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ICD Chapter 5 notes

by: Maggie Iveson

ICD Chapter 5 notes SLPA 15000-01

Maggie Iveson

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These are all the notes from chapter 5 with the topics that will be on the next upcoming test!
Intro to Communication Disorders
Marie Sanford
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Iveson on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLPA 15000-01 at Ithaca College taught by Marie Sanford in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Disorders in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Unit 5: Adult Language Impairments Language development through lifespan  All these areas are considered completely developed in the adult brain by ages 21-25. However, areas can be affected.  Use o Social, pragmatic use of language  Content o Vocab receptive even higher  Form o Typically, all rules complete Disorders  Aphasia o Accompanying deficits o Types of aphasia o Lifespan issues  Right hemisphere injury o Characteristics  Traumatic brain injury o Characteristics o Lifespan issues  Dementia o Characteristics Major Lobes of the Human Brain  Frontal (red)  Parietal (yellow)  Temporal (blue)  Occipital (green) Aphasia  Many severities and varieties of Aphasia exist o Auditory comprehension and word retrieval common in all o Memory may be affected in all  Aphasia is NOT the result of a motor speech impairment, dementia, or the deterioration of intelligence  Language deficits o Expressive o Comprehension  Several related areas affected along with language Accompanying Deficits of Aphasia  Hemiparesis and Hemiplasia o Half the body is weakened  Dysphagia o Swallowing disorder o Unable to swallow correctly, begin to choke  Agnosia o Difficulty understanding sensory information o Smell, taste, touch, hearing, and seeing  Agrammatism o Absence of ability to use correct grammar  Agraphia o Loss of ability to write  Alexia o Loss of ability to read  Anomia o Reduction in ability to name  Jargon o Typically, intonation pattern, loses meaning and sounds like its intact o Occurs in certain types on Aphasia  Neologism o Client creates new words  Paraphasia o Words and sounds that have substitutions o Ex: car is truck  Verbal stereotype o Very common 2 o Repeated phrases, common phrases o Ex: Happy Birthday, swear words, how are you, Merry Christmas Types of Aphasia  Wernicke’s o Fluent production o Comprehension is impaired o Characteristics  Paraphasias  Jargon o Reading impaired o Naming impaired o Repetition impaired  Anomic o Fluent production o Comprehension is moderately impaired o Characteristics  Misnaming/ good syntax  Good articulation o Reading is un-impaired o Naming is un-impaired o Repetition is un-impaired  Conduction o Fluent production o Moderately comprehension o Characteristics  Paraphasia’s  Good syntax  Good articulation o Reading un-impaired o Naming impaired o Repetition significantly impaired  Braca’s o Non-fluent production o Unimpaired comprehension o Characteristics 3  Agrammatic, slow, labored speech with articulation errors o Reading impaired o Naming impaired o Repetition un-impaired  Global o Non- fluent production o Poor, limited comprehension o Characteristics  Very few words  Stereotypic responses often intact o Reading significantly impaired o Naming significantly impaired o Repetition significantly impaired Fluent Types of Aphasia’s  Characterized by word substitutions, neologisms and often verbose verbal output  Lesions found in the posterior portion of the Left Hemisphere  Wernicke’s Aphasia o Fluent, well articulated o Poor comprehension o Neologisms o Jargon o Impairments in naming/repetition o Intonational patterns and sound-combination patterns maintained  Anomic Aphasia o Severe anomia in both speech and writing o Fluent spontaneous speech marred by word retrieval problem o Mild to moderate auditory comprehension difficulties o Memory difficulties evident  Conduction Aphasia 4 o Anomia o Mild impairment of auditory comprehension o Extremely poor repetition skills of speech o Paraphasia pronounced Non-Fluent types of Aphasia’s  Characterized by slow, labored speech, and struggle to retrieve words and form sentences  Lesions found in or near the frontal lobe  Broca’s Aphasia o Short sentences with agrammatism o Anomia o Problems repeating speech o Slow, labored speech and writing o Articulation and phonological errors o Auditory comprehension often unimpaired  Global Aphasia o Profound language impairment in all