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AU / human sciences / HSC 2000 / What is the ultimate source of carbohydrates?

What is the ultimate source of carbohydrates?

What is the ultimate source of carbohydrates?


School: Auburn University
Department: human sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Greene
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: NTRI 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for exam 2. It includes diagrams, practice questions, and BOTH pub quizzes with answers. Enjoy!
Uploaded: 03/04/2016
29 Pages 10 Views 17 Unlocks

Cara Benak (Rating: )


What is the ultimate source of carbohydrates?

NTRI 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide


A. Main fuel source for:

1. The brain

2. Nerve cells  

3. Red blood cells (RBCs)  

4. Exercising muscle

B. Form of carbohydrates (for all cells)

1. Blood Glucose

2. Glycogen

C. What’s the ultimate source of carbohydrates? The sun.

What is fructose?

D. Metabolism: H2O + O2 ——> energy + H2O + CO2

E. Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars)  

1. Monosaccarides

a. Mono = ONE sugar  

b. Basic unit of all carbohydrate structures

c. Mainly glucose, fructose, galactose  

d. Check out the structures of the sugars (“not on test just  

 good to know”)

e. Dextrose- the major monosaccharide found in the body,  

 called the blood sugar, and derived from the digestion of  starches and disaccharides 

What is lactose?

Don't forget about the age old question of mobilizes body systems during activity
We also discuss several other topics like bsc 1010c

f. Fructose- converted to glucose and other  

 compounds, also called fruit sugar. It  

 is sweeter than the others; one dietary  

 source is high-fructose corn syrup (in soft  

 drinks it is made up of approximately 55%

 fructose and 45% glucose)  

g. Lactose- part of the disaccharide   lactose (known as milk sugar)

Image of the brain showing activity  before and after consuming  glucose and fructose


2. Disaccharides We also discuss several other topics like maryssa maynard

a. di = two, meaning there is  

 chemical bonding of two


b. *Glucose is always one of the  

 2 sugars*  

c. Maltose = glucose + glucose  

d. Lactose = glucose +fructose  

e. Sucrose = glucose + fructose  

F. Complex Carbohydrates (Starches and Fiber)

1. Called polysaccharides or starch

2. May contain 1000 or more glucose units  We also discuss several other topics like cparme

3. Found in grains, vegetables, and fruits  

4. On food labels, “other carbohydrates” refers to starch content  5. Starches are found in plants, especially potatoes

a. They are digestible by humans

b. Amylose makes up 20% of starches

c. Amylopectin makes up 80% of starches

d. Glycogen

1. Identified in 1858  

2. Highly branched, which is good for quick energy  

3. 1800 kcal present in humans  

4. 1400 kcals are stored in the muscle, but can be  

 depleted (muscle fatigue/ “hitting a wall”

5. 400 kcals are stored in the liver, and can be depleted  

 in 18 hours

6. It is also stored in the fat and brain

Carbohydrates Conceptual Map


We also discuss several other topics like The dependence of the rate constant of a reaction on temperature can be found using what equation?

Carbohydrate availability  

A. Cooking- softens fibrous parts of plants  

B. Starch granules swell with water making it easier to digest  

C. Mouth- the enzyme salivary amylase helps break down starch (not very   important) and starts digestion as well as in the esophagus  

D. Stomach- the acid inactivates amylase, so no further starch digestion  E. Small intestine- the alkaline environment promotes CHO digestion   through enzymes  

Carbohydrate Absorption


We also discuss several other topics like 5 derived traits of land plants


A. The suffix -ase is used in biochemistry to indicate enzymes  

B. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase breaks starches in sugars like di-   and tri- saccharides  

C. Maltase, sucrase, lactase, dextrose (disaccharides)  

D. They are located in the brush border of the cells that line the inside of the   small intestine  

Lactose Intolerance  

A. Caused by a decrease in lactase production  

1. Lactase is high in infants then reduced in adults  

2. If the lactase production does not decrease, it’s called lactase   persistence, which often develops in early childhood  

