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Exam 1 Notes

by: Makaila Notetaker

Exam 1 Notes 1202

Makaila Notetaker
GPA 3.4
General Biology
Dr. Gregg

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Hey everyone these are the notes for exam 1. It includes the figures, clicker questions with the correct answer and explanation. I hope this helps!!!! Happy studying and good luck!!!
General Biology
Dr. Gregg
Study Guide
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Makaila Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Gregg in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/11/15
08272015 What is Evolution amp Adaption Evolution Two main ideas 0 Change over time of the genetic composition of a population 0 Decent of modern organisms with modi cation from preexisting organisms Evolutionary adaption o Accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms ability to survive in speci c environments PreDarwininian Theory of Evolution Lamark 0 Use and disuse Bodies of living organisms are modi ed through the use and disuse of parts 0 Inheritance of acquired characteristics These modi cation are inherited by offspring 0 These ideas turned out to be wrong Evolution by Natural selection 0 Darwin and Wallace developed the theory of independently o DarwinVoyage of the beagle 0 Wallace Naturalist in Indonesia Natural selection 0 The unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces resulting in the preservation of favorable adaptations Process quotselectsquot from what is available in the gene pool 0 New Characteristics are not created on demand Mechanisms Behind Natural Selection 0 Variability Heritability 0 Differential reproductive success Observations individuals in a population Organisms produce more vary in their heritable offspring than the characteristics environment can support Inlerences individuals that are well suited to their environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals and Over time favorable traits accumulate in the population Cabbage Selection for apical tip hurl Brussels sprouts Selection for 39 axillary side 1 i buds Broccoli Selectmen ifor owers and stems Selection for stems Selection lior leaves a Kalle 7 Wild mustard Kohlrabi Arti cial Selection Selective breeding of organisms to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits Analogous to natural selection Concept 223 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scienti c evidence Examples of natural selection FIlEL DY Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC a patients HIV population consists almost entirely of 3TCresistqant viruses How can this best be explaned A few drug resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment and natural selection increased their frequency Natural Selection amp HIV Resistance The Evolution of Drug Resistant Bacteria Bacteria have rapidly evolved resistance to clinical antibiotics 0 It s a particular problem with bacteria because and viruses because resistant strains of these inserted in balloon vine fruit pathogens can proliferate EDM Feereeri Etllueetienilnea Very qUICkIy RESULTS On native species eeu therm Florida Mueeurneepeeiimen average Number elf individuals In introduced eicineeieei central Fileride l 6 3 1 39i39u39 Beak length mm PMwnEm39 0 Ex staphylococcus aureus Homologous and Analogous Structures 0 Homologous 0 Structures or other attributes in different species that resemble each other because of common ancestry Ex bird and penguin are considered homologous EX mammalian forelimbs g 2215 All share the same anatomical structure Same evolution history OOOOO Figum Hummus Ph a langeg gt g k i O ERIE Pearson Edma39iarl Inc 0 Vertebrate Embryos All vertebrates share similar developmental genes Differences arise by some genes being switched on or off at varying times during development Genes get turned on and off at different stages Figumi quot Fharynge al pouches Ehkkemhm fLm Humanemhm 0 Biochemistry amp Molecular Biology DNA is universal genetic material All life forms use approximately the same 20 amino acids to make proteins All use ATP as the primary form of cellular energy All use RNA and ribosomes to make protein 0 Analogous 0 Structures that are