History of Crusade and Jihad Midterm Study Guide
History of Crusade and Jihad Midterm Study Guide History 402
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by James Creighton on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 402 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Sarah Davis-Secord in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusade and Jihad in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
History 402: Midterm Study Guide 1. Peace of God/Truce of God: An effort by the Western Christian Church to restrict/end violence against clerics, peasants (lay people), etc. and restrict how much violence will take place, if at all, during the year. 2. Gregorian (Papal) reform: Reforming Popes who promote and fight to assert supremacy of Rome over Constantinople, authority over secular leaders, penance, clerical sins and abusessimony (buying selling offices in church), celibacy (Clerics remain chaste), sin and violence amongst laity, and stress that Jerusalem is the patrimony of Christ. 3. Paris: Capital of French Monarchs where he holds limited control. Located in France. 4. Rome: Located in Italy. The seat of the Pope and the center of his power. 5. Holy Sepulcher: The resting place of Jesus Christ’s body in Jerusalem and the holiest place on earth for Western Christians. 6. Umma: “The People”, the concept for the Muslim People of their unity under their religion. 7. Pact of Dhimma: People of the Book (Jews and Christians) who are not forced to convert to Islam but must pay a tax (Jizya). 8. Seljuk Sultanate: Islamic Sultanates within the Abbasid Caliphate that have more power and control themselves as a separate entity while paying lip service to their Caliph. 9. Abbasid Caliphate: The Caliphate in the east, ruling from Baghdad, which had little power and was essentially a collection of Sultanates under one Caliph Figurehead. 10. Baghdad: The capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Located in the Middle East. 11. Cairo: Capital of the Shiite Caliphate of the Fatimid’s. Located in Egypt. 12. Fatimid Caliphate: The Caliphate located in North Africa and Egypt that was Shiite Muslim. 13. Jerusalem: Third Holiest Muslim city, most holy city for Christians. Contested over by all for religious reasons. 14. Just War Theory: Started by St. Augustine of Hippo, Christian theory that teaches, for a war to be just, it must have the correct intention, legitimate authority behind it, and a just cause. 15. Jihad: Muslim concept, meaning struggle, striving: defined as defending and expanding Islamic religion on earth. Struggle against injustice, Christian and Muslim, against poor practice of Islam, and corrupt rulers. Holy War. 16. Pope Urban II: The Pope in Rome (reformist pope) who called for the first Crusade in 1095. 17. Privilege/Indulgence: The Idea which accompanied the crusades that if you went on crusade you would be pardoned of all your sins. (Past and Future? Unknown). 18. Council of Clermont: 1095, Clermont, midFrance. A church council called by Pope Urban II to deal with issues of antipope, king of Franks, discuss reforms, and hear a request from Byzantine ambassador asking for help against the Turks. After this council, he would preach to the crowd outside about crusading. 19. Raymond of Toulouse: Was supposedly asked by the pope in a letter to be the leader of the first Crusade. Had Bishop Adhemar Le Puy in his party to give this credence. 20. Adhemar of Le Puy: Bishop in Raymond’s party that acted as the Papal legate during the Crusade (stood in for the pope as representative). 21. Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire and seat of the Emperor Alexius during the first Crusade. Located right of the coast of Turkey on the Balkan side. 22. Emperor Alexius the I Comnenus: Emperor of Byzantine during the first Crusade. 23. Battle of Nicaea: The first battle of the Crusaders against the Muslims in modern Turkey where they besieged the city of Nicaea until Alexius won it through secret negotiations. Leads to the beginnings of mistrust between the Byzantine and Crusaders. 24. Edessa: First settlement captured by the Crusaders for themselves and becomes the first Crusader state, The County of Edessa. Ruled by Baldwin. 25. Siege of Antioch: The Crusades besiege Antioch, Siege lasts Oct. 20, 1097June 23 1098 until they finally take it by force. Bohemond takes the city for himself. 26. Holy Lance: The Lance that pierced Jesus Christ’s side that was found by the crusaders and used as a standard in battle to inspire and rally. Gives the Crusaders the heart to defeat the Islamic force attacking Antioch. 27. Capture of Jerusalem: Siege in 1099 that end with the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. It ends in a great slaughter though. 28. Godfrey of Bouillon: The Crusade leader that takes over Jerusalem and become the protector the Sepulcher rather than official King. 29. Ascalon: Port city controlled by Muslims that was never taken by Crusades which was a large tactical mistake with its proximity to Jerusalem. 30. Baldwin of Edessa: First ruler of the County of Edessa. 