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UNT / Biological Sciences / BIOL 2041 / What algae causes red tide?

What algae causes red tide?

What algae causes red tide?

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Daniel kunz
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: micro, Biology, fungi, algae, Bacteria, and test
Cost: 50
Name: study stuff for second test
Description: this is a whole lot of stuff that i am using to study for this exam
Uploaded: 03/04/2016
43 Pages 134 Views 7 Unlocks
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○ Volume 1


What algae causes red tide?



■ Table 5.7

■ Anoxygenic nonproteobacteria phototropism

● Growth

○ Light

○ Atmosphere of pure nitrogen

○ Sulfur, phosphorus, trace metal source

○ CO2 

○ NH3 

● Green­sulfur (Chlorobium)

■ Cyanobacteria

● Used to be known as green algae

● Fig 11.21

● Uses molecular nitrogen

● Growth

○ Light

○ Air

○ Sulfur, phosphorus my Trac metal source

○ CO2 

○ NH3 

○ Lake waters


What are the examples of green algae?



■ Deeply­branching bacteria

● Primitive organisms that are found close to the universal ancestor ■ Archea bacteria

● Cell wall is made up of pseudopeptidoglycan We also discuss several other topics like How to calculate temporary restricted net assets)

○ Protein

○ Glycoproteins

● Unique ribosomal RNA 16S

● Membranes are different

○ Links of long hydrocarbon chains linked with an either

bond

● Hyperthermophiles greater than 80 degrees Celsius

○ Sulfolobus

■ 90 degrees Celsius

■ rich solfataras If you want to learn more check out What started the era of european dominance?

■ Sulfur Oxidized

■ Has pleomorphic s​hape Don't forget about the age old question of What are the reasons for using an in-­house agency?

● Multiple shapes

○ Pyrodictium

■ 110 degrees Celsius


Volvox is an example of what?



■ Hydrothermal vents

■ Strict anaerobes

■ H2 oxidizer

○ Grows by Chemolithotrophy

● Methanogens

○ Methanobacterium

■ Trace metals

■ Nitrogen,Sulfur, Phosphorus

■ H2 CO2

■ H2 & CO2 ­>CH4 If you want to learn more check out What is cost behavior?

● Extreme halophiles

○ Halobacterium

○ Grows in 25% NaCl

○ They have a way to balance the osmium, helps prevent

cell lysis

○ Aerobes

○ Gives the Dead Sea the red color

○ Volume 2

■ Gram negative proteobacteria

● Fermentative rods and vibrios

○ Facultative anaerobic

○ Common gut inhabitants

■ Gamma bacteria test oxidases negative 

● Turns from clear to purple 

● Test for cytochrome c 

● Escherichia

○ Mixed­ acid fermentation, fecal

contamination, urinary infections

○ Confused with Enterobacter

○ Glucose turns to pyruvate which

turns to ethanol and acid and gas

ratio 4:1­ (O2 &H2)

○ Turns yellow with MR test

● Salmonella

○ G.I. Track of poultry and cattle often

contaminant in uncooked chicken

● S.typhi

○ Typhoid fever

● Klebsiella

○ K. pneumoniea Don't forget about the age old question of What is ideology?

● Proteus

○ urinary, wound infections,

○ Very motile

○ Spreads rapidly on wet agar plates

● Yersinia

○ Cause of Black Plague

● Enterobacter

○ Neutral product fermentation

○ Often confused with E.coli as fecal If you want to learn more check out What is the process for evaluating and correcting table structures to minimize data redundancy ?

contamination

○ Glucose to private to acid to ethanol

a and alcohol and acid and gas ratio

is acid 1 gas 6 and makes it neutral

○ Turns red with MR test

■ Vibrio cholerae

■ Pasteurellales

● Haemophilus influenzae

○ blood requiring

● Oxidative (aerobic reds and cocci)

○ Pseudomonas aeruginosa

○ P.putida

○ Azotobacter

○ Rhizobium

■ Nitrogen fixing symbiotic

○ Agrobacterium

■ Inserts a plasmid into plant cells inducing a tumor ■ The ti plasmid is a vector for introducing genes into plants

○ Acetobacter

■ Makes vinegar

■ Oxidize glucose makes acetic acid

■ This is how fermentation was discovered by

Pasteur

○ Neisseria

■ Gram negative coccus

● Sheathed bacteria

○ Sphaerotilus natans

● Prosthecate bacteria

○ Caulobacter –

■ stalked bacteria found in still rain water – rosette

formation

○ Hyphomicrobium –

■ budding/appendaged

● Bdellovibrio:

○ The bacterial predator (d) proteobacteria

Predacious endosymbiont (see p. 58, Ch. 3)

○ Eats e.coli

● Spirilla

○ Seen by Leeuwenhoek

○ Helical morphology

○ Motile by flagella (not axial filaments)

○ Frequent soil and water inhabitants

■ Examples:

● Spirillum volutans (lophotrichous flagella)

● Helicobacter pylori –

○ Has a half twist

○ 2005

■ Marshall & Warren

■ Peptic ulcers caused by

Helicobacter pylori

○ stomach ulcers

● Fruiting myxobacteria

○ Primitive development.