similar in function but not in structure and developmental and evolutionary origin 0 Ex dragon y and bird are analogous 0 May have similar appearance or function because they live in similar kinds of habitats and develop super cial features Convergent Evolution In Similar bw 2 organisms structures or molecules due to independent evolution along similar lines rather than descent from a common ancestor n Utharian animals are found in America and marsupials are found in austrailia n The appy arms of the ying squirrel are considered analogous structures a Figure 2218 0 Trees vs Scala Nature 0 Homologies and Tree Thinkingquot Fig 2219 Flam9221 Eran h point Lung shes gem M were v Amphibians i E 4 t E Mammals 5 E Digitabearing a 39 mi35 Lizards J E 39 and snakes in Amman e3 in Crocodiles H 7 Homologous charaeteristir Ustriehes E 3 l 6 Feathers Hawks and r g mmr birds 7 The Evolution of Populations Ch 23 o The smallest unit of evolution 0 One common misconception about evolution is that individual organisms evolve during their lifetime 0 Evolutionary processes acts on individuals but populations evolve Genetic variation makes evolution possible concept 231 Mutation o Mutations are changes in nucleotide sequence of DNA Source of new alleles and genes 0 Point mutation is the change in one nucleotide base in a gene 0 Chromosomal mutations delete disrupt or rearrange many loci on a chromosome 0 Gene duplications is the duplication of whole segments of a chromosome 0 Mutation rate averages 1 in every 100k genes per generation 0 Sexual Recombination o In sexually reproducing organisms sexual recombination produces most of the variability in each generation Crossing over during prophase l and independent assortment during metaphase l Varation within a population 0 Discrete characters classi ed on an eitherorbasis Ex ower color in pea plants o quantitative characters vary along a continuum within a population ex height weight 0 the hardy weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving HardyWeinburg Equilibrium o HW equilibrium describes a population that is not evolving 0 Figure 237 o 5 assumptions behind HW equilibrium 1 no mutations 2 large population size 3 No gene ow 4 No natural selection 5 random mating Allele amp Genotype Frequencies o Allele frequencies P frequency of allele 1 q frequency of allele 2 P Q 1 o Genotype frequencies pquot2 frequency of homozygous dominant qquot2 frequency of homozygous recessive 2pq frequency of heterozygotes pquot2 2pq qquot2 HW equation 0 Population Genetics amp Human Health 0 HW equation can be used to estimate of the human population carrying the allele for an inherited disease 0 PKU is a recessive genetic disorder Frequency of homozygotes w this disorder is qquot2 0001 What is the frequency of the dominant amp recessive alleles p q What is the frequency of carriers heterozygous people who do not have PKU is 0198 I Use equation 2pq Qn the frequency of the recessive allele is 30 the frequency of the heterozygous carriers would be A 42 Explanation q30 and p70 because pq1 then use equation 2pq l 27342 42 Concept 233 Natural Selection genetic drift and gene ow can alter allele frequencies in a population Genetic Drift Statistically the smaller a sample the greater the chance of deviation from a predicted result 0 With a small population sizes allele frequencies can uctuate unpredictany from one generation to the next Tends to reduce genetic variation 0 Genetic drift deals with small populations 0 Figure 239 0 Example 0 founder effect red allele is more dominant more chance in gene frequency 0 bottleneck frequency of red allele much higher in new population 0 chance events red allele is lost only brown allele is present Bottleneck Effect and Reduction of Genetic Variation 0 Fig 2311 Gene Flow 0 Genetic additions to or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes Migration among populaitons Tend to reduce variation among populations over time 0 Population 1 lmigration highitte genetic variation between populationsl Population 2 0 Population 1 l migration low more genetic variation bw populations Population 2 Concept 234 Natural Selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution 0 Natural Selection differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from their interactions with the environment Evolutionary Fitness 0 Fitness the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of others 0 Q out of tom harry and click who had the greatest tness 0 A Harry because he had the most children DirectionaDisruptive and Stabilizing Selection O O The three modes of selection Grigarlul mommaHim reamnew e Il39ldl u39lfluills i 739 Iith lJr ipc V vx39 LL originm E39udvezl Phenotypes il39ur Euler i Ifquot a w papuldlmn PIPquot 393quot 1y 1 ER 3quot li isiruprme mlenaium favors wuianl all balli ETIEE El quot12 dialrihulinrl These nae have telznizlzd Lu palcl39rg habitat maize up of Hugh madam racks Wlll39l Ihe MEL quot13 mice clan munlemme color are ul adisadmanuge div Eaahijirjmgt suleziium removequot Ernlren39ievuriunla lmm lhe D Lll llDll 3mm rE39EEWE39E inben39lleuiale lypust If quot12 El39M39EDIIF EfILL39 I39iElElE al malts of m inlermediute Euler InnEll liglll anal cart quot1le will be selected againIsl jaiv Dirnttinna l selenium shillquot lhE uemll ll39ii39J39lELL olill e population by lamth variant LIP DI39IE39 Ex men39ie al Ilie isEnbutul i In this case darker mice are failureIi became they live HITID El ElElm rack 3911 1 darker lLr calm cuncuats ll39iEl39 lr i39ll urEdutnrs Fig 2M2 Au Liam right t EIJLIS Harem lilaeutium lii publishing mi Benjamin t ummings Q A population of seedcracker nches has small and large billed birds specializing in soft and hard seeds respectively If climatic change resulted in a loss of the soft seeded plants what type of selection would be then operate on the nch population A Directional Sexual Selection 0 O 0 Type of selection that favors a trait giving an individual a competitive edge in attracting or keeping a mate Can result in sexual dimorphism lntrasexual selection direct competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex lntersexual selection individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex Figure 23115 Q immigration of individuals into a population HW equilibrium will not upset the equilibrium if A they are beyond the age of reproduction Q which statement describes the swallow with the greatest evolutionary tness A a swallow that lives to be 2 years old and has four offspring that survive to reproduce o The preservation of genetic variation 0 Diploidy maintains genetic variation in the form of hidden recessive alleles o Balancing selection occurs when natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotype forms in a population Frequencydependent selection a The tness of individuals is dependent of how abundant they are a scale sh are example g 721 evolution Heterozygote advantage I Some individuals who heterozygous have a greater tness than homozygotes n Sickle cell allele causes mutations in hemoglobin but also confers malaria resistance a Fig 2317 THE ORGIN OF SPECIES Ch 24 Concept 24 1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation 0 Species Latin for kind or appearance 0 Different islands different colors 0 Interbreeding 1 The biological species concept 0 De nes a species as a population or group whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable fertile offspring 0 Cannot be applied to Asexual organisms FossHs Organisms about which little is known regarding their reproduction 0 Limitations of the BSC Figure 244 quot an lly hear LIL E39IIL WEJ39 1r P is IT has r lull minimus quot Hybrid gmlar hear gt322 Hana nal a the species is not like a switch Speciation o Depend on Reproductive isolation n The existence of biological factors that impede members of two species from producing viable fertile offspring n Prezygotic barriers o The egg doesn t produce into an offspring Preventing fertilization form happening Impede mating bw species or hinder fertilization of ova if members of different species attempt to mate Habitat Temporal Behavioral Mechanical isolation isolation isolation isolation 0 r is i Individuals J Jr TA I 39 of different 8 G i Zggt G species o Postzygotic ba rriers Often prevents the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable fertile adult Gametic Reduce Reduce Hybrid 395939at390quot hybrid hybrid breakdown Viability fertility