3. Symptoms include abdominal pain, gas, cramps, and diarrhea   after consuming an amount of lactose  

4. NOTE: how much is consumed is KEY

5. Highly associated with region/genetics  


Carbohydrate Absorption

A. Monosaccharides go to intestinal cells via transporter proteins  B. They are then absorbed by capillary into the liver via the portal vein  C. In the liver, fructose and galactose are converted into glucose  

D. Glucose goes into the blood, is stored as glycogen, or converted into fat  

Functions of glucose in the body  

A. Supplies fuel (kcal)

1. In RBCs, the brain, and exercising muscle  

2. Present in all cells  

B. Spares body proteins  

C. Maintains acid-base balance (pH) to prevent ketosis- a buildup of keno   in blood from fat breakdown  

Blood glucose concentrations  

A. How do we regulate blood glucose?

1. Primary control- liver and pancreas  

2. Secondary control- adrenal glands, brain, muscle

B. High blood glucose- pancreas releases hormone insulin into blood  C. Low blood glucose- pancreas releases hormone glucagon into blood  D. Discovery of insulin- 1921; won the Nobel Prize of Medicine; before the 1920s,   there was no cure

1. Experiment 1: removed the pancreas from a dog (practically gave   the dog diabetes) which resulted in raised blood sugar, extreme thirst,   frequent urination, and increasing weakness until finally, the dog died 2. Experiment 2: Scientists removed the pancreas, sliced it up, then froze   it into a mixture of water and salts. When the pieces were half frozen,  

 they were ground up and filtered. The extract was then injected into the   diabetic dog and the its diabetes was temporarily reversed (aka blood   glucose went down)


Functions of Insulin  

A. The net effect is that it lowers blood glucose

B. How? Promotes glycogen synthesis

C. Where? Muscle, liver and fat, but more often muscle

D. What does it do? Increases glucose uptake by the cells and reduces   glycogenesis  

Glucagon action in the liver

A. Causes the liver to breakdown liver glycogen into glucose and releases it into   the blood (glycogenolysis)  

B. Causes the liver to synthesize glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors   (glycogenesis)

Blood glucose and the adrenal glands

A. Adrenal gland is located on kidneys  

B. Releases epinephrine which causes quick conversion of glycogen to glucose   in the liver  

Improper regulation of blood glucose concentrations  

A. Hyperglycemia- high blood glucose  

diabetes- type 1, type 2, gestational

B. Hypoglycemia- low blood glucose  

reactive hypoglycemia, fasting hypoglycemia  

Type 1 Diabetes

A. Often begins in late childhood (also called juvenile diabetes)  

B. Generally associated with a decreased release of insulin from pancreas  C. Immune system disorder (auto-immune disease) resulting in destruction of the   insulin-producing cells  

D. Occurs when the body attacks beta cells thinking its a foreign cell  E. Treated by insulin therapy- through pumps/shots, different types of insulins,   NOT oral medications


Type 2 Diabetes  

A. Most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90-95% of all cases B. Affects about 9% of the population in the United States  

C. Alabama ha the highest rate at 12.7% (Mississippi is 12.0%)

E. Development- Why is it more prevalent in older folks? It is associated with   obesity

F. Genetics play a role in the development  

G. There is a stage before being diagnosed with Type 2 called “pre-diabetes”   where the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin so the body   attempts to make more but fails. Then the pancreas produces less insulin   which causes hyperglycemia. You can do a glucose tolerance test to assess   glucose clearance.

1. Oral glucose tolerance test- 140 mg/dL but below 200 mg/dL 2. Fasting plasma glucose- above 100 mg/dL but below 126 mg/dL

Diabetes outcome

A. Increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stoke kidney diseases, certain   forms of caner, and blindness  

B. Sometimes, complications lead to adult blindness and lower limb amputation  

Diabetes treatment

A. If associated with obesity, attempt to lose weight  

B. In general, diet, exercise, oral medications, insulin, and bariatric surgery   (shrinks stomach/ removes sections from the stomach)

Glycemic Index

A. Ratio of the blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard  B. Based on 50 grams of carbohydrates  

C. Influenced by starch structure, fiber content, food processing and physical   structure, and other macronutrients in food


