J 396 Midterm Study Guide
J 396 Midterm Study Guide J 396
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ryan Schulte on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to J 396 at University of Oregon taught by Teddy Workneh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Intl Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
J396 Midterm Study Guide 3/8/16 3:14 PM Midterm 2 J396 Study Guide 1/21: Neoliberalism and the Marketization of Global Communications Commodification: the transformation of goods and services, as well as ideas or other entities that normally may not be considered goods, into a commodity. It is a process through which non- salable things become salable. • In Marxist literature, commodification is used to describe the process by which something that does not have an economic value is assigned a value and hence how market values can replace other social values. It describes a modification of relationships, formerly unattained by commerce, into commercial relationships in everyday use. WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization • Purpose: to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world • WIPO Non-Members include: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, South Sudan, Micronesia, Timor-Leste, Palestine • In 2013, 205,300 patent applications were submitted to WIPO • Top 5 technologies: o 1) Electrical Machinery, apparatus, energy (14,897) o 2) Computer Technology (14, 684) o 3) Digital communication (14,059) o 4) Medical Technologies (11,920) o 5) Measurements (7,952) • Panasonic, a Japanese company, was the largest patent filer in 2013 • In 2013, 46,829 trademark applications were submitted to WIPO • Top 5 patent areas: o 1) Computer and Electronics o 2) Services for Businesses o 3) Technological services o 4) Clothing, Footwear, Headgear o 5) Pharmaceuticals and Medical Preparations Digital Divide: the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socioeconomic levels with regard to both their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities Quote about Digital Divide: “Technology is only as powerful as it is accessible. Broader access brings education, information, and a sense of community that can help combat AIDS, malnutrition, ignorance and neglect. The power of a connected and enlightened world community is just beginning.” --- Hector Ruiz, ex-Chairman of the Board and ex-President of AMD Three parts of the Digital Divide: • 1) Knowledge Divide • 2) Production Divide • 3) Information Divide ITU: The International Telecommunication Union • Is the specialized agency of the UN based in Geneva, Switzerland focusing on global information and communication technologies (ICTs) concerns. • ITU Specific ICT Concerns o Internet o Data o Voice o TV broadcasting o Internet access o Radio astronomy o Aeronautical and maritime navigation o Latest-generation wireless technologies o Next-generation networks • Functions of the ITU o Coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum o Promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits o Works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world o Assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards Commons: the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. EX. Water sources, radio waves, air Open Source: a movement that promotes universal access via free license to a product’s design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design of blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone. Source Code: The version of software as it is originally written (IE typed into a computer) by a human in plain text (IE human readable alphanumeric characters). This is also referred to as source or code. Quote about Digital Commons: “An information and knowledge resources that are collectively created and owned or shared between or among a community and that tend to be (generally) available to third parties… Thus they are oriented to favor use and reuse, rather than to exchange as a commodity. Additionally, the community of people building them can intervene in the governing of their interaction processes and of their shared resources.” -- Mayo Fuster Morell The Open Source Model: • Decentralization • Non-commercial • Peer production by bartering and collaboration • End-product, source-material, “blueprints”, and documentation available at no cost to the public 1/28: Global Media as Two Way Traffic? Homogeneity, Heterogeneity and Contraflow in International Communication The End of History: Novel, by Francis Fukuyama. He argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity’s sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. Quote by Francis Fukuyama: “What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the endpoint of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” -- Francis Fukuyama The Clash of Civilizations: Novel, by Samuel P. Huntington. According to Huntington, it is a theory that people’s cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ex. Isis International Contraflow: Independent groups that make use of either mainstream media systems or create their own alternative systems in order to inform and/or call attention over public and social needs. In some cases, these groups use both systems. AKA “easternization” or “south-south flows” Japanese Anime: Japanese animated productions usually featuring hand drawn or computer animation Indian Film Industry: the largest film industry in the world with massive fandom in Asia, and large parts of Africa. Telenovelas: Widely popular in Latin America and Iberian countries such as Brazil, Spain, Portugal, and in Hispanic speaking communities in the U.S. TV Globo and the Rise of Telenovelas • globo emphasis on quality, high end production • especially in telenovelas • has focused on broad national audience, but especially richest 30% who advertisers most want to reach TV Globo Today • the largest commercial