G Viable fertile offspring 0 Genetic divergence Fig 2414 Q Two species of pine are found in the same habitat but release pollen at different times during the year This is an example of isolation A temporal isolation Establishing Reproductive Isolation in erder te determine if ellepetrie epeeietien heel eeeurred e Repreiuctiue ieeletiein lmlLlSt have been eetelblielhecl Exp EEIMEHT iaine Eliuddd f Tale Lllniuereilgn derided e fimril yipepmla dn relieing eeme pepiu la ene en a elareh medium and ellhere en a imei dee medium A er merry Ig ll39l 39a il39l natural eelee dn areeu eud lin Idliaergenl em ulsidn Pdpuleljdne ireieed en elemh digeeled retardI mere effieienligr while these Hieed en mel udee Idiigee eud malhee mm ef ieieu rhlgr Dedd then pull iee firem llhe eeme er different pqpu e dne fin irne ing eegee and ll39l39iEaEilJ 39Ed mating erqiuernee mgrJ 39 quotquot Initial pdpulle dn ef mil f iee EmmiIlia can an FEELr tl EELTE 3939i Jaiieed cm i ireleecl en etereh medium r r mating eepemin39ieirrle mam madmm F i Lll FE 3th several generatisdne ifclmu39ii 39rl 39239 EMS F L39mmm lithl l 39mL IIIimai39i39ilixhini e llcmjemm i39tmmtiny Concept 24 2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation o Speciation can occur in two ways 0 Allopatric speciation Literally means other countryquot Gene ow is interrupted or reduced when a population is divided into two or more geographically isolated subpopulations a Single species homogenous habitat n Geographic barrier isolates populaitons a Genetic drift mutation natural n Ex the isthmus of panama that created new species on either side of the species A formosus nuttingi Atlantic Ocean isthmus of Panama Pacific Ocean 2011 Pearson Education Inc 0 Sympatric speciation Speciation that takes place in geographically overlapping populations a MinnelliLie epeeieiiieiri b Symipetrie epeeietien 0 Polyploidy 0 Presence of extra sets of chromosomes in cells due to accidents during meiosis 0 Has caused sympatric speciation in many plant species 0 Autopolyploidy individual has more than two chromosome sets all derived from a single species One mechanism for allopolyploidy Unirediueezd gamete Lllmredueed gamethe with 4 ehremeeiernee with 393quot elhremeeernee V 39 Hybrid with lll ieleie fertile hybrid F 392 I ehremeeemee 7 m 391 Ilu39lieiietie anal3 SEEMS A entree eme g umiber l t 39 rediueed frem 2n te n 1 gt 39 l a i l r l L g I l l Nermel gamete n e Hermel gamete n e 3 Speeiee E EHE J o Allopolyploidy species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species Failure at cell diiuiiaiien Dfifepriing with n a eell all a grawnigi tetrapleid karye diplleiia plant after Gametea lp r dlUlEEd typea may be ehrameeeme duplication by llewer e an tibia viable and gives riiee ta a tetrapleid tetraplaid braneh fertileaa new ranch er ether tieeue are diipileia bielegieal epeeiee EN E 4H 12 Q plant species A has a diploid number of 12 Plant species B has a diploid number of 16 A new species C arises as a allopolyploid from A and B The likely diploid number for species C would be A refer to the alloployploidy gure above 28 add the 12 and 16 for the new species formed Sympatric Speciation in progress The apple maggot y 0 ln cichlid sh 0 Sympatric speciation has resulted form nonrandom mating due to sexual selection t in eiehlid fiah S yimipatrie eipeeiatiin lhae reeulte trim inninraineim mating clue ta Sexual aelestien EE E mEm 39 Heeean l39ere freirn the Llniaeraity ef iizlJeni placed anazlife n a lee at Pmdam ia punreiem39 a and P nearereftegether in aquan39 urn tanlza ene with natural lightanei ene with a hrentatie enemae larne Under nen39nal light the anger are reziutieeale igiI a ifienent in eeleratien under hmntatie mange light the aneear identiea in eeler The reeearehera then eheenee i the mating efthe flan in each tanlt Mlenmhrematle Hiemeal light ermge light REEULTE Under nen39nal light efeaehapseeiee hateEli genie eftheirewn Eat undjereranm light fentalee ef each apeElee Inszlleirlrnlnatei5ai males ef heth The reeuiting he ends viable and fertile g LU 5m 1 The F E FdIEFE eenelustle i that nate eheiee he en eelera en ie the main W W n regercaliuetiae barrier that mrrnally the gene male eftheee aeearate Since