Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Organismal Biology Exam 2 Notes: • Seedless Vascular Plants ◦ no seeds yet ◦ vascular tissue ◦ 3 tissue systems ‣ Dermal Tissue System= like the skin, covers the outer surfaces ‣ Ground System= bulk, photosynthesis, stores energy, variety of types ‣ Vascular System= veins of leaf, water transport, xylem and phloem ◦ Plant Organs ‣ root= underground ‣ shoot= above ground, stems and leaves ‣ stem ‣ leaves= microphylls= small leave and megaphylls ◦ Annuals= single year cycle, die in a year ◦ Perennials= live longer than a year; live for many years ‣ primary growth= increase in length; grow taller ‣ secondary growth= grow wider/increase in girth ◦ Homospory= one kind of spore ◦ Heterospory= more than one kind of spore produced ‣ microspores= pollen; microgamtephytes; mircogametangia (sperm) ‣ megaspores= megagametophytesl ovules; seeds ◦ Dominant sporophyte generation which means it starts with sporophytes ◦ 4 major groups: 2 phylum (Moncilophyta and Lycophyta) ‣ Moncilophyta • Pteraphytes= true ferns, biggest group • Psilophytes= whisk ferns, not true ferns • Arthrophytes= (Equisetophytes) horsetails and scouring rushes ‣ Lycophyta= club mosses, not true mosses ◦ Phylum Psilophytes= whisk ferns ‣ only stems, no leaves ‣ bare sporangia on stem ‣ two way branching- dichotomous ◦ Phylum Monilophyta ‣ only one living genus in this phylum ‣ Arthrophyta (equisetophyta)= horsetails and scouring rushes • nominate • silicious (SiO2) in cell walls • node= where leaves are attached to the stem • internode= space in-between where the leaves are attached • leaf arrangements ◦ one leaf per node which is called (alternate) arrangement ◦ two leaves per node which is called (opposite) arrangement ◦ more than two leafs per node which is a circular pattern is called a whorl • Microphylls • strobilus- knob like structure at the end of the stem where sexual reproduction continues to occur ◦ clusters of sporophylls ◦ very tight cluster that produce sporangiophore ◦ inside of the sporangiophores are the sporangia ◦ meiospores are produced within the sporangia and are surrounded by elaters ◦ elaters=coiled around each meispore and use hygroscopic dispersal (change with humidity) ◦ Phylum Lycophyta=club mosses ‣ megaspores and microspores ‣ type of leaf=microphylls ‣ clubs= strobilus • have sporangia inside them that produce mega and microspores ‣ heterospory= meiosis leads to two diﬀerent types of meispores • Gymnosperms= super phylum groups; 4 living phylums (naked seeds) ◦ All gymnosperms have heterospory ◦ most without ﬂagellated sperm ◦ separation of the male and female life cycle ‣ leads to diﬀerent things: ‣ For Male: dispersal as a microgametophyte is possible; pollen or pollen grain ‣ For Female: retained within the sporangium; ovule (tissue that produced it); megagametophyte ◦ Above leads to production of a: Seed ‣ 3 layered structure; 3 generations packed within one ‣ "baby in lunch box"- refers to seed ‣ 2n n 2n= haploid wrapped within two diploid generations ‣ Gametophyte generation= naked seeds ; meaning plants produce seeds unclothed/ without fruit ‣ Pine Life Cycle Diagram • monoecious= one house for both sexes • dioecious= two houses for each sex • outer layers of ovule become seed coat or "lunch box" • archegonium is the container of an egg • microsporangium will under meiosis to produce microspores; still in microsporangium • produces a total of 4 cells • dispersal mode is by wind • right place for pollen is in the female cone that is still in the pine tree in the bottom half of the diagram (pollination) ◦ grows a long pollen tube that don't need water to disperse because its inside the tube and it fuses with the egg • outer layer is the outer part of the ovule • embryo is diploid in the middle and grew from the zygote • diploid wishing the haploid within the diploid= 3 generations ◦ Phylum Coniferophyta= cone bearing trees; largest phylum in gymnosperms ‣ monoecious= both of the cones are on one tree ‣ megasporangiate strobili= smaller ‣ microsporangiate strobili= produce microspores which grow into microgametophytes which produces sperm ‣ 4 cells • 2 prothallial cells • tube cell= expands into a tube to deliver sperm and ﬂoating inside is the: • generative