Carbohydrate need  

A. Recommendations vary widely  

B. RDA recommends 130 grams/day for adults

C. Food and Nutrition Board: 45-65% of calories need to be from carbs D. High carbohydrate intake  

1. Grains- 15 g/serving

2. Fruits- 18 g/serving

3. Milk- 12 g/serving

E. Low carbohydrate intake

1. Nuts- 4 g/serving

2. Meat and eggs- 0 g/serving

3. Vegetables- 5 g/serving

Glycemic Load  

A. Takes the glycemic index and multiples that amount of carbohydrates then   divides it by 100  

B. Can better predict blood sugar response

C. More useful than glycemic index because it’s based on the serving  

Problems with high glycemic index/ load foods

A. Very high glucose levels  

B. Chronically increased insulin levels

C. Leads to high blood triglyceride levels and increased fat production  D. A more rapid return of hunger after a meal, increased tendency for blood clots



A. Nutritive sweeteners- sugar, high fructose corn syrup, honey

B. Sugar alcohol- sorbitol/xylitol which equals about 2.6 kcal/g and slows the   metabolism to glucose  

C. High fructose corn syrup- made form corn, 55% fructose, cornstarch mixed   with acid and enzymes, some glucose is converted to fructose, improved   shelf-stability and food properties; average American consumes 60 lbs/year  D. Alternative sweeteners yield no kcal, but are there safety issues?  

1. GRAS- extensive research has demonstrated the safety of the 5 low-  calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. 2. Equal- complaints of sensitivity such as headaches, dizziness,  

 seizures, nausea, etc.

3. Acceptable daily intake is 50 mg per 1 kg of body weight, as stated by   the FDA (14 cans of diet soda for average adult per day)

4. PKU

NOTE: Artificial sweeteners are not associated with weight loss because they train us to  enjoy sweet products which enhances our appetite for sweets.  

How much fiber do we need?

A. AI is 25 grams/day for women

B. AI is 38 grams/day for men  

C. AI has been set to reduce the risk of CV disease and perhaps diabetes  D. DV is 25 grams for 2000 kcal diet  

E. Average U.S. intake: 14 grams/day for women, 17 grams/day for men

How much is too much fiber?

A. >60 grams/day

B. Extra fluid needed  

C. May decrease availability of some minerals  

` D. Unmet energy needs on children


Dietary Fiber  

A. Starches are digestible  

B. Fiber is not digestible

1. Therefore, it arrives at the colon intact  

2. Why? Because we don't produce the correct digestive enzymes to   break the chemical bonds that hold these polysaccharides  


C. It is a group of polysaccharides

D. Similar characteristics- made up of indigestible plant polysaccharides  

Types of Fiber

A. Insoluble/non-fermentable fiber  

1. Cellulose  

2. Hemicellulose  

3. Lignins  

B. Soluble/viscous fiber  

1. Pectins, Gums, Mucilages  

2. Fruit, vegetable, rice bran, psyllium seed  

C. Functional Fibers  

1. Examples; inulin, oligofructose  

2. *Added to food*

3. Resistant to digestion but fermentable  

4. Stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria (prebiotic)  

5. Evidence based for designation  

Whole Grains  

1. 9/10 people don't meet whole grain recommendation of 3 servings/day  2. Look beyond the label to the list of ingredients


Food Labels

1. Don’t separate insoluble and soluble fiber  

2. Total Fiber= dietary fiber + functional fiber (according to the Institute of   Medicine)  

Healthy benefits of adequate fiber in the diet  

1. Insoluble fiber adds mass to the feces, preventing constipation 2. Constipation can increase the risk of developing hemorrhoids and  diverticula  

3. Soluble (fermentable) fibers  

1. Attracts water  

2. Delays the stomach from emptying which promotes satiety  

3. Slows the glucose absorption from the small intestine which  

 lowers the need for insulin  

4. Inhibits the absorption of cholesterol and bile acids in bile,  

 lowering blood cholesterol concentrations  

5. Both soluble and insoluble fibers

1. Aid in body weight control

2. Reduce the risk of colon cancer

Monounsaturated fatty acid structure figure- 1 double bond (MUFA) Polyunsaturated fatty acid structure figure- 2+ double bonds (PUFA)