TV network in Latin America and the second-largest commercial TV network in the world • the largest producer of telenovelas • had average audience share of more than 50% and ratings above 30% on primetime • receives about two-thirds of the entire ad spent on open TV in Brazil • more competition since 1990s, especially mid-2000’s • the cost of each telenovela chapters ranges from $100,000 to $175,000 above international standards Quote about telenovelas today: “We now have 100 to 120 actors in a telenovela, against 30 in the past. We need about 40 scenarios, including several scenario towns, three times more than before. Plot situations, which lasted months in the past, are now resolved in a week. We have five directors shooting simultaneously, against just one, maybe two, in the old days.” -- Octavio Florisbal, Director General, TV Globo O Clone (The Clone): TV Globo’s big hit, was sold to 74 countries, and after dubbed it was sold to 140 countries, dubbed in 17 languages. I believe they added 17 different languages so that it could be sold in many other countries. <-Correct Cultural Logics of Proximity: Linguistic Logic: • cultural linguistic spaces • lusophone vs. Hispanic Geographic Logic • geocultural, geolinguistic spaces • Latin American cultural commonalities despite language Iberian colonial similarities Portuguese vs. Spanish • Idea of Luso-tropical culture o Proposed that the Portuguese were better colonizers than other European nations o More adaptable to other climates. Latin American Telenovela Market • Top Producers o Mexico, Brazil • Second Tier, rising export o Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru • Third tier, increasing production o Chile • Fourth o largely import from within region Japanese Anime • by the 1980’s cartoons in the U.S. were seen as strictly divided • In U.S. cartoons, plots following a formula that guaranteed happy endings and no real consequences for violent encounters: no one dies Japanese Anime: bound by no restrictions • most Japanese anime TV series are designed to last only one or two seasons (usually producing between 13-52 episodes) and then come to a climactic and definite ending • connecting plots from one episode to the next are common, leaving audiences curious to find out what happens next • intricate plot and character development produces a series of plot twists and turns; heroes may even die or become villains • multidimensional characters and plots are common • many different foci and subplots deepen the narrative • most conventional American cartoons tend to focus primarily on the gags and humor, but a single anime series may draw its appeal from many different elements, such as action, characters, relationships, internal conflict, politics, and or humor. • many, if not most, anime are intended to mirror real social and political dilemmas Emphasis on Originality • not confined to one genre in order to appeal to one niche market • tradition of including mature content in storylines of an adult nature, which can be an advantage or disadvantage in American entertainment market • wide ranging themes and genres The Global Appeal of Bollywood • top film producer in the world • popular Indian cinema - international profile second only to Hollywood in revenue first in number of films produced annually • shown in more than 70 countries - popular elsewhere where among South Asians, but also in Middle East, Asia, and Africa • Mumbai film industry worth $3.5 billion • exports jumped twenty fold between 1989-1999 • employs 2.5 million people Bollywood: Context of economic growth • deregulation of India’s media sector in the 1990’s • advancements in media technology and the availability of satellite cable television, online delivery systems • global marketing strategy • changing global broadcasting environment • “bollywoodization” of television - Zee Cinema, Max, Star Gold Quote: “It’s a fallacy… to equate shared narratives with shared meanings. The fact that American TV shows are rebroadcast across the globe causes many people to wring their hands over the menace of cultural imperialism; seldom do they bother to inquire about the meanings that different people bring to and draw from these shows…” -- Henry Louis Jr. Gates 2/4: Of Framing and (Mis)Representation The Legacy of Colonialism • Political Domination of Another People: Their leaders cannot make decisions that are not agreed upon by British • The establishment of the Government: Often figurehead rulers are set up to placate the masses, but power remains with the British • Large-Scale Religion Conversion: Christianity becomes the only acceptable, civilized religion. • Force Economic Dependence: Trade happens, but usually raw materials taken for a cheap price from colony and more reﬁned items sold back to colony from Britain at a much higher price • Infrastructure: Building of roads, railroads, hospitals, schools,etc. Justifications of Colonialism: • Economic o Colonialism provided a huge natural resource base for small European powers o Colonies provided ready markets for finished product • Religion o The need to spread Christianity • Cultural o “The White Man’s Burden” o because the British felt they were more civilized and had the only correct religion, they felt it was imperative they go out and get everyone else to conform for the sake of their souls • Linguistic Determinism o The idea that language and its structure limit and determine human knowledge or thought, as well as thought processes. the term implies that people of different language have different thought processes. • Decolonization o “The withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power” o “the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies” o the complete “removal of the domination of non-indigenous forces” o “decolonizing of the mind” from the colonizer’s ideas that made the colonized seem inferior Post-colonialism addresses the anguish of