31. County of Tripoli: Final Crusader state that was first ruled by Raymond, though he never actually took Tripoli, which was taken after his death. Between Kingdom of Jerusalem and Kingdom of Antioch. 32. Venice: Italian City state that flourished in trade and sent a crusading force to attack Acre. 33. Pisa: Italian city state that also sent crusaders to help in the holy lands while establishing trade in the eastern Mediterranean sea. 34. Tyre: City taken by Pisan’s during crusade, along the coast of the holy lands. 35. Ager Sanguinis: “Field of Blood”. IlGhazi of Aleppo defeats Roger of Salerno at the battle of Ager Sanguinis and wipes out the entire Crusader army to almost the last man on June 28, 1119. 36. Society in the Latin Kingdom: Conflict with neighbors constant. Unclear on this definition… 37. Hauberk, Mail, Sword: Weapons and armor used by the crusading Knights on horseback. 38. Siege Tower: A machine of war used to scale the wall of a city. 39. Imad alDin Zengi: Muslim ruler of Aleppo, Mosul, and Baghdad. Destroyed the County of Edessa when he took Edessa and tried, and failed, to take Damascus for his own to consolidate his power. Begins the idea of the war being Muslim V.S. Christian. 40. Unur of Damascus: The ruler of Damascus who took over by force and refused access to Zengi, rather uniting with the crusaders instead against his adversary. 41. Aleppo: City by County of Edessa and Kingdom of Antioch that remained Muslim and was a constant threat to the Crusader States. 42. Mosul: City deep in Muslim territory that was the starting power base of Zengi. 43. Damascus: City by Kingdom of Jerusalem that never fell to Zengi and remained in Muslim hands, resisting Crusader attempts to take it and sometimes uniting with them. 44. Queen Melisende: Baldwin II of Jerusalem’s daughter who is married to French lord, the Fulk of Anjou, thus allowing him to be regent of Jerusalem. 45. Fulk of Anjou: French Lord that becomes regent of Jerusalem till his son, Baldwin III is old enough to rule the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Played dynastic politics and never takes the title of king. 46. AlAqsa Mosque: Mosque in Jerusalem by the Dome of the Rock which became the Templar orders headquarters during the rule of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. 47. Templars: A monastic order of Knights within the holy lands, based in Jerusalem, intent on aiding the Crusader states militarily against Muslim threat but under the authority of the Pope. 48. Hospitallers: Same as the Templars but started as an actual monks order dedicated to caring for pilgrims. Based in Antioch region. Subject to Pope. 49. Bernard of Clairvaux: Leader of the Cistercian order of monks. More powerful and influential than the pope. He called for the second Crusade after the fall of the County of Edessa to Zengi. 50. Pope Eugenius III: Pope during the time of the Second Crusade who gave Bernard of Clairvaux permission to preach and call for a Crusade. 51. Wendish Crusade: A Crusade movement that took place in the pagan Slavs of the north and either “convert them or delete them”. 52. Second Crusade: Called by Bernard of Clairvaux and led by King Louis VII of France and Conrad III of the Holy Roman Empire. It would be an utter failure due to lack of trust and a lack of solid planning. 53. Raymond of Antioch: Ruler of Antioch during the Second Crusade and cousin to Eleanor of Aquitaine (Louis VII’s wife). He tried to convince the Crusaders to help in the north against Aleppo but because of foul rumors, distrust came between him and the Crusaders and they left without helping. 54. Nur alDin: Second Son of Zengi, fully established the idea of Jihad, holy war, against the Crusading forces. Would unite the Muslim world when taking Aleppo, would fight and ally with Byzantine and Crusaders, and would take Fatimid Egypt. 55. Conrad III of Germany: Holy Roman Emperor who would go on the Second Crusade. 56. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Wife of Louis VII. She accompanied him on the Second Crusade but caused more trouble than good. Controlled large swath of French land which gave her Husband so much more power. 57. Mediterranean Sea: The Sea almost entirely surrounded by Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. The primary source of trade and travel throughout the Crusading period. 58. Holy Roman Empire: In modern day German/Austria area. Biggest entity in the west but decentralized in power. 59. Asia Minor: The now country of Turkey. Controlled by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum during this time and constantly contested over by Byzantine, the original owners. 60. Lisbon: Capital of Portugal. Was a Muslim port city taken by Spanish forces and Crusading forces who were sailing toward the holy lands at that time. Remember to look over the primary source readings for basic information! Also, be able to find all the places on a map of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East!
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