cell ‣ Pinus Palustris= longleaf pine (WILL BE ON TEST) • organism of the day!!! • only pine tree that is the dominant tree of the forest • open canopy allows light to shine though so plants can grow under them • to save pines, should have periodic ﬁres because they are well adapted to ﬁre ◦ pyrophyte= ﬁre • 97% decline of pine trees due to red hart disease • Red-crackled woodpecker • highly prized for lumber ‣ Coastal Redwoods- record height 380 ft. tall and 26 ft. diameter (2,200) ‣ Giant Sequoia- record size for any organism 320 ft. tall and 57 ft. in diameter (4,000) • General Sherman is the name of the oldest giant sequoia and it is also monoecious ‣ Bristle-cone Pine- record age for any organisms is 4,600 years old ‣ Paciﬁc yew, taxes brevifolia- taxol an eﬀective drug against cancer • homes the spotted owl, which is endangered • The photos from below are notes from one class where we focused on the life cycle of the pin tree, but more speciﬁcally we focused on the Male and Female cones through th ◦ Phylum Cycadophyta ‣ small in comparison to coniferophyta, tropical, stubby and spiny ‣ Two diﬀerent types of cones- strobilus • Male- pollen cones, microsporangiate strobili • Female- seed cones ‣ Dioecious (contrary to coniferopyhta) ‣ species in this phylum have large cones and palm like leaves ‣ unlike most seed plants cycads have ﬂagellated sperm ‣ thrived during the Mesozoic era, known as the age of the cycads or age of the dinosaurs, however, today most of the species in this phylum are endangered ◦ Phylum Ginkgophyta ‣ Ginkgo biloba- maidenhair tree is the only surviving species of this phylum ‣ have ﬂagellated sperm ‣ Monotypic phylum because only one species ‣ Fleshy seed coat, under cultivation, pollution resistant, leaf extract used for certain supplement ‣ Dioecious- dichotomous venation- deciduous- dwarf branches ‣ they were thought to be extinct but were found again in China ‣ Makes naked seeds so seeds within strobili hanging from the tree one at a time ‣ A single tree is either male or female (dioecious), but prefer male because when female produces seeds they have a ﬂeshy seed coat that has a particular bad odor ‣ Leaves are very easy to recognize- two lobes with dichotomous branching and deciduous (leaves turn golden and then brown and fall oﬀ in fall/winter) ◦ Phylum Gnetophyta= grouped together by molecular data ‣ includes genus Ephedra- sudaphed (cold medicines) come from it • 40 species that inhabit places worldwide • desert shrubs that are called "mormon tea" produce the compound ephedrine which is uses as a decongestant in cold medicine ‣ Adapted to dry conditions by not having many leaves and having a photosynthetic stem ‣ Gnetum is another genus in this phylum • all tropical plants in this genus ‣ Genus Welwitschia • Grows in desert • can live for thousands of years • adapted to grow in extreme dryness • have a woody cone going down into sand to anchor but bears no roots because no water • At the meristem there is growth of two leaves (only has two leaves) that grow for thousands of years ◦ straplike leaves are among the largest leaves known • Gather dew on the long leaves and move back to stem and roots to provide water to the plant ◦ this is backwards from what most other plants do • Angiosperms (super phylum) ◦ Sperm is an old word for seed and angiosperm means that there are "contained seeds" (fruits) ◦ thought of as just one phylum= Anthophyta (ﬂower plant) ◦ they contain ﬂowers for pollination ◦ They have fruits for protection but most importantly for seed dispersal ◦ Phylum Manoliophyta is what scientist think it should be called because of the genus Magnolia ◦ Gametophyte generation is reduced ‣ micro and mega gametophytes are much smaller ‣ no ﬂagellated sperm ‣ double fertilization occurs ◦ In ﬂowering plants we will see life cycles of a two celled micro gametophyte ◦ Flowering plants are the most successful plants because there are so many diﬀerent types and they live in so many diﬀerent cultures ◦ Flowering plants are the largest phylum and have the greatest diversity: ‣ Contain a determinate sporophyll bearing shoot ‣ the shoot is the above ground part of any vascular plant (stem and roots) ‣ Sporophylls= leaves that are modiﬁed for the production of spores ‣ all