theeeeeiee can etill interhneetll when thie ereaegetie behaaieral banier ie lereaehetli in the J ilahenatere the genetic diaergenee the eeeaiee is likely te he entail Thia auggeate FIEquot LIFE 211 that eeeeiatien in nature nae net F l itf39a39 ffp39 renenitie tlmn39iyrl 39i39 331 heart331 lichl l 39rl1a Immfll3139 i1il1y as lic39rnjamm i39tmttneinyi Q which is the rst step in the process of allopatric speciation A geographic isolation Q All but which of the following are likely to promote sympatric speciation A gene ow you have to cut off gene ow in order to have speciation Concept 243 Hybrid Zones Provide Opportunities to Study Factors that Cause Reproductive Isolation Possible Outcomes for Hybrids F9 241114 issulated p puilatiun divervies 71 Hyh d I n anriesr tn F puliaitiinn gene aw five individuals are Shawn Em Mum Enzmauim 31 phitin L39s Pea5 Emlamn Emmi example of stability in hybrids Fussihle nut times Reimf umemen ER Fusinn CIR Eta biiliity39 Fi 2413 Finahim IiIadi tear Hambrha baud1man i 39alliuwheliliml marl Eumbfna va agata M1919 f iraaqmanrcy ag 55151 am an m w 1 1 2i Dii tannw hum hiltrid IEHI39If EventHr III39IEI39 Em t 232m Eulam ECHB IDH in millsm H F earsan Dmm m rgz The breakdown of reproductive barriers fusion Pundam ia nyererei Fundam ia pundam ia Pundamiiia turbid wafer hybrid u epring from a in ation o with turbid water Q which of the following is not considered a requirement for speciation to occur A high levels of gene ow among populations must occur Q the origin of a new plant species by hybridization coupled with accidents during nuclear division is an example of A allopolyploidy Keyword hybridization means Q Is gametic isolation a prezygotic or postzygotic isolating mechanism A prezygotic No zygote forming The History of Life on Earth Ch 25 Early Earth 0 Earth is about 46 billion years old 0 Radiometric dating of meteorites and moon rocks 0 Life arose about 38 BY ago 0 Chemical traces in rocks about 38 billion years 0 Fossil bacteria in rocks 35 billion 0 No spontaneous generation now but must have happened then Conditions of Early Earth 0 Atmosphere 0 C02 CH4 NH3 H25 H20 0 No free oxygen Abundant energy to drive actions 0 Frequent storms not much lightening o Frequent volcano eruptions o Frequent meteor impact 0 UV light from the sun Testable hypothesis explaining the origin of life Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules Joining these molecules into polymers 0 Packaging these molecules into protobionts The origin of selfreplicating molecules Miller amp Urey Experiments f x Electrodes Electrical spark Lightning to vacuum pump gases primitive atmosphere Samplling probe Direction of water vapor circulation Condenser Cold water gt Sam lin robe 3 gp CWater ocean Cooled water containing organic compounds Heat source Tra p Alternative Hypotheses First organic compounds may have been synthesized near hydrothermal vents Extraterrestrial origin Abiotic Synthesis of Polymers Small organic molecules polymerize when they are concentrated on hot sand or clay Protobionts Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane Liposomes can form when lipids or other organic molecules are added to water Elmoosephleephete Gl ulmseaphuspha te Pheslhrylase x W Qquot Starch ii a 7 39 39 4 i Phosphate Am l l 1 A A Maltese 39 r Maltese a Simple repreduetien h Simple metabolism The Chicken or the Egg 0 Now 0 DNA l RNA Protein 0 Need proteins to synthesize more DNA 0 Then 0 Earliest cells used RNA to store info 0 Ribozymes to catalyze reactions Possible Sequence Leading to First Prokaryotes Q Oxygen has a in uence on the formation of complex organic molecules because A negative it is highly reactive 0 Oxygen reacts with reduced compounds like organic compounds Q which of the following statements does not support the hypothesis of an RNA world A the oldest known fossils contain traces of RNA Concept 25 2 The fossil record documents the history of life Fossils Document the History of Life Sedimentary strata reveal the relative ages of fossils o Fossils near surface more recent 0 Deeper fossils more ancient Fossil records shows great changes in organisms through time Figu nae 254 FFEEIE t I Watermelon 4fquot i hamaieasaums briefer 