Composition of Fats  

A. Fats are complex  

B. Composed of both saturated and unsaturated fats

C. Many different types/species of fatty acids (determined by chain length)



A. They do not dissolve well in water

B. Types  

1. Triglycerides  

a. Storage form of lipids in the body  

b. Fats and oils in food are typically triglycerides  

c. Triglyceride = glycerol + 3 fatty aids  

d. Fatty acids are a chain of carbon atoms flanked by  

 hydrogen atoms and an acid group at one end. The omega  side is the methyl side; the alpha side is the acid side  

e. Look at the figure of glyceride

2. Phospholipids  

3. Sterols (cholesterol)  

4. “Lipids”- generic term for fats and oils and other molecules  

a. “Fat”- lipid that is solid at room temperature

b. “Oil “- lipid that is liquid at room temperature  

Essential Fatty Acids

A. Our bodies can only make certain types of fatty acids  

B. Have a double bond after the 4th carbon from the omega end

C. Therefore, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids  1. Omega-3 fatty acids- alpha linolenic acid (ALA) has a double   bond after the 3rd carbon atom  

2. Omega-6 fatty acids- linoleum acid (LA) has a double bond after   the 6th carbon atom  

D. Different forms  

1. Saturated fatty acids (SFA)- solid form

2. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)- liquid form

a. Cis form- causes the backbone of a molecule to bend (looks  

 like a C) such as oleic acid

B. Trans form- straight line, such as eladic acid


Fats vs Oils

A. These are the physical properties of triglycerides (TG)

B. Depends on the makeup of the fatty acids

C. For triglycerides to be oils, they must have short chain lengths and/or a  lower degree of saturation

D. For triglycerides to be fats, they must have long chain lengths and/or a  higher degree of saturation

Essential Fatty Acids

A. Must be supplied by the diet to maintain health

B. Omega-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid)

1. Primarily from nuts, seeds, fish oil, flax seed oil

2. Also found in canola, walnuts, mussels, crab, shrimp, and soybean oil 3. Recommended intake of about 2 servings of fish per week

4. Health related effects of DHA, EPA (omega-3)

a. Decrease blood clotting

b. Reduce heart attacks

c. Decrease inflammation

d. Excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke

e. Other possible uses: lower triglycerides, rheumatoid arthritis,  

behavior disorders

C. Omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid)

1. You need to have about 2-4 tablespoons a day

2. Functions:

a. Supports immune system function and vision

b. Help form cell membranes

c. Produce eicosanoids, which are involved in practically all  

important functions in the body

3. Health Related Effects of archidonic acid (Omega-6)

a. increases blood clotting

b. Increases inflammation responses


D. Signs and symptoms of essential fatty acids deficiency

1. Flaky, itchy skin

2. Diarrhea

3. Increased risk of infection

4. Stunted growth and reduced wound healing

E. Use of omega-3 supplements in the U.S.

1. Most commonly used natural product (nonvitamin/nonmineral) in adults 2. About 37% of adults and 31% of children (last 30 days)

3. Side effects and risks

a. From the FDA: GRAS-- "generally recognized as safe"

b. Minor gastrointestinal upsets, including diarrhea, heartburn,  

 indigestion, and abdominal bloating

c. In high doses, can interact with blood thinners and drugs used for   high blood pressure

d. What about high levels of mercury, pesticides, or polychlorinated   biphenyls (PCBs)?

e. Omega-3 supplements do not appear to contain these  



A. Glycerol and 3 fatty acids

B. Synthesis occurs stepwise by specific enzymes

C. Diglyceride- the breakdown product of triglyceride consisting of two fatty  acids bonded to a glycerol backbone

D. Monoglyceride- the breakdown product of a triglyceride consisting of one  fatty acid attached to a glycerol backbone

Question- is it oil or fat?