are heterosporous ‣ leaves are not meant for photosynthesis because they are so modiﬁed to only produce spores ‣ Determinante= it is a branch that grows into exactly 4 whorls: • 2 steriles= don't produce spores but are whorls that aid in insect attraction • 2 are fertile whorls ◦ Microsporangiate (androecium) ◦ Megasporangiate (gynoecium) ◦ How ﬂowers vary: ‣ ovary position= determines where the fruit develops • hypogynous= all the other parts of the ﬂower are below the ovary; superior to the ovary • Epigynous= all other parts of the ﬂower are above the ovary; inferior to ovary • perigynous= all other parts are attached to cup shape receptacle called a hypanthium ‣ Fusion and Parts: • connation= fusion of like parts ◦ fusion of petals ◦ connation in the gynecium • adnation= fusion between whorls ◦ stamens fused to pistils ‣ Presence/Absence of parts • complete= if all four whorls are present • incomplete ﬂower= one or more parts of the ﬂower missing • Perfect= having both fertile whorls; having both male and female parts • Imperfect ◦ carpellate= if the stamens are missing ◦ staminate= if the carpals are missing ◦ if they carpal and stamen are both present on the same plants its considered monoecious ◦ If they have a stamen or a carpal on separate plants its considered dioecious (refer to whole plant) ‣ because there is more than one way for plants to pollinate ‣ Symmetry • actinomorphic= could be cut in half in an inﬁnite number of ways and it would still be equal ◦ radial symmetry • zygomorphic= one good plane of symmetry; can only cut it one way ◦ bilateral symmetry ‣ Inﬂorescence type= how a single branch may bear a ﬂower in a certain pattern or arrangement • solitary= one ﬂower at the end of one branch • spike= more than one ﬂower per branch, simplest form of inﬂorescence • raceme= more than one ﬂower but each ﬂower is supported by a separate branch • panicle • corymb= ﬂat topped inﬂorescence • umbel= more than one petal per node ◦ compound umbel= umbel's of umbels • composite head= supported by a branch; sunﬂower is an example ◦ Pollination Syndromes ‣ anemophily= wind loving; means wind pollination is involved ‣ zoophily= pollinated by animals • Bee pollinated ﬂower ◦ Bees major= whatever ﬂower is most abundant on a certain day, they revisit these ﬂowers only for that day ◦ used for pollination because they are hairy and smart ◦ restricted axis to bees on some ﬂowers and the bee vibrations cause the anthers of the ﬂowers to open and allows the bees to pollinate the ﬂower • Moth pollinated ﬂower= usually plants with long tubes and moths use their long tongue • butterﬂy pollinated ﬂower • some are adapted to be attracted to ﬂies that usually visit death things which are called: carrion ﬂies and the ﬂower are called carrion ﬂowers • Bat pollinate syndrome • lack of odor and colors of orange are for hummingbirds; nectar of a nutritious sort with amnio acids instead of just sugars • some prevent waste of sector by only producing a certain type of nectar for a certain animal • mess and spoil pollination= for beetles with white ﬂowers • nector guides show insects where to land on the ﬂower; usually with bee pollination ◦ normally only visible to the insects not to humans • cross pollination • The color change in some plants signals where the insects should pollinate the plant • coral bean= pollinated by the hummingbird • seed dispersal syndromes: characteristics of fruit ◦ ex: anemochory • Fruit= surround and protect seed and seed dispersal is in a variety of ways ◦ Fruit develops behind ﬂower ◦ seed dispersal syndromes: end in -chory ‣ cocklebur- velcro like, grabs on something and hangs on, thats how it is dispersed • dispersal is on the outside of the animal= epizoocry ‣ maple= designed for wind dispersal because of a large wing as part of the fruit ‣ coconut= most widely dispersed fruit in the world, known to get all over the planet • mode of the dispersal is water= hydrochory • the husk is the outer layer of the coconut • seed is the largest seed in the world= the milk from the inside are the nutrients inside the seed (both solid and liquid) ◦ Classifying Fruit: ‣ Simple, aggregate, or Multiple • blueberries are an example of a simple fruit • strawberry comes from a ﬂower and the carpals are not fused