Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 220
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Review for Exam 2 – 220 Developmental Psychology *The sections in red are the specific criteria given by Mrs. Bryan. Chapter 5 Understand body size in relation to adult size and what increases most in the infant Body Changes: Average weight and height at birth Weight: 7.5 lbs. o Doubles by 4 month o Triples by 1 birthday o 2 years: 15-20% of adult weight (5 x birth weight) Height (length): 20 inches o 2 years: half adult height 02 Months Prereaching Head/neck control 24 Months Rolling over Sit with support in lower back Successful contact grasping 46 Months Independent sitting Manual exploration (rhythmical stereotypies) 610 Months Hands and knees crawling Pulling their body to stand Begin using thumb in opposition to fingers 1014 Months Standing independently Walking Controlled falling Sleeping newborns The average newborn sleeps 15-17 hours a day The average 1 year old sleeps approximately 13 hours a day 43% of adults are moderately to severely sleep deprived o Stages of Sleep: (Sleep patterns are affected by birth order, diet, parenting practices, co- sleeping, etc.) REM sleep: about half for newborns Transitional sleep: half dozing/half awake Quiet sleep: increases markedly By 3 months, babies sleep deeply and have alert states Side Fact: fullterm babies sleep more than preterm babies because preterm babies need to be fed more often they wake up more often to be fed Brain development and how experience enhances the brain Most thinking, feeling, and sensing are processed in the cortex Prefrontal cortex: the area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control *Define the following* Neurons: Axons: Dendrites: Synapse: Neurotransmitter: Transient Exuberance: Pruning: Mylenation: Selfrighting: Experienceexpectant: must happen Certain brain functions require basic experiences in order to develop normally Experiencedependent: might happen Certain brain functions depend on particular experiences that are not essential to normal development Know senses and reflexes Senses: Hearing (develops during last trimester of pregnancy) Seeing (immature at birth; newborns are legally blind) Binocular vision –ability to focus two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image Smelling/Tasting (functioned at birth) Touching (acute in infants) *The following must be in this order –define them* Sensation: Perception: Cognition: Reflexes: Rooting Palmar grasping Crawling Stepping Babkin Gross & fine motor skills – how are they different and how do they develop Gross Motor Skills: large body movements Emerge directly from reflexes Example: the crawling reflex when a baby is placed on the ground; walking or jumping Fine Motor Skills: small body movements Develop more from experience Example: hand and finger movements; tongue and jaw operation How to prevent SIDS 1 in 800 die (1900) 1 in 1600 die (today) 1. DO always put your baby to sleep on his back. 2. DON'T put blankets or toys in her crib. 3. DO use a pacifier at sleep time. 4. DON'T smoke while pregnant, and don't allow anyone to smoke around your infant. 5. DO try swaddling your child. 6. DON'T put your baby to sleep on his side. Benefits of breastfeeding & are they benefits in ALL cases Nutrition o Breast milk is ideal for most babies Possible correlation with higher IQ Reduce illness and obesity Breast milk has a mild anesthetic happier baby Chapter 6 Know Piaget & Sensorimotor Intelligence (Stages 16): Stage 1 (birth1 month) Reflexes Basic reflexes Stage 2 (14 months) First Acquired Adaptations Active infant Circular reaction Stage 3 (48 months) Make Interesting Events Last Acting to reproduce effect Stage 4 (812 months) New Adaptation and Anticipation Intentionality emerges Stage 5 (1218 months) New Means Through Active Experimentation Little Scientists Stage Stage 6 (1824 months) Mental Combinations Deferred imitation: copying behavior that is previously experienced Primary circular reactions: (stages 1 and 2) infant’s responses to own body; he/she senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimuli and tries to understand them. Secondary circular reactions: baby and object or person; babies respond to other people, toys, and any other object they can touch or move Tertiary circular reactions: active exploration and experimentation; infants explore a range of new activities, varying their responses as a way of learning about the world. Adaptation (assimilation & accommodation) Assimilation: taking new information and incorporating it into existing mental categories or action patterns Transforming the world to fit what you have Accommodation: taking new information to adjust, refine, or expand previous schemas Transforming what you have to fit the world Object permanence The object concept, knowing that objects exist as separate entities, independent of our activity and perception. *Recap the importance of object permanence at each stage Also, know about Affordances; Memory; Universal Sequences; & Language Development—especially holophrase, overextension & underextension. Affordance: opportunities for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in an environment. Four Factors: 1. Sensory awareness 2. Immediate motivation 3. Current level of development 4. Past experiences Universal Sequence: 1. Listening and responding Baby-directed speech 2. Babbling 3. First words Naming Explosion Holophrase: a single word used to express a complete, meaningful thought 21 months: two word sentences Example: “me up” pick me up please 24 months: three or more words, may not always have grammar correct Example: “mommy book read” read me this book mommy Underextension: toonarrow application of a word Example: an infant calls his blanket “blankie” and only his is a blanket Overextension: the application of a word beyond its true meaning Example: calling all animals “doggie” Chapter 7 Social smile -Smiling in response to other people and things in the social world 6 weeks after birth / endogenous smile exogenous social smile social birth of the infant Stranger Wariness & Separation Anxiety Stranger wariness: fear of unfamiliar people, especially when they move too close or move too quickly. Separation anxiety: clinging and crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave/leaves. The development of emotions . . . what the infant needs to know or have developed before they appear 5 months: start to develop sense of self –separate from their mother 15-18 months: sense of self as a separate object o The “me” “mine” stage Lewis & Brooks (1978): Rouge and mirror experiment o How babies show self awareness by looking in a mirror, recognizing it is their own self, and touching their self instead of touching the mirror Express emotions connected to self: pride, shame, and embarrassment Express emotions about others: defiance, jealousy, and affection Socialawareness: pride, shame, jealousy, embarrassment, disgust, guilt. Typically emerges from family interactions Selfawareness: realization that one’s body, mind, and activities are distinct from other people Understand basic differences of the theories – Psychoanalytic, Behaviorism, & Epigenetic 1. Psychoanalytic Theory Connecting biosocial with psychosocial development Freud Life occurs in four stages according to sexual interest and pleasure: oral, anal, phallic, and genital (also the interlude: latency) Erikson Life occurs in eight developmental stages 2. Behaviorism Studies observable, learnable behavior Social learning: the acquirement of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others 3. Epigenetics The study of the mechanisms of temporal and spatial control of gene activity during the development of complex organisms. Describe anything other than DNA sequence that influences the development of an organism. Temperament Constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attention reactivity and self regulation Innate and learned Goodness of fit A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his/her social context, including family, school, and community Proximal & Distal parenting Proximal: caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching Distal: caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food and facetoface communication with minimal holding and touching Attachment & the behaviors that display it (Also, Table 7.3 – p.207), and the Stranger Situation research Patterns of Attachment: Secure (B): infant seeks proximity upon reunion, calms down Insecureavoidant (A): the infant avoids proximity upon reunion Insecureresistant (C): the infant seeks proximity but angrily resists comfort Disorganized (D): infant lacks organized method for dealing with stress, disoriented during procedure, and fears caregiver Stranger Situation C caregiver B baby E experimenter S –stranger 1. C, B, E enter the room E leaves 2. C, B interact normally 3. S enters the room talks with C and B 4. C leaves the room S stays 5. C returns S leaves 6. C leaves again B is alone 7. S returns 8. C returns (reunion) Social Referencing Using emotional signals from others to guide responses to ambiguous situations Infant now knows people are intentional, psychological agents Start of “learning through teaching” Chapter 8 Growth Patterns Children become slimmer, more muscular, and fain almost 3” and 4 ½ pounds per year Growth is influenced by: o Ethnic and cultural practices o Socioeconomic status o Genes o Nutrition Eating habits – particularly the “just right” right phenomenon Young children tend to be picky eaters Rate of poor nutrition /obesity increases as familial income decreases Reason: foods of lower nutrition value are typically lower in cost. Lowerclass families tend to put cost of food before nutritional value of food. Nutritional Deficiencies (Problems): o Too much fat and sugar o Not enough iron, calcium, and zinc o Additional complications include allergies to certain foods o Tooth decay correlates with obesity A diet consisting of too much sugar and too little fiber “Just right” phenomenon: correlation with children being such picky eaters that they will refuse food until it meets their specific standards and steps Example: a child will not eat his mashed potatoes because they’re too close to the carrots. Or a child will not finish his corn because he ate a French fry in between. Brain development: including Myelination, Lateralization, Prefrontal cortex, Amygdala, hippocampus Myelination: speeds up neural transmission, leading to improvements in memory, impulse control, and contemplation by coating axons with the fatty substance called myelin. Lateralization: the specialization of each hemisphere in certain functions one side dominates based on the activity Neurological advances in the prefrontal cortex: Sleep becomes more regular Emotions become more nuanced and responsive Temper tantrums subside Uncontrollable laughter/tears less common The Limbic System: Amygdala: registers emotions, especially fear and anxiety Responds to comfort instead of logic to made fears subside Hippocampus: processes memory, especially of locations Recalls emotion of learning instead of content Example: walking along a path where there was a snake not walking on the same path the next day out of fear Hypothalamus: produces hormones that regulate the body, including stress hormones Too much stress in childhood can destroy neurons of the hippocampus permanent memory and learning deficits can develop. Define the following: Impulse control: Perseveration: Corpus callosum: Again, Gross & Fine Motor skills for 26 yearolds Gross Motor Skills Involving large muscle movement improve dramatically during play years Ex: crawl, walk, run, jump, skip, etc. Maturation and practice Environmental hazards may affect/slow down the development of gross motor skills Fine Motor Skills Small muscle movements Ex: holding a spoon, buttoning, tying shoes, pouring juice, scribbling, etc. These are more difficult to master during play years; requires muscular control and patience Avoidable injuries - Children 1-4 years old are the most vulnerable age group to accidental death due to the immature prefrontal cortex, causing children to be impulsive 3 Levels of prevention: 1. Primary: actions that prevent/reduce chances injury; structured to make harm less likely to occur. 2. Secondary: reduces danger in high-risk situations or for vulnerable individuals 3. Tertiary: actions taken after an adverse event occurs to reduce harm/damage The difference between Child Maltreatment, Neglect & Abuse Child maltreatment: intentional harm or avoidable endangerment to anyone under the age of 18. Child abuse: deliberate action that impairs a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well being. Child neglect: failure to meet a child’s basic physical, emotional, or educational needs. 3 Levels of prevention: 1. Primary: a social network of customs and support that parents, neighbors, and professionals protect every child 2. Secondary: spotting warning signs and intervening to keep a risky situation from getting worse 3. Tertiary: limits harm after maltreatment has occurred
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