the colonized who have to deal with the aftermath of colonization Postcolonial theory is born out of the colonized peoples’ frustrations, their direct and personal cultural clashes with the conquering culture, and their fears, hopes, and dreams about the future and their own identities What is the Post-colonialist Critique? • European colonialism did occur • The British Empire was at the center of this colonialism • The conquerors dominated not only the physical land but also the hegemony or ideology of the colonized peoples • The social, political, and economic effects of such colonization are still being felt today. • Post-colonialism is concerned with the struggle that occurs when one culture is dominated by another • To be colonized is to be removed from history • In its interaction with the conquering culture, the colonized or indigenous culture is forced to go underground or to be obliterated • Philosophy/literature written in English in countries that were or still are colonies of other countries • Excludes literature that represents either British or American viewpoints and concentrates on writings from colonized or formerly colonized cultures • Third-world literature/Commonwealth literature Unhomeliness or double consciousness: perception of abandonment by both cultures causes the colonial subject (the colonized) to become a psychological refugee Hybridity: when two cultures commingle, the nature and the characteristics of the newly created culture changes each of the cultures Frantz Fanon - Author of The Wretched of the Earth • Frantz was born in the French colony of Martinique • Advocated the violent overthrow of colonialism and dominance • Colonized societies internalize subordination through the force of language more than the force of the gun • Violence only means that it can drive insulting messages and free the colonized to achieve self-defined identity and national consciousness • Quote: “in the colonial context the settler only ends his work of breaking in the native when the latter admits loudly the intelligibly the supremacy of the white man’s values” -- Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth Orientalism: the acceptance in the west of “the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social descriptions, and political accounts concerning the Orient, its people, customs, ‘mind’, destiny, and so on.” Stereotypes assigned to Oriental cultures and “Orientals” • Orientals are despotic and clannish. They are despotic when placed in positions of power, and sly when in subservient positions. • Orientals are impossible to trust • they are capable of sophisticated abstractions, but not of concrete, practical organization or rigorous, detail-oriented analysis • Their men are sexually incontinent, while their women are locked up behind bars • Orientals, are, by definition, strange Quote about Orientals: “east is east and west is west and never the twain shall meet” -- Rudyard Kilpling, The Ballad of East and West Subaltern: refers to the populations that are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure of the colony and of the colonial homeland Cultural Hegemony: the domination by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of that society so that their ruling-class worldview becomes the worldview that is imposed and accepted as the cultural norm Can the Subaltern Speak? • cautioned against ignoring subaltern peoples as “cultural Others” • The West could progress through self-criticism of the ideas/methods that establish a culturally superior West studying the culturally inferior non-Western peoples • Reject the colonial cultural depiction of subaltern peoples as hollow mimics of the European colonists and their Western ways • Rejects the depiction of subaltern peoples as the passive recipient-vessels of the imperial and colonial power of the Mother Country 2/16: Reality TV and the Commodification of Cultures The economic roots of Reality TV • In the 1980’s the use of cable and VCR’s became popular and the cultural norm in the United States. o Viewers were no longer limited to the same 10 channels. o Loss of networks ratings therefore advertisements • MTV’s Real World Debuted in 1992 Reality TV’s Global appeal • Truly global art • Big Brother franchised in over 70 countries. • Reality shows are “thin” on meanings and rich on rules • 3 important points o Instruction and codes that run in various contexts in order to produce a text o Global formats don't have meaning, they have the potential to have meaning o Carrying light semantic loads they are able to travel and give birth to local texts Negative representations of Africa • They exploit ethnocentricity in times of discontent, supporting an ideology of superiority • Justify political economic actions of western nations toward Africa as in the best interests of Africans Hegemonic Nations • Domination • Intellectual and Moral Leadership • Commodification fetishism- Wanting the conversion of every possible resource into a good or service that can be sold in the market place. Spectacular Consumption • Way advertising appropriates and universalizes cultural otherness as a commodity o Blackness in America o ex. Budweiser advertising and associating the commodity with African American bonding Cultural Erasure • Practices in which a dominant culture erases a subordinate culture • Absence of Africa from Western Media • Agency- The capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices READINGS- • Artz, L, Globalization, Media Hegemony, and Social Class, The Globalization of Corporate Media Hegemony, pp.16-23 o Summary: Media Hegemony § Although hegemony is not a communication process, cultural and political discourses must reflect, organize and interact with other social practices. Leaderships only become hegemonic because they convince others to become allies through persuasive political and cultural practices, which necessarily require normalized