Public Speaking Midterm Study Guide
Public Speaking Midterm Study Guide COMM 2613
Popular in Public Speaking (COMM-2613-002
Popular in Foreign Language
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison D on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2613 at University of Oklahoma taught by Bobbi Van Gilder in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking (COMM-2613-002 in Foreign Language at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Public Speaking Midterm Exam Study Guide (Chapters 19 and 13 Lecture Notes) 1/21/16 Chapter 3 • communication apprehension fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication • Factors Associated with CA: 1. poor preparation 2. trait anxiety 3. state anxiety 4. selfexpectations 5. fear of evaluation 6. fearing that listeners perceive apprehension 7. fear of failure 8. overreacting to the body’s physiological response • envision a perfect performance and you’re more likely to be able to achieve it • to manage CA: pick topics that you care about practice makes progress anticipate the speech situation learn from the other speakers remember that nervousness isn’t visible maintain perspective • Power Pose hold for two minutes and you come across as more competent and confident 1/28/16 Chapter 2 Listening is a multiway process • Basic Model of Communication simplest oneway communication • person speaking → channel of communication /message → person receiving 1 Speaker: is the encoder they create the message (using spoken language, dependent on the context, etc) 2 Message: verbal or nonverbal 3 Receiver: the decoder of the message (Is the end message always the same? No; i.e. • TwoWay Model of Communication • person speaking →channel of communication/message → person receiving and then back around again = the feedback loop • Noise (over the message): sources of noise are either: 1 external (construction) 2 internal (conflicts, breakups) 3 physiological (hunger, body temperature) 2/2/16 Listening and Speaking in a Democratic Society Listening is so difficult because we don’t practice we look for shortcuts • Multitasking leads to: 1 40% drop in productivity 2 increased stress 3 10% avg. IQ drop • Process of Communication: Transaction Model • sourcereceiver (encodesdecodes) (feedback)> message > sourcereceiver (encodesdecodes) sourcereceiver (encodesdecodes) < message <(feedback) source receiver (encodesdecodes) 1 not just sending out messages 2 speakers and listeners must both be involved 1 speaker encodes in a form through a channel 2 listener decodes, interprets, responds 3 noise can interfere with messages 1 audience preoccupation 2 speaker delivery 3 audience filter • barriers to listening: 1 passivity syndrome 2 automatic rejection 3 short attn. span 4 stereotyping 5 distractions • hearing is natural, listening is a learned skill • Better Listening 1 be an active listener 2 suspend judgement about the speakers 3 develop notetaking skills (listen first, then write) 4 resist distractions • Types of Listening 1 appreciative listening entertainment 2 empathic listening support/understanding 3 informative listening to learn and expand knowledge 4 critical listening where the evaluation of the message becomes important (i.e. writing our selfcritiques) • Importance of Listening 1 clear connection between listening & academic success • Preparing to Speak • Building and Delivering Your Speech 1 form a reasonable argument 2 peerreviewed journal articles 2/4/16 Audience Analysis • introduction of audience analysis assignment • you need to know your audience to 1 gain your audience’s attention and good will 2 to best appeal to that group • audience demographics: 1 education, gender, race & ethnicity, religion, disabilities, economic status, age, occupation • Attitudes, Values, & Beliefs: 1 a learned local evaluation 2 value worth; what a person sees s right or wrong 3 beliefs can be impossible to verify • What types of questions might my audience ask about the topic of my speech? • What will motivate my audience to listen? • What can I inform my audience of that they won’t already know? • Informative speech: new topic i.e. current event • How to gather information about the Audience: 1 send out a survey to the class 2 online research • Types of survey questions: 1 closed, fixed choice question 2 scale questions (1 to 5) 3 openended 2/9/16 Chapter 13 Informative Speeches • functions of an informative speech to inform the audience about a subject 1 i.e. an informative speech about cigarettes is only informative until you say something like “so I encourage you not to smoke" 2 goal: to teach 3 raising awareness 4 articulating alternatives • how confidence influences relationships • Types of Info. Speeches *know for exam 1 description