A primary saturated fatty acid is 26:0 (26 carbons and 0 bonds) A primary monounsaturated fatty acid is 8:1 (8 carbons and 0 bonds)



A. Structurally similar to triglyceride  

B. Except a fatty acid has been removed and replaced bt a phosphate-containing  group  

Lecithin- an emulsifier that is produced in the liver, then goes to the gallbladder, then  to the small intestine

Phospholipid functions  

A. Forms part of the cell membrane  

B. Is a component of bile  

C. It is an important emulsifier of fats in cooking  

1. Egg yolk

2. Wheat germ

3. Peanuts  

4. Soy beans

5. It is added to many foods in baking  


A. Has a multi-ring stricture

B. Only found in animal products  

C. Sterols

1. Part of the cell membrane  

2. Component of bile  

3. Precursor of bile acids (begins digestion)  

4. Making hormones such as estrogen and testosterone (sex hormones)  5. Precursor to Vitamin D


Digestion of fats

A. Starts in the mouth with enzymes in saliva  

B. Continues in the stomach with enzymes  

C. Further digestion in the small intestine by emulsification and with  enzymes

1. Small intestine = primary site of fat digestion

2. Fat is emulsified by bile into smaller particles  

3. Forms small lipid droplet called micelles

4. Bile is recycled  

D. Enzymes that break down fats- lipases

1. There are salivary, stomach, and pancreatic lipases

2. They only work on fatty acids with short/medium chain lengths  3. The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the release of   pancreatic lipase, which digests triglycerides into monoglyceride and   fatty acids

Fat absorption- take place in the mucosal cells- enterocytes  

A. In long-chain fatty acids  

1. Monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids diffuse into intestinal cells  2. The current view is that proteins mediate uptake through facilitated   transport  

3. Some of the transporters are stimulated by insulin (example: FATPs)  4. They are used to reform triglycerides in the mucosal cells (enterocytes)  5. They are packaged in chylomicron (a lipoprotein)  

6. Then, they are taken into the lymphatic system  

B. In short-chained fatty acids  

1. Diffuse into the enterocytes  

2. Water soluble  

3. Taken by capillary to liver via the portal vein


Digestion of Phospholipids  

A. Enzymes are released:

1. From the pancreas

2. From the cells of the small intestine  

B. Broken down to:

1. Glycerol  

2. Fatty Acids

3. Remaining parts  

Digestion of Cholesterol  

A. Enzymes are released from pancreas  

B. Cholesterol is absorbed through specific transport proteins

Check out this video of digestion and absorption of fats:  



Transporting fats in a water environment

A. Lipoproteins serve as transport vehicles for lipids

B. We know a lot about them because they are associated with heart disease  C. They go from the small intestine and the liver to the cells of the body  D. Four classes of lipoproteins  

1. Chylomicrons

2. VLDL- very low density lipoprotein  

3. LDL- low density lipoprotein

4. HDL- high density lipoprotein  


A. Triglyceride is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase B. Fatty acids are taken up by the cells of the body  

1. Diffusion  

2. Facilitated Transport- protein mediated  

C. Most of the glycerol is taken up by the liver  


A. Triglyeceride is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by lipoprotein   lipase on the inside walls of capillaries  

B. After much of the triglyceride is removed from the chylomicron, it is called a   chylomicron remnant  

C. It is removed from the circulation by the liver and its components recycled to   make other lipoproteins or bile  

D. Large particle that carries dietary lipid  

E. Exogenous pathway for lipid metabolism



A. Carries lipids from the liver to tissues  

B. Endogenous pathway for lipid metabolism  

C. Liver packages lipid in a lipoprotein called VLDL  

D. Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglyceride in VLDL to release fatty acids  E. Fatty acid uptake into cells by diffusion  

F. VLDL becomes LDL when the content of cholesterol is greater than that of TG G. LDL is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to tissues

Transport of cholesterol from tissues to liver

A. HDL is made by liver and intestine

B. HDL picks up cholesterol from dying and other cells and transfers it out other   lipoproteins

C. HDL delivers the cholesterol to the liver


CV Disease and Lipids

A. HDL- “good cholesterol”

B. LDL- “bad cholesterol”

C. But isn't cholesterol the same?

D. The actual molecule is the same  


A. Clinical condition

B. Artery wall thickens as a result of plaques  

C. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in   the blood.  