○ Form fruiting bodies and myxospores

○ Gliding motility

■ Myxococcus xanthu

○ Life cycle

■ Figure 11.11

● Sulfate and sulfur reducers

○ nothing unique about morphology

○ Respire anaerobically with sulfate (SO42­) or So as electron acceptor

○ How they make a living

■ Sulfur

■ Phosphate

■ Trace metals

■ Hydrogen Carbon dioxide and nitrogen

○ Found in anaerobic sediments (mud bogs) rich in sulfur ■ Desulfovibrio

● Chemolithotrophic bacteria

○ Grows big in sulfur

○ Important agriculturally and in geochemical cycling ■ Examples:

● Nitrosomonas ­

○ oxidizes ammonia as an energy

source

○ How to make a living

■ Amina

■ Oxidized

■ NH3 to NO2 to NO3

■ Air

■ Sulfur

■ Phosphorus

■ Trace metals

● Nitrobacter ­

○ oxidizes nitrite as an energy source

● Thiobacillus ­

○ oxidizes sulfur (e.g., H2S) and iron

compounds

■ How to make a living

■ SOB (sulfur oxidizing

bacteria)

■ H2S & O2­­­> H2SO4

■ air

■ H2S

■ NH3

■ Posphorus

■ Trace metals

● Thiomargarita –

○ largest bacterium known/oxidizes

sulfur

● Alcaligenes –

○ H2 oxidizer

● Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

○ Grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions and

do not produce oxygen (anoxygenic)

○ Typically use sulfur compounds (not water) as a

biosynthetic reductant

○ Found in ponds and sediments

○ Sulfur granules are inside the cell

■ Example:

● Purple sulfur (Chromatium) (g)

○ VOLUME III. Low G+C Gram Positive Bacteria (Firmicutes) ■ Endospore­forming Gram positive rods

● Bacillus sp. (e.g., anthracis, megaterium)

● Clostridium sp. (e.g., botulinum, tetani)

○ Has Endospore

○ Can be distinguished via aerobic test

■ Non Spore­forming Gram positive rods

● Lactobacillus ­ (lactic acid (e.g., cheese) production. Aerotolerant. and slightly acidophilic.

○ Test catalase negative

■ The organism doesn’t bubble in the presence of

H2O2

■ Gram positive cocci

● Staphylococcus –

○ Facultative anaerobes, frequent inhabitants of skin and

mucous membranes of animals.

○ Test catalase positive.

■ The organism bubbles in the presence of H2O2

○ Cocci in grape­like clusters some pathogenic

■ (e.g., S. aureus)

● Streptococcus ­

○ Aerotolerant, inhabitants of the body.

○ Test catalase negative.

■ The organism doesn’t bubble in the presence of

H2O2

○ Cocci in chains, or diploid form

■ Examples:

● S. pyogenes (sore throat, hemolytic on

blood agar)

● S. lactis (lactic acid [cheese] production)

● Enterococcus –

○ frequent inhabitant in G.I., colon, vagina and oral cavity.

○ Related to strep, has a different location were to find the

organism

■ Mycoplasmas

● ONLY BACTERIA WITH NO Cell wall

● Pleomorphic​many shapes

● Animal, plant and insect parasites

● Rare examples of sterols in PM of prokaryotes

● Not affected by penicillin due to lack of cell wall

○ Example:

■ M. pneumoniae (atypical or walking pneumonia)

○ VOLUME IV. High G+C Gram Positive Bacteria (Actinobacteria)​ ■ Action­

● Refers to high concentrations of guanine and cytosine

■ Irregular­shaped non spore­forming Gram positive rods

● Examples:

○ Corynebacterium diphtheria

○ Propionibacterium acnes

■ Important grows on skin

○ Mycobacterium tuberculosis –

■ aerobic, rudimentary branching, mycolic acids​in

cell wall.