and each of those carpals contribute to aggregate fruit • pineapple is classic example of a multiple fruit= develops from a spike inﬂorescence type of ﬂower ◦ mulberry is also a multiple fruit ‣ Where does the fruit come from: accessory fruit • fruits can also be categorized as accessory or not • true fruit (pericarps) develops from the wall of the ovary and any other tissue is considered accessory • strawberries are accessory fruits because the ﬂesh edible part develops form the receptacle portion of the stem of the ﬂower ‣ Fleshy Fruits: edible or not • berries are simple fruits in which all three layers (exocarp,mesocarp,endocarp) of the pericarp are soft and ﬂeshy, as in grapes and tomatoes • seeds of berries can usually resist digestion and can be transported in the gut of an animal • true berry if its ﬂeshy • a pepo= like a watermelon or any other squash, is a berry with a hard exocarp • a hesperidium= as in citrus fruits, is a berry with a leathery rind exocarp • a fruit has a locule for each carpal it has • drupes, as in peaches or plums, are fruits with a stony and inedible endocarp. ◦ animals may eat a berry and transport seeds in their gut, but drupe seeds are protected by the inedible pit (with seed inside) and are usually discarded and left behind after rest of the fruit is eaten ◦ coconut is an interesting kind of drupe with a ﬁbrous mesocarp for water dispersal and endosperm within the seed that comes in both a solid and liquid form • a pome= kind of ﬂeshy in which pericarp forms a papery core that surrounds the seeds ◦ the ﬂeshy edible portion of the fruit develop from a specialized stem tissue, called hypanthium (apple is an example) ‣ Dry Fruits= dry at maturity • a caryopsis, like corn and the grains, is a simple dry and single seeded fruit in which the pericarp is tightly fused to the seed coat • a corn kernel is not just a seed, but an entire fruit, don't survive passage through our body • Dry Indehiscent fruit= don't split open at maturity, ◦ wind dispersed samara ◦ the single seeded achene with the seed attached at a single point inside the fruit ◦ nut with its single, unattached seed • Dry Dehiscent Fruits= split open to release seeds at maturity ◦ legume is a fruit that plot on two sides, peanuts ◦ capsule= the okra, splits in several places, one split per carpal ◦ follicle= that splits on one side only ‣ Categories of simple vs. aggregate vs. multiple can be combined with other categories of fruit type • the so called "cones" of sweet gum and magnolia are aggregate of follicles • strawberries are aggregates of achenes with accessory tissues • Lifecycle of fruits and ﬂowers together: ◦ both sperms fused with something: double fertilization ‣ results in the possibility of a triploid ◦ androecium= ﬁnd total array of stamen ‣ in the anthers= pollen sacs, spores are produced so it is the spore container= microsporangium ‣ Microsporangium is inside the anther ‣ from each meiotic division we get four haploid cells ‣ tetrad of microspores = very ﬁrst thing that is haploid and starts gametophyte generation ‣ grows up to be one mitotic division from gametophyte ‣ two celled pollen grains, so only two cell are involved ‣ when its pollinated at, the pollen grain has an extension of a pollen tube that will extend into two cells ◦ gyniceium= starts with a diploid cell ‣ starting cell thats dipliod= mega spore mother cell, also called megasporophyte ‣ mega spore mother cell divides but it make one big megaspore and three little bunches of chromosomes that don't do much ‣ that one cell grows into a megagametophyte= it is so small that we can count the cells inside • 3 mitotic divisions produce megagametophyte • cells produced: antipodal nuclei (3 nuclei) , polar nuclei (2 nuclei)= will fuse with one sperm to make 3N endosperm, synergids(2 nuclei), ovum (1 nuclei) ‣ no archegonium ◦ sporophyte generation= seed ‣ two diﬀerent styles of seeds: • albuminous= endosperm surrounding the embryo, typical view • exalbuminous= those in which the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo ◦ 2 diﬀerent styles of germination ‣ epigeous= where the cotyledons rise above the ground or earth ‣ hypogeous= where the cotyledons stay under the ground
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