CV Disease and Science  

A. Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, associations, and effects of health   and disease in defined populations

B. A meta-analysis refers to methods focused on contrasting and combing   results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patters among them

Optimal or desirable levels (KNOW THESE NUMBERS)

A. Low LDL-C < 100 mg/dL

B. High HDL-C > 60 mg/dL

C. Low total cholesterol < 200 mg/dL

D. Low triglycerides < 150 mg/dL

A better measure of cholesterol: Non- HDL-C  

A. Provides an estimate of cholesterol in VLDL, IDL, LDL, and Lp(a) B. The difference between the total cholesterol and the HDL-C concentrations  C. Lp(a) is an LDL like particle

D. Takes into account all atherogenic particles


Why all these recommendations?

A. Idea is to reduce the levels of atherogenic particles, but why?

B. Limit the built up of plaques  

Current method to assess CVD Risk (AHA): ASCVD Risk Estimator A. Gender

B. Age

C. Race

D. Total cholesterol levels  

E. HDL-cholesterol levels  

F. Systolic blood pressure  

How to raise HDL-C  

A. Consume fish (fatty fish

B. Increase omega-3s (soy foods, green vegetables, nuts  

C. Eat more purple skinned fruits and juices  

D. Choose lower glycemic index/load foods


Raising HDL

A. Physical activity (at least 43 mins/day, 4 days a week)  

B. Don’t smoke  

Storage of lipids in the body  

A. Adipose Tissue  

1. White Fat or WAT (white adipose tissue)  

a. Usually one lipid droplet  

b. Large storage capacity for lipids (triglyerides)  

c. Source for fatty acids  

d. White fat does more than store fat; it secretes factors which lead   to metabolic disease  

2. Brown Fat or BAT (brown adipose tissue)  

a. Has LOTS of mitochondria- produces energy  

b. Abundant in newborns and hibernating animals  

c. Also found in adults  

d. Functions as a means of generating body heat so it burns energy  B. Adipocytes

1. Cells that are up fat  

2. Actual storage of energy  

Fat Rancidity  

A. Contains products of decomposed oils

B. Breakdown of the C=C bonds by UV light and/or O2  

C. Unpleasant odor and flavor  

D. Polyunsaturated fatty acid more susceptible  

E. Limited shelf life of food products  

Hydrogenated Fat  

A. Sometimes, food producers want the physical properties of the lipid  B. Good for making pastries, biscuits, pie crust


Prevention of Rancidity  

A. Hydrogenation  

1. Process used to solidify an oil  

2. Addition of H to C=C double bonds  

C. Increases shelf life of food product  

B. Addition of vitamin E (antioxidant)  

C. Chemicals added such as BHA (butylated hydroxyanisol) and BHT (butylated   hydroxytolune)  

D. Formation of trans fatty acid  

1. Trans fat is very similar to the shape of a saturated fatty acid  

2. Presents health risk similar to saturated fats

In other tissues with oils, consider the smoke point  

A. Smoke point is the temperature at which oil starts to smoke  

B. It produces harmful chemicals

Recommendations for fat intake  

A. No specific RDA for total fat intake in adults

B. Food and Nutrition Board recommends 5% of your calorie intake comes from   the total of both essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids)  C. 2015 Dietary Guidelines- intake of oils should be around 12% of total calories  D. AHA- 25-30% of calories from fat but no more than 7% of calories come from   saturated fat; no more than 1% come from trans fat 

E. DRI for omega-6 and omega-3- how much should you have of the essential   fatty acids? There are no RDA’s but there are adequate intakes  1. Omega-6 for females 14-30 years in 12 g/day

2. Omega 3 for females 14-30 is 1.1 g/day

3. The ratio is 11:1. Is it a good ratio?

a. A Typical western diet is 15:1 to 20:1  

b. 4:1 ratio in total mortality from DC

c. 2:5:1- beneficial for colon cancer and rheumatoid arthritis  

d. What ratio is best?? Closer to 1:1 seems best.


What fats/lipids/oils should you consume?

1. Replace extra virgin olive old for vegetable oils and butter

2. Seek out omega-3s through fish/seafood or nuts or green vegetables 3. Limit saturated and trans fat  

Fatty Acid Structure  

A. Alpha End  

B. Omega End

Why is atherosclerosis harmful?