interpretations best communicated to the masses via the media. This is the practice of media hegemony, something that has been documented well as “privatization” and the use of mass entertainment as well as consumerism. Privatized media appropriate agendas by those who own them. § A globalized “free-market” means the developing world will be at a disadvantage when it comes to advancing or even keeping up with 1st World societies. Globalization has ensured those affected by Western media have grown up around the same culture as the homogenous middle-class culture: fast food, pop music, action movies, etc.. Liberalization of the media does not ensure a democratic society ie: Guatemala, El Salvador, and Qatar, all places with private media as well as few civil liberties. Corporate media has allegiance to its class: ú 1. Ownership of the production and distribution of the global culture continues to narrow, despite the modest rise of regional aspirants and the resistance of some governments, as in China and France. ú 2. Entertainment formats predominate. From Ghana to Brazil to Singapore and the West, broadcasting, music, and movies are entertainment. ú 3. Consumerism rules. Marked by individualism, immediate gratification, and unfettered acquisitiveness, consumerism is expressed in hierarchical fictional and nonfictional narratives in privatized mass communication. ú 4. Cultural variations draw from rich and diverse traditions, as in Brazilian telenovelas and rap, Nigerian juju videos, and Islamic and green pop in Turkey. Yet, when controlled and represented by corporate media, most advance and none challenge the basic individualist, consumerist tenets of the capitalist market. ú 5. The global culture of corporate media features two complementary yet distinct representations: homogeneity and hybridity § Media hegemony thrives because it affordably presents the most popular versions of Western culture as well as appears to best represent indigenous culture and cultural diversity § Global capitalism, in other words, creates a consumer market and cultivates a consumer ideology, but an increase in the quantity of goods does not systematically improve the wellbeing of people. • Thussu, D.K., Mapping Global Media Flow and Contra-flow, pp. 21-26 o Summary: § ‘Subaltern’ Contra-Flows: Anti-Hegemonic or Pro-American ú There is evidence that global media traffic is not just a one-way street from the West to the rest of the world; however it is weighted in the US’s favor ú The availability of digital technology, privatized and deregulated broadcasting and satellite networks has enabled the increasing flow of content from the global South to the North, for example, the growing international visibility of telenovelas or Korean and Indian films, as well as regional broadcasting, such as the pan-Arabic Middle East Broadcasting Centre (MBC), the pioneering 24/7 news network Al-Jazeera, or the Mandarin language Phoenix channel, which caters to a Chinese diaspora. ú This idea of trading cultural goods is called “subaltern flows” ú In 2005, there were nearly 2 million migrants due to workforce and communication ú Phoenix has led the charge of giving a voice to the subaltern with its “Chinese Channel”; a channel for it’s Chinese citizens. Considered to be the “window to the world for the Chinese global community” • Transnational Telenovelas o Another key example of transnational ‘subaltern flow’ o From Latin America to other global areas such as: Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Arab world o in 2005 the telenovela developed into a $2 billion industry o Has helped generate a “Hispanic” identity to the world o Bollyworld Bollyworld or bollywood? o India is among the few non-Western countries to have their presence felt in the global cultural market o $3.5 billion Hindi film industry is the world’s largest: every year a billion more people buy tickets for Indian movies than for Hollywood films. o More films are made in India than in Hollywood, however their relevance is confined to Indian subcontinent o Globalization of Bollywood is still under effect; Indian and Western governments came to agreements in 2000 that each would be able to invest in each others industries • Hybridity as Hegemony o Despite the growing trend towards contra-flow, the revenues of non-Western media, except for Japanese animation, is dwarfed by the Western counterpart o Western media has much deeper pockets than other global organizations o The world’s biggest television network (MTV) is American o al-Bolivar: south American al Jazeera; “News from the South” Bressler, C., Post-colonialism, Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, pp.197-203 • Summary: o Language helps create what we call “objective reality” o Text is the language of literature, whereas language of science is spoken o Post-colonialism consists of a set of theories in philosophy and various approaches to literary analysis that are concerned with literature written in English countries that were or still are colonies of other countries o Only after colonization occurs and the colonized people have had time to think and to write about their oppression and loss of cultural identity does postcolonial theory come into existence. Postcolonial theory is born out of the colonized peoples’ frustrations, their direct and personal cultural clashes with the conquering culture, and their fears, hopes, and dreams about the future and their own identities. How the colonized respond to changes in language, curricular matters in education, race differences, economic issues, morals, ethics, and a host of other concerns, including the act of writing itself, becomes the context for the evolving theories and practice of post- colonialism. Alsultany, E., Challenging the Terrorist Stereotype, Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11, pp. 21-31 • Summary: o Simplified Complex Representations § used by television