describing something (i.e. describing the life of Bob Stoops) 2 demonstration describing how something works or how to do something 3 explanation offering description and then explaining how it works; moving beyond description to explanation (i.e. a speech about the hardships faced by students with learning disabilities 4 informative oral report more to do with decisionmaking; (i.e. a report on how to develop a piece of land) • **informative speech topic has to be current; something new • Organizing an Informative Speech 1 chronological structure organized by time (i.e. a speech about a historical event; what caused it, what happened, the aftermath; stepbystep; past present future) 1 speech of organization will often use this 2 spatial structure organize your speech based on how things are geographically spaced from each other (Oceans 11 bank robbing plot; i.e. ballroom dancing speech) 3 categorical illustration organize your speech by categories or classes 4 causal illustration causeeffect organizational pattern (2 main points instead of 3) • Speech for our class requires (unless it is causeeffect or categorical costs/benefits) • Goals for Informative Speeches 1 capturing attention 1 relevance, novelty, or variety 2 helping listeners learn 1 focus on 3 main points 2 use visual aids 3 keep the audience involved (i.e. poll about studying abroad) • include statistics • Rubric for informative speech is on D2L, as are topic selection forms • outlines are due on the first day of presentations; the full sentence outline and the key word outline • types of speeches: 1 extemporaneous you have a key word outline, and it is expected to be wellrehearsed; every time you give it, it is slightly different 2 manuscript i.e. commencement ceremonies 3 memorized i.e. reciting the preamble 4 impromptu i.e. not memorized or outlined • thesis a onesentence declarative statement that summarizes your central argument without introducing your 3 main points 2/11/16 • Narrowing the topic 1 consider the speaking situation 2 consider the audience; how might they react to the topic? 3 consider ethical concerns; do thorough research; cite your sources verbally • objectivity v. subjectivity you will have your own biases, but you should recognize them and try to stay openminded • How do you create a thesis statement? • a onesentence declarative statement that summarizes your central argument without introducing your 3 main points • 1. identify the purpose of your speech • Example of specific purpose: “To inform my nutrition class about the health benefits of soy products" 3 General purpose: to inform 4 audience: my nutrition class 5 objective: about the health of sushi products • general purpose, specific purpose, thesis • 2. identify the thesis of your speech 1 it should NOT: 2 be written as a question 3 be a preview of your speech 4 be too complex or hard to follow 5 present excessively detailed information 6 should not present too many ideas Chapter 6 • research: start early • formulate a working thesis • use google scholar or the library database to search your topics • skim info • productive notetaking: record source info (citation) 1 working outline 2 key word outline • Developing Information Literacy 1 books 2 credible publishers: Sage, McGraw Hill, Pearson, Tutelage, Peter Lang, univ. press, Sungage 3 newspapers 4 magazines 5 journals 6 websites: .edu, .com, .org, .gov 7 interviews 8 official public records • The CRAAP Test (*exam) 1 Currency 2 Relevance 3 Authority 4 Accuracy 5 Purpose 2/16: Chapter 7/APA Format Notes • Things you should do: 1 read directions 2 look at the example/rubric 3 meet the source requirements 4 if you have a question, ask the professor 5 don’t wait until the night before 6 check APA citations 7 Proofread 8 Visit the communications lab • Thesis statement 1 taking a position on your topic concerning the communicative act involved 2 i.e. The social media website Pinterest has created new ways to approach traditional methods of persuasion. • Style and grammar 1 be consistent in past or present tense, don’t use conjunctions 2 remain professional • **APA Quiz 1 no more than 10% should be direct quotes 2 Intext citations 1 For paraphrased material: 1 1 author: (Last name, year) 2 2 authors: (Last & Last, year) 3 35 authors: 1 1st citation: (Last names, year) 2 After 1st citation: (1st last name et al.) 4 6+ authors: all citations: (1st last name et al., year) 3 the year will always follow the author’s last name, and the page number will always follow the quotation 1 For quoted material: 1 Same format except add the page number to the end. 2 “I love APA style.” (Van Gilder, 2013, p. 23) 3 Van Gilder (2013) explained “I love APA style.” (p. 23). • The Reference Page 1 Alphabetical order by last name 