■ Acid­fast positive

■ Not soluble in water

■ Actinomycetales

● Some morphology like fungi (but their prokaryotic)

○ Were thought to be fungi do to the rudimentary branching

○ Were sensitive to disease

● Very common inhabitants in fertile soil

● Examples:

○ Streptomyces –

■ filamentous,

● present in fertile soil

● important in commercial antibiotic

production (e.g., tetracycline,

chloramphenicol)

○ Table 20.1

■ Nocardia asteroids –

● bacillary bodies and filaments, pulmonary

and other infections

○ VOLUME V. Chlamydiae, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria ■ Considered outliers and don't fit in other things

■ Chlamydiae

● Small coccoid (0.2 X 1.5 mm) intracellular parasite (reticulate bodies in infected cells).

● Once confused as viruses

○ Example:

■ Chlamydia trachomatis

● Sexually transmitted disease resulting in

Chlamydia

■ Spirochaetes

● Spiral morphology

● Motile by axial filament (endoflagellum)

● Usually aquatic, some animal parasites

○ Examples:

■ Treponema pallidum

● Sexually Transmitted Disease results in

Syphilis

■ Leptospira

■ Bacteroidetes

● Bacteroides fragilis ­

○ most abundant bacterium in human colon

○ Uses UV light

○ Cells stained with fluorochromes

○ Nothing unique about morphology

■ Fusobacteria

● Obligate anaerobe

● Has an apex point at the end

● Straight, curved or helical

○ Ex.

■ Fusobacterium

● gum disease

● Useful vocabulary

○ Symbiosis

■ Mutualism

■ Commensalistic

■ Parasitic

■ Opportunistic

○ Decomposing matter

■ The remains of multicellular organisms

S​O​B

S​R​B

Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria

Sulfur Reducing Bacteria

○ Oxidizing

○ Reducing

○ Fluorochromes

■ Fluorescent dyes

● Fungi

○ Table 12.1

○ Mycology

■ The study of fungi

○ Characteristic

■ Cell type

● Eukaryotic

■ Cell membrane

● Sterols present

■ Cell wall

● Glycine, chitin NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN

■ Spores

● Sexual reproduction

● Asexual reproduction

■ Metabolism

● Limited to heterotrophic aerobic facultative anaerobic

■ Chemoorganotrophs

■ Acidophiles

● Slightly acidic living around a pH of 5.6

■ Morphology

● Molds

○ Filamentous

● Yeast

○ Unicellular organisms

○ Facultative anaerobes

■ Saccharomyces

● Used to make beer and wine

● Aerial hyphae

○ Makes fungi look fuzzy

○ Figure 12.2

○ Septate hypha

■ Has a membrane between each cell

○ Coenocytic hypha

■ No membrane separation between cells

● Filament

○ Mycelium

● Spore patterns

○ Asexual spores

■ Sporangiospores

Asexual

● sporangiospores

○ The spore stays in container

■ Sporangium

■ Rhizomes

● Conidiospore

○ Born at end of structure

● Arthrospore

○ Fragmentation

● Blastospore

○ Budding type

● Chlamydospore

○ Intercalating

■ Rounded within hyphae

segment

● Candida

○ Dimorphic

● Macroconidia

○ big spores

■ Fusarium

■ Alter aria

sexual

■ Microspore

life cycle

Fig 12.7

○ Groups of fungi

■ Zygomycota

● Saprophytic molds

● From soil and decaying plant material

● Coenocytic hyphae

● Produce sexual zygospores and asexual sprang inspires

○ Rhizopus Nigricans

■ Bread mold Black in color

■ Ascomycota

● Sac fungi

○ Sexual spores as spores within a sac

● Includes both Filamentous and yeast forms

● Septate hyphae

● Asexual spores called conditions pores

● Saprophytic and parasitic types

○ Aspergillus flavus

○ Penicillium chrysogenum

○ Saccharomyces cerevisiae

○ Neurospora crassa

○ Trichophyton

■ Athlete's foot

■ Basidiomycota

● Club fungi

○ Mushrooms and puffball

● Sexual spores

○ Basidiospores within a basidium

● Septate hyphae

○ Non edible mushrooms and edible news

○ Phanerochaete chrysosporium

■ Breaks down the cellulose and ligninase

■ Deuteromycota (anamorphs)

■ Microsporidia

● obligate intracellular parasite

● Eukaryotes

○ Protozoa without mitochondria

● Chronic disease like AIDS

● Thought that they were apicomplexa

life cycle

○ Black mold

■ Stachybotrys

○ Taxol

■ Gypsymoth

○ Infection in fungal form

■ Mycosis

○ Lychens

■ Two organisms that live in a mutualistic symbiosis

● Fungus and a algae

● good indicator of air pollution

○ They are in areas of good air quality

● Chapter 12 Algae

○ Diatoms

■ Golden brown color

■ Unicellular or Filamentous

● Highly rigid cell wall containing pectin and silica and CaCO3

■ Photosynthetic product storages as oil

● Evolutionary deposition of petroleum deposits

■ Mussel intoxication with “domoic acid”