39 f If rearm mamam enamelan d Tappania EN lu mli la la Dating of Fossils 0 Order of fossils in rock strata tells us the sequence in which they were laid down 0 This provides relative ages not absolute dates Radiometric Dating 0 Can determine absolute ages of fossils o Radioactive isotopes decay into a daughter isotope at a xed rate 0 12 life amount of time it takes for 50 of an isotope to decay Q The radioactive isotope 40K decays into 4OAr has a half life of 125 by If a newly formed rock contains 100 units of 40K how many units of 40K would it contain after 125 by A 50 years Q How many units of 4OAr would the rock contain when newly formed after 125 billion years A 50 units Q after 25 billion years what would be the ratio of 40K to 4OAr in the rock A 25 40K 75 40Ar Concept 253 Key events in life s history include the origins of single celled and multicelled organisms and the colonization of land What were the earliest organisms like 0 First organisms were prokaryotes o Bacteria amp Archaea o Fed on accumulated organic molecules heterotrophic some were likely autotrophic Oxygenic o Photosynthetic bacteria evolved bw 35 and 27 bya 0 C02 H20 l Food 02 0 Oxygen begins accumulating in the atmosphere 27 BYA 0 Fig 258 Q may have evolved from aerobic bacteria and may have evolved from photosynthetic cyanobacteria engulfed by heterotrophic cells then kept alive within the host A mitochondria chloroplasts The rst eukaryotes Oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells are 21 by old Endosymbiotic Theory 0 Mitochondria amp plastids were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells 0 Were possibly undigested prey or internal parasites or mutualists 0 Fig e l C te leem Plasma membrane y p An eeetrell quot prekerye te Aerehiie W a hete retrepliili c g u I H P hegee39yn thetie prekaryete V 2 H 39 psl39 eryete M iteeh en ti rilen y Ance tram Miteehendrien he teretrephle Eu l rwt 39 Pleetid Ancestral pheteeynthe tie eukaryete Q when a certain rock it contained 12 mg 40K The rock now contains mg 40K The half life of 40K is 13 billion years How old is the rock A 26 BY 0 Make a table 0 12 life mass 40K 0 0 12mg 0 1 6 mg 0 2 15 mg 0 so 13 BY2 26 BY Q Carbon14 decays into Nitrogen14 and has a 12 life of 5730 years If you nd a fossil with exactly equal amounts of C14 and N14 when did that organism die A 5730 years ago 0 There s a 5050 ratio of parent s species 0 One half life has elapsed Endosymbiosis amp Eukaryotes Q What evidence suggests that eukaryotic cells formed symbiotic relationships with bacteria A both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain dna that is distinct from that found in the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell similarities in inner membrane structure and functions both chloroplast and mitochondria have their own ribosomes and make proteins independent from the cell Q which is the correct sequence of events A anaerobic ces l photosynthesis 02 l aerobic metabolism Clock Analogy Shows time scales involved in the history of life on earth g 2610 Q The Miller Urey experiment is signi cant because it produced evidence that A conditions on earth 4 billion years ago could in principle produce amino acids Q A factor that contributed greatly to the prolonged existence of simple organic molecules in Earth s prebiotic oceans was A the virtual absence of atmospheric oxygen Q Which of the following statements about the origin of genetic material is most probably correct The rst genes were A selfreplicating catalytic RNA molecules Q Chondrodystrophy an autosomal dominant disorder has a frequency in the population of 1 in 10000 What is the frequency of this allele A1p A 000005 0 A1 A1 amp A1 A2 I 110000 A2 A2 l 999910000 Qquot2 999910000 09999 Q sqrt0999 099995 P 1099995 000005 Q which of the following is most likely to have been produced by sexual selection A A lion s mane Male lions compete with one another and dries out the other s pride to get the female Q which of the following is accurate A Natural selection works on variation already present in a population Q an example of a mechanism of postmating reproductive isolation is A hybrid sterility


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