producers, writers, and directors to give the impression that the representations they are producing are complex § a new era of racial representation ú Strategy #1: Inserting Patriotic Arab or Muslim Americans • from 2001-2009, television created “positive” Arab and Muslim characters to show they are sensitive to negative stereotyping • most characters assist the US government to fight against enemy Arab/Muslim terrorism ú Strategy #2: Sympathizing with the Plight of Arab and Muslim Americans after 9/11 • Arab/Muslim Americans are unjust victims of violence and harassment • Viewer is positioned to sympathize with their plight ú Strategy #3: Challenging the Arab/Muslim Conflation with Diverse Muslim Identities • Sleeper Cell challenges how Arab and Muslim identities are often conflated by government discourses and media representations by demonstrating that all Arabs are not Muslim and all Muslims are not Arab and, further, that not all Arabs and Muslims are heterosexual ú Strategy #4: Flipping the Enemy • Using the idea of a Muslim Terrorist being a pawn for some Euro-American scheme of European terrorists. • Tricking the audience to believe the stereotypical Muslim/Arab terrorist then revealing it is a part of a bigger terrorist plan by a European organization ú Strategy #5: Humanizing the Terrorist • Before 9/11, most Arab/Muslim terrorists were stock villains, all the same characters • Post-9/11, we see them in family contexts as well as other back stories to them • Focusing on the terrorists interpersonal relationships is a tool to humanize the terrorist ú Strategy #6: Projecting a Multicultural U.S. Society • using important characters as ambassadors for a more diverse America. • casting decisions are used to create an impression of a US with multicultural tendencies ú Strategy #7: Fictionalizing the Middle Eastern or Muslim Country • It has become common for the country of the terrorist characters in television dramas go unnamed. • This rests on the assumption that leaving the nationality of the villain open eliminates the potential for offensiveness; if no specific country or ethnicity is named, then there is less reason for any particular group to be offended by the portrayal Steeves, L., Commodifying Africa on U.S. Network Reality Television, pp.419-425 • Summary: o Hegemonic Notions of Africa § Many scholars of cultural studies and postcolonial studies have examined how media and other texts are encoded to include dominant and oppositional perspectives and have sought to illuminate the dialectical processes by which media usually operate as agents of hegemony, incorporating and articulating the oppositional interests of subordinate classes into the dominant view § Notions of ideology and hegemony have figured importantly in past studies of Africa’s representation, many of which build on critiques of 19th- and early 20th- century narratives by explorers, missionaries, anthropologists, biologists, and colonists, and their observations about Africans’ primitiveness and savagery, as well as the historic, ideological functions of the narratives in sustaining Africa’s colonization • Commodification o Marx and Engels predicted commodification would spread globally as “old wants” of the bourgeoisie must be replaced by “new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes” o This is the idea that African American culture is being sold to those outside of it because it is “new” to their eyes § Yeezy 3 inspired by Rwandan Genocide o Fetishism is a fantization of investing in commodities becoming central to one’s being and is life changing, just as religious fetish is central and transformative in many societies o Postcolonial scholars suggest the overlapping concepts of erasure, agency, and hybridity may help illuminate commodification processes in these representations • Erasure o Africa’s limited presence in Western news has been critiqued for homogenizing the continent into one negative and ethnocentric image, as: “uncivilized, barbaric, irretrievably savage, superstitious, corrupt, underdeveloped and generally chaotic” o News habitually draws on historical stereotypes that are likely to resonate with these expectations. Relatedly, news and other representations frequently use one symbol such as an AIDS or famine victim to represent the continent. The racial homogenization of Africa is illustrated by terms such as ‘‘black factionalism,’’ ‘‘black-on-black violence,’’ and ‘‘tribalism’’ o Locals are labeled as primitive and are “depeopled” • Agency o Most of the previously cited critiques of Africa’s and Africans representation in news and advertising reveal not only erasure but also the absence of Africans as creators of and voices in their representations. • Hybridity o a central concept in much postcolonial scholarship, as it is concerned with the nature and outcomes of cultural mixture due to globalization. o study likewise examines representations involving the postcolonial hybrid encounter in Africa on network reality programs, forms they take and ways in which they contribute to the commodification of culture. As I will show, cultures mix in different ways in these reality programs, including via contestant imitation of African traditions, as observed in colonial narratives and in tourism. o The inequality between the American visitors and the Africans is blatantly evident, as in most tourism encounters noted above. Although effects on all participants in encounters are certainly real, hybridity as an enduring form of cultural fusion does not result. The experiences may spark new passions in contestants—or audience members—that lead to future initiatives, imperialist or otherwise, and perhaps real change. In the short term, however, hybrid encounters on reality television provide opportunities for global entertainment, commodification, and profit. 3/8/16 3:14 PM 3/8/16 3:14 PM
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