○ Dinoflagellates

■ unicellular morphology and motile

■ Cell wall predominantly cellulose in the plasma membrane

■ planktonic

● Free floating

■ Some produce neurotoxins

● Peridinium

○ Red­tide

○ Occurs do to Eutrophication

■ Massive growth of algae

○ Paralytic shellfish poisoning

● Gymnodinium

○ Toxic to marine fish and mammals

○ Water molds

■ Oomycota

■ Cottony masses on dead algae and animals

■ Motile 2 flagellate zoospores from a “sporangium

● No flagella in fungi

■ DNA and RNA analysis suggest relatedness to

● Phytophthora infestansa

○ great Ireland potato blight of 1800

○ Green algae

■ Plant like because

● Contain both chlorophyll a and b

● Photosynthetic storage product is starch

■ Microscopic for most part

■ Found in ponds

● overgrowth fives “green­scum”

■ Examples

● Chlamydomonas

○ Flagellated

● Spirogyra

○ Filamentous

● Volvox

○ Colonial brown algae

○ Brown algae

■ Also known as kelp

■ Macroscopic in size with differentiated parts

● Holdfast and stype

● Up to 50 meters

■ Located in coastal waters

● exhibit rapid growth

● 20 cm per day

■ Produce some neutrally important products

● Algin

○ A polysaccharide used as thickener in ice cream and

cakes

○ Red algae

■ Branched multicellular

● Fern like

■ Located in oceanic depths

● 150­200 m below surface on rocks and shells

■ Cell wall is mainly cellulose

■ Highly pigmented

● Phycoerythrin

○ Red

■ Some produce industrially important products

● Gelidium

○ Agar source

● Chapter 12 Protozoa

○ Cysts

■ Grows vegetatively

● Trophozoite

○ Reproduction

Sexual

asexual

conjugation

fission

Budding

Schizogony

○ Amoebozoa

■ Pseudopods

● Entamoeba historica

○ Archaeozoa ( Excavata)

■ Flagellates with no mitochondria

■ Cause giardiasis via Giardia lamblia

○ Ciliophora

■ Ciliates

■ Moves by cilia

● 9 pulse 2

■ Complex cells

● Has anal pore and the cytostme

● Balantidium coli only human bacteria parasite

○ Apicomplexa

■ No movement

■ Causes malaria

● Plasmodium

■ Sporozoites

■ Merozoites

■ Ring stage

■ Definitive host

● Mosquito

■ Intermediate host

● Human

■ Toxoplasma found in domestic animals

○ Euglenozoa

■ Flagellates with mitochondria

■ Facultative phototrophs

■ Unicellular flagellates

■ Semirigid Cell membrane/no cell wall (“pellicle’)

■ Capable of phototrophic and chemoheterotrophic growth ■ Anterior eyespot ­​

● light taxis organelle containing pigmented carotenoids ■ Protozoan­

● like/related to hemoflagellates (Trypansosoma)

● Trypanosoma brucei

○ Causes African sleeping sickness

○ Has an undulating membrane

● Example: Euglena

○ Parts of a cell

■ Cytosome

● Is a mouth that can be formed by Protozoa

■ Phagocytosis

● a method of eating and getting food

■ Excretory pore

● how to get shit out

● Don't know helminths

● Control of microbial growth

○ Sterilization

■ Absolute kill

○ Disinfection

■ Destruction of vegetative pathogens not necessarily spores ○ Antisepsis

■ Disinfection of human tissue

○ Sanitization

■ Physical reduction in microbial numbers

○ ­cides

■ Killing

○ ­static

■ Inhibition

○ Modes of action

■ Membrane permeability

■ Protein and Nucleic acid damage

■ strong oxidizing agents

■ Enzyme inhibitor

○ Physical methods

■ Heat

● Decimal reduction time (DRT)

○ How long does it take to kill 90% of an organism at a given

temperature

● Moist heat

○ Autoclave

■ Denatures proteins

■ Filtration

● Heat labile

○ They are weak in heat

● Membrane filter

○ Has pores .22­.45 mm in size

○ Most organisms ­not viruses­ will be filtered out

■ Low temp

● Retards growth

■ Desiccation

■ Osmotic condition

■ Radiation

● Bacterial ideal 200­295 nm

○ Number 2 in the chart is drugs

○ Chemotherapeutic drugs make up synthetic chemicals and natural products (1940)