2 Journal articles and the DOI 3 Books 4 Look at the resources on Moodle or Purdue Owl • FOR THE QUIZ: • Intext citations: find errors and explain errors (same with reference list citation) • Know how to cite a book and a peerreviewed journal article • 10% quotations, how to cite them • reference list: also include first initial • Title of the article is in sentence case 2/18/16 Ch 7: Supporting Your Ideas • Speech topic: people are able to make a living by making YouTube videos • personal: vlogger (or someone that consumes videos on YouTube) • lay: ordinary person that watches YouTubers • expert: management for YouTubers and marketers that made advertising so profitable • prestige: someone that has succeeded, makes a living making YouTube videos • Supporting your ideas through facts, definitions, examples, statistics, and testimony. • Facts: 1 can be verified as true or false 2 validate via multiple sources 3 facts can be “twisted” or “loaded" • Definitions: 1 used to clarify: 1 concepts 2 technical terms 3 acronyms 2 can be straightforward, persuasive, or challenging • Examples 1 actual something that can be verified 2 hypothetical can be very powerful, but should be obviously hypothetical 3 narrative from literature, or your very own story; gets people emotionally invested 4 thinking critically choose ones that can’t be challenged by critical listeners • Statistics: 1 provides precise info, can demonstrate relationships, emphasis points 2 (but they are easily manipulated) • correlation v. causation: two sets of data correlate from two different time periods and they form an opinion based off of that 1 the only time you can make a causal claim is in a highly controlled environment • Testimony 1 types: personal from your firsthand knowledge 2 lay peer an ordinary person bearing witness to some experience 3 expert 4 prestige high profile activities as example (i.e. celebrity testimony) 2/23/16 *For EXAM: Chronological/Sequential • move through specific points in time Spatial • used to discuss topics in relation to physical settings, natural environment, proximity Climactic (Intensity) • highlights simple to difficult, least to most, neutral to intense, etc. (i.e. obesity in America needs to be fought) Causal Order • move from cause to effect or effect to cause (i.e. If You Give a Mouse a Cookie) ProblemSolution (persuasive) • identifies a problem, proposes a solution Monroe’s Motivated Sequence • Speech Outline ◦ intro (arouse) ◦ Body First main point (Dissatisfy largest portion of speech) Second main point (Gratify solution) Third main point (Visualize use language to paint a picture in audiences’ minds) ◦ Conculsion (Move call to action) ◦ Narrative Patterns Narrative Patterns • Organized around telling stories ◦ introduce a theme ◦ use stories to illustrate or reinforce • need transitions between your points • pick a format for your speech • Signposts i.e. first, next, etc • internal preview offer a glimpse of the point to come • internal summaries reviewing your last point Introducing Your Speech • Attentiongetter (startling statistics, audience participation narratives) • Thesis • Connection • Preview Statement (introduce main points) • Memorable Close (recency clause) don’t introduce new info 1. first time meeting your roommate 2. Mean Girls “you will die” clip 3. quote from favorite movie 4. How many people’s relationships start online now 5. anecdote, personal weight loss story 6. poll of audience 7. statistics, LGBT adoption 8. personal anecdote Outlining Your Speech • working outline • formal outline (APA) • keyword outlines Include: (for formal outline) • title, specific purpose & thesis, intro, body conclusion, transitions, reference page (complete sentences) KNOW FOR EXAM: Principle of Subordination we use indentation and symbols to indicate which points are more important Principle of Division if you are to break a point down further, there should be at least two (technically you can have more than 2, but 23 is sufficient) Principle of Parallelism same grammatical/syntactical structure for every part of the outline (i.e. point, subpoint, and subsubpoint should all be sentences) Keyword Outline • words used sparingly • use keywords to prompt recal • migh want to right out ◦ transitions ◦ quotations ◦ statistics/citation • Placed on note cards (23) for speech 2/25/16 Chapter 11 Elements of Delivery • Appropriateness • eye contact • use nonverbal communication to reinforce your ideas • speaking voice • anticipate issues • practice • gestures (emblems, illustrators, regulators) Physical Appearance • Clothing communicates other styles: • impromptu • manuscript • memorized • speaking extemporaneously 1 requires the most preparation
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