modalities o Considered the most severe form of aphasia o Limited spontaneous expressive ability (Happy Birthday, oh boy, swear words) o Repeating speech is very limited o Anomia severe o Auditory and visual comprehension limited to single words or simple phrases Causes of Aphasia  Onset of aphasia is rapid  Most cordon cause is a stroke o 3 leading cause of death in US o strokes affect over ½ million Americans annually o 70% of these cases are over 65 years of age o Approximately 80,000 of these people become aphasic  Ischemic Stroke o Compete or partial blockage of the arteries o Cerebral arteriosclerosis 5  Thickening of cerebral artery walls  Artery walls loose elasticity  Arterial walls become weak  Blood flow is now restricted  Not enough 02 provided to the brain cells so they begin to die off. o Embolism  Starts with an obstruction  Starts elsewhere, breaks off  Travels through arteries  Reaches smaller artery and is blocked  Not enough O2 can be delivered, brain cells begin to die off o Thrombosis  Plaque builds up along the arterial walls and walls thicken  A blood clot form because there is not enough room for blood flow  Clot is formed at the site, does not travel  Not enough O2, brain cells die off  Hemorrhagic stroke o Weakened arterial wall burst under pressure o Aneurysm  Sac is building up in a weakened artery wall  Wall ruptures  Blood flows into space and causes cell death Right Hemisphere Injury (RHI)  Refers to a group of deficits that result from damage to the right hemisphere of the brain (non-dominant hemisphere for language)  Deficits may involve o Neuromuscular o Perceptual o Linguistic o Behaviors 6 o Personality  Approximately half of the individuals who suffer a stroke have RHI  Communication disorders are not language based but cognitive deficits result in communicative problems.  Characteristics o Neglect of all information from the left side o Unrealistic denial of illness and/or limb involvement o Impaired judgment and self-monitoring o Lack of motivation o Attentional: the clients lack of response to information coming from the left side of the body o Visuospatial: poor visual discrimination, scanning, and tracking o Communication:  Receptive and expressive  Pragmatic  Poor auditory and visual comprehension  Failure to suppress irrelevant and inappropriate information  Concrete interpretations  Poor judgment Traumatic Brain Injury  Adolescents and young adults most at risk for TBI  Annually approximately 260,000 individuals in US sustain TBI, of these, most die  80-90,000 have significant impairment requiring further care  70% of these are male  Unlike stroke, diffused injury to the brain o Edema (can lead to increased pressure, infection)  Swelling of area o Hyproxia  Not enough oxygen o Infarction 7  Death of cells o Hematoma  Bleeding in one spot, does not spread  Very common  Characteristics o Most devastating aspect is the reduced ability to resume interests and daily living tasks to the level that existed prior to the accident o Cognitive: disoriented, poor memory, inattention, reasoning, and problem solving, and executive functions (planning and self-monitoring) o Language: (75% affected) anomia, confused language, and impaired comprehension common. Also deficits may include speech, voice and swallowing disorders, dysarthria in one out of three causes o Emotion/Personality: aggression/withdrawal, apathy, depression, disinhibition and impulsivity, phobias, anxiety, socially inappropriate behavior and language  Lifespan Issues o Typical recovery pattern in slow:  Confusion and agitation  Language continues to return  Abilities increase, but tolerance for frustration is low  Individuals face a long period of rehabilitation, face periodic difficulties with the emotional side of recovery  Even those with a near-full recovery will have some lingering deficits Dementia  Dementia is an umbrella term characterizing deficits in intellect due to neurogenic causes  Memory is the most obvious function impaired 8  Two types: o Cortical (Alzheimer’s and Pick’s Disease)  Account for over 50% of dementia cases  AD more common in women; cause unknown; prevalence increasing  Resemble aphasia’s and RHI  Include: visuospatial deficits, memory problems, judgment and abstract thinking, comprehension, reading, writing and naming difficulties o Subcoritcal:  A slow, progressive deterioration of cognitive functioning, with deficits in memory, problem- solving, language, and neuromuscular control 9


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