○ Preservatives are uglier so they are chemicals that retard growth ○ Paul Ehrlich accredited with using arsenic to treat patients

○ Joseph lister covering women in phenol will stop stillbirth this is the first thought of asepsis

○ Hm­ heavy metal ○ H­Haagen

○ A­alcohol

○ Q­quays

○ O­oxidizer

○ P­phenolic

Test Break Down

Test 2 microbiology:

Important Things To Know

● Know the energy sources, carbon source, how the organism makes a living, and the electron acceptor

● Taxonomy

○ mnemonic for order of taxonomy

■ K​ing P​hilip Ca​me O​ver F​or G​reat S​ex

● Domains are B​A​E

○ Bacteria

■ All of pathogenic prokaryotes found in soil and water

■ Many nonpathogenic prokaryotes found in soil and water

○ Archaea

■ Prokaryotes that don't have peptidoglycan in their cell wall

○ Eucaryote

■ Animal

■ Plant

■ Fung

Definitions

● Chapter 3

○ Chemolithotrophs

■ Energy comes from inorganic materials

● Chapter 10

○ Binomial nomenclature

■ Composed of genus and species

○ Phylogeny (Systematics)

■ Sunday of evolutionary history of organisms

○ Stromatolites

■ Fossilized bacteria

○ Molecular clock

■ Evolutionary based on nucleotide sequences in genome of organism ○ Cladogram

■ Map showing evolutionary relationship

○ Clade

■ Groups of organisms with common ancestor

○ Node

■ Common ancestor found in a Clade

○ Transport media

■ Not a nutritive media designed to porton viability of fastidious pathogens ○ DNA base configuration

■ Percent of guanine and cysteine

○ DNA hybridization

■ used to fine Salmonella in chicken

○ Nucleic acid amplification test. (NAATs)

■ DNA from two organisms treated with same restriction enzyme

○ Nucleic acid hybridization

■ Two species of similar or related will have a portion of their nucleic acid sequence also be similar

○ Southern blotting

■ Nucleic acid hybridization can be used to identify Unknown

microorganisms

○ DNA Chip

■ quickly detects pathogen in host cell or environment to identify gene unique to pathogen

○ Ribotyping

■ Determine phylogenetic relationships among organism

○ Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

■ Dye­labeled RNA and DNA probes used to stain specific organisms ○ Dichotomous key

■ Successive questions used to distinguish organisms

○ Rapid identification method

■ Series of biochemical test

○ Serology

■ Science that studies serum and immune responses that are evident in serum. Can be differentiate strains within species

○ Antiserum

■ Solution of antibodies used in identification of medical organisms ○ Slide agglutination

■ Sample put on slide with antiserum then result are analyzed

○ Phage typing

■ Test to see what phages the bacteria is susceptible to

○ Fatty acid profiling (FAME)

■ Used in clinical and unlicensed health laboratories

○ Flow cytomegalovirus

■ Used to identify sample without culturing the bacteria

○ Pleomorphic shape

■ Has multiple shapes

● Chapter 11

○ Symbiosis

■ Mutualism

■ Commensalistic

■ Parasitic

■ Opportunistic

○ Decomposing matter

■ The remains of multicellular organisms

S​O​B

S​R​B

Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria

Sulfur Reducing Bacteria

○ Oxidizing

○ Reducing

○ Fluorochromes

■ Fluorescent dye

● Chapter 12

○ Mycology

■ Study of fungi

○ Acidophile

○ Neutrophile

○ Basophile

○ Sexual reproduction

○ Asexual reproduction

Possible Test Questions

● What are the three ways to make a living as an organism?

● Chapter 10

○ What is a stromatolite?

■ Fossilized bacteria

○ What the order for taxonomy?

■ Groups of organisms with a common ancestor

○ How do you write a taxonomy?

■ When type italicized when written underline. Only capitalize the Genus ○ What's a Cladogram?

■ Map showing evolutionary relationship

○ What's a Clade?

○ What's a node?

■ A common ancestor shared between two clades

○ What are two ways to classify and identify organisms?

● Chapter 11

○ What kind of organisms are found in volume one of the manual?

○ What are examples from volume one?

○ What organisms are found in volume two of the manual?

○ What are examples from volume two?

○ What is the difference between Escherichia and Enterobacter?

○ What causes the Black Plague

● Chapter 12

○ What is the difference between bacteria and fungi?

○ What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

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