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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Week 8

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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Week 8

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103- week 7
Description: Nicely organized notes from the past week
Uploaded: 03/04/2016
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background image Soil  Soil horizons are the different layers of soil. Focus on the A horizon because plants get most 
water and minerals from this upper layer, even if they have a deep taproot. 
Topsoil
= the A horizon: made up of minerals, living organisms, and humus.  ● Mineral compounds:  ○ Inorganic­ cations; these positively charged ions adhere to the negative soil  particles, preventing them from leaching (washed out of soil by ground water), 
but for a plant to absorb them they must be dissolved into the soil solution. 
Therefore 
cation exchange  is the process by which plant roots release H or CO 2   (which reacts with H 2 O to form H ions) to displace the cations that were stuck to  the negative soil so that the cations dissolve into the soil solution for plant uptake. 
In other words the  H
ions bump the minerals off the soil particles and into  solution for plant access. 
*Negatively charged ions (PO
4 3­  and NO 3 ­ ) do not adhere to soil particles and   therefore are easily lost by leaching  ○ Organic­ humus; decaying organic material which creates a crumbly soil that is  great at retaining water and air pockets  ● Living organisms:  ○ bacteria, fungi (the 2 main components), protists, worms, insects, plant roots, etc;  all help to mix the soil and decompose    Plant Nutrition  Three keys for growth and life cycle: soil, water, and air.  Water makes up 80­90% of living mass  96% of dry mass is derived from CO (transformed in photosynthesis)  4% of dry mass is from inorganic elements taken from the soil  ● While more than 50 elements are used, only 17 and essential:  ○ 9 macronutrients needed in large amounts (ex: K to open stoma (by  pumping K in, water flows in by osmosis and guard cells press against  each other and increase diameter of opening))  ○ 8 micronutrients needed in small amounts; most are required for certain  enzymes to function­called  enzyme cofactors     Mutualistic Relationships  Plants and soil microbes:  Dead plants supply energy for microbes  Living roots secrete nutrients which support close by microbes  Microbes release growth­stimulating chemicals for plants 
background image Microbes prevent root disease by antibiotic production  Microbes absorb toxic metals and work so more nutrients are in an available form  Plants and bacteria:  Plants can only utilize NH 4 +  or NO 3 ­  (not atmospheric nitrogen); therefore...  Nitrogen fixation= conversion of atmospheric N gas to NH 3    From NH 3 , ammonifying bacteria turn it to NH 4 +  or nitrifying bacteria turn it to  NO 3 ­   One tight mutualistic relationship in the nitrogen cycle is Rhizobium bacteria in 
legume roots: forms 
nodules  ­swellings caused by bacterial growth inside the  plant root walls­ so that bacteria receive sugar and a protected, anaerobic 
environment while the plant has a constant supply of fixed nitrogen for access 
Plants and fungi:  Fungus gets sugar, host plant gets increased surface area on roots and growth 
factors which stimulate root branching 
Mycorrhizae  a) Ectomycorrhizae­ fungal hyphae between plant root cells (through  extracellular space)  b) Arbuscular mycorrhizae­ hyphae form arbuscules (‘tiny trees’) inside plant  cells   
~Epiphytes­ 
although they grow on plants, they obtain their own water from rain  ~Parasitic plants­  grow on other plants and absorb sugars and minerals from the host  ~Carnivorous plants­  still photosynthetic but consume insects for nitrogen supply (adaptation to  live in areas with little nitrogen in soil) 
 
 
 
Angiosperm Reproduction  (mostly a review)  ~Stamen= filament (stalk) + anther (where pollen is produced) 
~Carpel= stigma (sticky to capture pollen) + style (stalk) + ovary 
Pollen transfer
 (anther to stigma) by wind, water, or animals  ● If by wind, the anthers release huge amounts of pollen to increase chances of fertilization. 
● If by animals, flower structure is designed to attract certain animal pollinators and their 
shape has evolved with animal body shapes to make sure a specific pollinator can access 
and deposit the most pollen. 
○ Bees→ sweet smelling and bright flowers (many have nectar guides; UV  markings to draw bee to proper spot)  ○ Moths→ white or yellow flowers 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103- week 7
Description: Nicely organized notes from the past week
Uploaded: 03/04/2016
6 Pages 35 Views 28 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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