Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 His 104A02
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to His 104A02 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Kennedy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see History of East Asia in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Study Guide HIS 10402 Cultural and historic foundations Yellow River many cites of civilization silt which was good for farming loess steady source of water ood plain dykes irrigation social development and technological advancement if live near here droughts shallow not navigable huge course changes due to silt manipulation water diversionengineering Oracle Bones Shang Dynasty start of written tradition contains earliest known Chinese writing because did not disintegrate fortune telling divination kings asked ancestors questions and conversation would be on this ritual large bone at surface Mandate of Heaven Western Zhou dynasty Zhou kings believed heaven granted king to rule but had to rule in best interest of the people in order to continue What environmental factors led early China to develop from essentially tribal or clanbased groups to more bureaucratically organized states Rivers more advanced in way of living wanted order got ideaswas in uenced by surrounding areas could farm navigate What is the significant difference between the way the Shang kings and the Western Zhou kings claimed political legitimacy Shang kings had ability to communicate With ancestors ancestral cult Western Zhou kings needed the mandate of heaven Why did later rulers adopt the Mandate of Heaven as a way to claim political legitimacy They wanted rulers Who had the best interest of the people in mind heaven is a diety Which is impersonal so gave a sense that ruler can be anyone that heaven sees fit to rule Philosophical foundations Warring States no single state has authority overall rival states went to war to get territory and political power warfare is brutal Confucianism the Analects collection of Confucius sayings passed down by followers interested in political problems understand social hierarchy and proper and moral behavior education important ritualproper behavior led to social order people know their place do not do to others What you wouldn t want done to you mutual obligations starts at home filial piety remonstration know roles straight forward Mencius Confucian thinker thinks human nature is actually good mandate of heaven education is important Xunzi Confucian thinker thinks human nature is not good not born good but can become good by education Hierarchy levels of social status lial piety obediencerespect for parents reciprocity give respect then get respect back remonstration to respectfully object to something that a person is doing because they feel that it is wrong Daoism no single founder end violence and chaos brought order mythical Laozi historical figure Zhuangzi organize after warring states period made fun of Confucianism and mohism writing is funny antiintellectual school of thought thought knowledge caused problems in society writings are less direct passive response themes are relativity emptiness inaction recognize something by seeing its opposite YinYang chinese dualism doing only what comes naturally think nature functions smoothly if left alone turn away from power left to interpretation more about individual then society vague important to the arts becomes religion later Legalism consolation of power in hands of central authority devalued what Confucians thought was important thought king cannot rely on other people laws rewards and punishment laws applied to everyone Qin dynasty used very well allowed ruler to mobilize people to do public works projects like building the great wall or tomb designate common currency single standardization in writing system harsh taxes service burned all texts that were not legalist or medical To what social political and economic changes were Warring States philosophers responding All wanted social order and peace in time of chaos What goal did the philosophers of the Warring States share Why Goal was to find a solution that led to social order How was Confucian ideology shaped by Warring States politics and culture This was an effective way to maintain social order when warring states was a chaotic time How did Confucian thinkers propose organizing society Some thought people were good on their own and didn t need much guidance while others thought that people had to learn to be good so they would need guidance and a good example to look at Why was filial piety so important to social order Because it needed to start at home to then apply to everyone else if people showed respect at home to parents and everything was in order there then society would be in order What was the ideal Confucian society Everyone new their place and no one questioned it just played role in society filial piety remonstration Mandate of Heaven What was Confucian proper behavior and why was it important Proper behavior was to show respect to those above you then they will reciprocate it Who was governed by Confucian ideas Everyone How did Daoist thinkers propose organizing society Let nature take its course passive response What was the ideal Daoist society End violence and chaos bring order thought knowledge caused problems in society writings are less direct passive response themes are relativity emptiness inaction recognize something by seeing its opposite YinYang Chinese dualism doing only what comes naturally think nature functions smoothly if left alone turn away from power left to interpretation more about individual then society How did Daoism fit with Confucianism Both had same goal of social order Buddhism in China Buddhism Indian religion foreign religion that came to china human experiencelife death reincarnation which is based on karma every action has repercussion in next life go through endless cycles until reach Nirvana believe human experiencesuffering life is painful pain is caused by desire caused by attachments because if you get what you want then get anxiety about losing it so try to overcome that follow 8 fold pathmoral teachings arrived at end of Han dynasty offered hope for end of suffering bodhisattva was an individual that once attained Nirvana and chose to reincarnate in order to help others later Nirvana changed so that first stopped at Pure Land to perfect karma then reached Nirvana decline at end of Tang sinification making it Chinese friendly so it is accepted sutra Buddhism scripture nirvana released from vicious cycle of life death rebirth Mahayana type of Buddhism greater vehicle room for everyone did develop a pantheon of deities bodhisattva was an individual that once attained Nirvana and chose to reincarnate in order to help others prey to them later Nirvana changed so that first stopped at Pure Land to perfect karma then reached Nirvana developed into many sects meditation nonsense riddles Karma cause and effect How and why was it changed by China It changed in order to fit in the times of China and in order to fit with their ideals monks could go back to family in times of illness or death and allowed them to get married and have families because Confucian values started at home still contributed to society did not shave head because against filial piety How did Buddhism fit with existing Chinese beliefs It was adapted to fit the Chinese beliefs very well How were Confucianism Daoism and Buddhism similar How were they different All were pretty different but Confucian and Daoism had the same goal of social order Buddhism adjusted so it would be accepted during Confucian times Confucian education and meritocratic government Confucianism the Analects collection of Confucius sayings passed down by followers interested in political problems understand social hierarchy and proper and moral behavior education important ritualproper behavior led to social order people know their place do not do to others what you wouldn t want done to you mutual obligations starts at home filial piety remonstration know roles straight forward focus on society gave place and purpose creates balance no one question roles Mandate of Heaven remonstration no one was above the law everyone contributes prepared to take exams meritocracy have job because you are talented at it so anyone can serve who is good for the job Civil Service Exam everyone except women were able to take the exam because all were capable of being good Confucian more elite took it because could afford tutors and had resources memorized texts changed over time need to be literate weight on families expectations on shoulders because if pass would bring family up most failed but no shame in that just had to study harder and keep taking it creates unity shared experience only have to be Confucian What was a Confucian education Preparing for the exam in either public or private schools which private was very good and hard to get into compared to public emphasized proper behavior and attitude Why was Confucianism the ideological foundation for government and bureaucratic service Was the most effective How do historians interpret the impact of this system on Chinese society and government Was it generally positive Generally negative Why focus on society gave place and purpose creates balance no one question roles Mandate of Heaven remonstration no one was above the law everyone contributes applied to everyone social order was end goal for everyone so generally positive How did governments in China use Confucian ideas to govern Why Mandate of Heaven filial piety remonstration social order hierarchy everyone has a role to play Women in Confucian China Patrilocal marriage takes place on fathers side wife moves in with husband patrilineal fathers name is passed down fathers line patriarchal male dominant filial piety respectobey people who are above you like parents male king hierarchy want son so ensure continuation of family line concubines concubine job was to produce sons for family not wife not part of family as many as can afford her kids did not call her mother they called wife of father mother instead What was the role of women in an ideal Confucian society care taker first up and last to go to sleep take care of inlaws cook and clean first teacher of kids remonstrate Did women contribute to social order How Social order starts at home where women make huge impact care taker first up and last to go to sleep take care of inlaws cook and clean first teacher of kids set example remonstrate tell husband when go down wrong path indirectly in uence society
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