting Company ABC DisneyABC Domestic Television Buena Vista Disney channel ABC family Disney 80 Hearst 20 Entertainment and Sports Programming Network ESPN ESPN2 AampE Lifetime History Channel Biography channel Hulu Disneyland Disneyworld TokyoEuro Disney Skywalker Sound Marvel Entertainment TV amp radio Staions DISNEY quotHOTquot PROPERTIES ABC the 3 television network Pixar a dozen fulllength animated hits deal worth 74 billion Marvel the 1 comic book publisher 40 market share deal worth 4 billion Lucasfulm 5 of the 20 biggest box office hits of all time 19 Academy Awards deal worth 4 billion DISNEY JOURNEY TO DOMINATION Previous animated hits Beauty and the Beast Lion King pen amp ink animation More recent hits Pirates Freaky Friday National Treasure Disappointme nts The Alamo Kind Arthur Around the World in 80 Days 20012002 tried Who Wants to Be a Millionaire 4times a week rebounded with Desperate Housewives Lost amp Grey39s Anatomy HOW PIXAR CAME TO BE Had a previous deal with Disney beginning in 1991 with Toy Story 1995 shared box office receipts and licensing revenues Disney retained the right to make sequels to movies such as Monsters Inc Hits Toy Story Toy Story 2 A Bug39s Life Monsters Inc Finding Nemo The Incredibles Cars all digital animation Steve Jobs former Apple chief executive also owned half of Pixar talks of a deal with Disney broke down when Michael Eisner was CEO DISNEY AND PIXAR Cars was to be their last joint effort Disney39s new CEO Robert ger worked well with Jobs agreed to be a major partner with iTunes releasing two ABC hits to Video iPod ABC39s release of popular programs helps cement the success of video iPods New relationship helped hasten the merger Jobs was the largest Disney shareholder PIXAR SUCCESS Toy Story 3 2nd highest grossing animated film of all time worldwide Toy Stoy 3 amp Cars 2 the most expensive Pixar movies ever made Brave 13th Pixar film to open in the 1 spot only 1 with a female protagonist Up the second animated film to be nominated for quotBest Filmquot Academy Award Beautv amp the Beast was the first quot39quot39I quot quotquot quot39quot quotquot39 quotquot quotquot I Pixas has released 15 films amp received 210 awards UPCOMING PIXAR FILMS The Good Dinosaur 0 Finding Dory Toy Story 4 0 Coco DISNEY ANIMATION amp BUENA VISTA SUCCESSES Six of the top 15 alltime highest grossing films 14 Pirates on Stranger Tides 2011 13 Toy Story 3 2010 12 Pirates Dead Man39s Chest 6 Iron Man 3 5 Frozen 4 Marvel39s the Avenger OOOOOO NEWS CORP 2 0 20th Century Fox Fox Broadcasting Network My Network TV FX Fox News Channel Fox Business Network Movies Fox Sports Networks National Geographic Channel Madison Square Garden Network HarperCollins Wall Street Journal global newspapers 25 O amp Os The six information revolutions The Writing Revolution Revolution printing press Mass Media Revolution Entertainment Revolution Communication Toolshed Home U39lPUUNH Know about the different types of mass media toda h h l I 12I I39 l U39CICEDOOOK LnStagram FCIYI CIL Etc gt LOCCI39CeCl 1n cnapter 2 Steve Jobs Chapter 2 gt pages 9 11 amp Chapter 3 gt page 30 31 Disney Chapter 3 gt page 30 33 Rupert Murdoch Chapter 3 gtpage 33 34 Then don39t Forget about Chapter 4 It will also be included on test 1 and we will be doing the notes this coming Tuesday the 15th
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