Test 2 Review, Alphonse!
Test 2 Review, Alphonse! PHI2600
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Midhu Robin on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI2600 at Florida International University taught by Noel Alphonse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Test 2 Review! Define each of these terms and turn in on Friday, March 4 2016 with your exam. Ethical relativism: Right or wrong is wholly determined by an individual or society’s point of view. Theodicies (6): A defense against the problem of evil. o Soul builder o Finite god o Mysterious ways o Knowledge o Free will o Ideal humanity PKG: all powerful, all knowing, and all good God. Utilitarianism: The greatest good for the greatest number. o Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism. The singer solution to world poverty (Know the main thesis): o If we can prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, then we ought to do so. o Death by starvation is bad. o We can prevent many people from dying of starvation by sacrificing our luxuries, which are not as important. o We ought to prevent people from dying of starvation by sacrificing our luxuries. Euthyphro dilemma: Is what is morally good commanded by god because it is morally good or is it morally good because it is commanded by god? America’s unjust drug war (Michael Huemer): o People have the right to do whatever they like wit their bodies, provided that they do not violate the rights of others o Drug use does not violate the rights of others o Therefore, people have a right to use drugs. o If people have a right to do something, it ought to be legal. o Therefore, drug use ought to be legal. Meta ethics: The most general study of ethics. Normative ethics: More specific standard of right or wrong. Epistemology: o Study of knowledge o Conditions and/or rational justifications for knowledge Working definition of philosophy: Philosophy examines the fundamental assumption about ourselves and the world we inhabit and determines if those assumptions are rationally defensible. Consequentialism: The moral worth of an action is wholly determined by the consequences of that action. Non-consequentialism: The moral worth of act x depends exclusively on act X. Doctrine of negative responsibility (Ex. Poverty): obligation to maximize happiness. o According to utilitarianism, we have an obligation to maximize happiness. o It follows that if an action would maximize happiness, and knowing this, we fail to take action, then we are morally responsible for our failure to act. o Thus, according to utilitarianism, people are responsible not only for outcomes that they deliberately cause, but also for outcomes that they knowingly fail to prevent. (Doctrine of negative responsibility) Extrinsic: “outside of “ o What ethical theory makes values extrinsic? Utilitarianism. Categorical imperative: Act only in such a way, which the maxim of action can be rationally willed as a universal law. o It requires unconditional conformity by all rational beings, regardless of circumstances. o Is unconditional and applicable at all times. Marquis vs. Thomson (4 questions): o Marquis: Abortion is wrong, because most fetuses have a future like ours. Abortion could be justified if the loss of failing to abort is just as great. o Premise 1: A person has a right to life. o Premise 2: A person has a right to control what happens to her body. o Premise 3: In a case in which a woman wants an abortion, one of the above rights will be violated. o Premise 4: If morality requires that we violate whichever is the least important right, then we violate the least important right. o Premise 5: The right to live always “OUTWEIGHS” the right to control one’s body. o Conclusion: Therefore, abortion is wrong. o Thomson: Abortion is morally permissible in most cases. o Given the bare minimum one needs for continued life. o The right to life is “The right not to be killed unjustly.” o Therefore, unless a woman grants the fetus the right to the use of her body, it is not unjust to kill the fetus. An eye for an eye Stephen Nathanson: o Lex Talionis: o A retributivist principle that bases punishment on what the criminal deserves o “whatever the criminal did to the victim is to be done in return to the criminal.” o Classic formulation: “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” o Punishment is accorded in proportion to the crime committed o Proportional retributivism o = $1,028,700+ MORE than a non-death penalty case o The punishment should be proportional to the crime o The worst crimes require the worst punishment o This view does not require murders to receive the death penalty!
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