A. Atherosclerosis is a clinical condition  

 that leads to heart attack and stroke

B. Artery wall thickens as a result of plaques (fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other   substances found in the blood)

What leads to atherosclerosis?

A. Main cause is unknown  

B. Thought to be an inflammatory process  

C. Involves oxidation of LDL and the deposition of oxidized cholesterol  

Lipid changes associated with atherosclerosis  

A. Elevated LDL-C

B. Low HDL-C

C. Elevated cholesterol  

D. Elevated triglycerides  

Omega-6 to omega-3 ratios

A. Consensus is that omega-3 fatty acids are good for your health  B. Seek out foods with high amounts of omega 3  

1. Flaxseed oil, soybean oil, canola oil

2. Fatty fish  

C. If more omega 3 consumption than the ratio will improve



1. Name the type of carbohydrate that stimulates insulin secretion. Monosaccharides.

2. What is gluconeogenesis? The production of glucose that you produce when you  fast and is released by the liver.

3. Name the monosaccharides in sucrose/maltose: Glucose and fructose. 4. T or F Fructose is considered lipogenic. TRUE

5. What is the sugar that is measured in “blood sugar”? Glucose.

6. What is lactase? And what happens if you don’t have enough lactase? Lactase is an  enzyme (-ASE) that breaks down lactose and can lead to lactose  intolerance/persistence.

7. Name the two organs that primarily control blood glucose? Liver and pancreas. 8. Write the general chemical structure for a carbohydrate. CHO.

9. Name 3 characteristics of functional fiber  

1. Resistant to digestion

2. Fermentable

3. It is added to food  

4. Stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria (prebiotic)  

10. What is in “other carbohydrates”? Starch content (complex carbs) 11. What does “Total Fiber” consist of? Dietary fiber + functional fiber.


12. What is in “Sugars”? Simple sugars.

13. What can influence glycemic index? The glycemic index is the ratio of a standard  blood glucose, the food that you're eating, your structure, and the whole  package of what you're eating.

14. In the experiment of insulin experiments, what happened to the dogs in  which the pancreas was removed? The dogs got diabetes, the scientists  tasted the urine (too sweet), and they drank a lot more water and peed  excessively.

15. Name 2 food groups that are high in carbohydrates. Grains, Milk, Fruit  16. T or F fiber arrives at the colon intact. TRUE because it resists digestion.

17. What organ secretes glucagon? Glucagon is the hormone released from the  pancreas by the alpha cells (insulin created from beta cells.

18. What hormone is released by the adrenal glands to rapidly control  bladder functions? Adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

19. What carbohydrate is stored in the liver? Glycogen.

20. Name the four organs that principally mediate insulins action. Pancreas, liver,  stomach, adrenal glands.



1. What property do all lipids share? They are hydrophobic.  

2. Name an essential omega-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid.

3. By what mechanism of transport would you expect this fatty acid (CH3(CH2)6COOH)  to be taken up by cells? Since it is saturated and short, it will be taken up by  diffusion and won't have to go through the lymphatic system.

4. T or F: Minor gastrointestinal upsets including diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, and  abdominal bloating is a side effect of omega-3 supplements. True.  

5. What do you call a lipid that is solid at room temperature? Fat.  

6. What is an adipocyte? An adipocyte is fat cell that can either be white or brown.  It stores fat as well as secretes many substances that can lead to diseases  later in life.

7. Lecithin is what type of lipid? A phospholipid.

8. What type of fat has lots of mitochondria? Brown fat because it burns energy.  

9. What are functions of cholesterol? It keeps cell membrane fluid, makes bile,  vitamin D, and sex hormones.

10. What does emulsify do to lipids? It helps dissolve the oils and aids in digestion.  11. What organ is the major site of fat digestion? The small intestine.


12. What is a meta-analysis? It is when you take a lot of studies and compare the  conclusions drawn from all of them as a means of gathering information.  

13. TG is broken down into which two molecules? Glycerol and fatty acids.

14. Why is HDL-C a key player in CV disease risk? It collects cholesterol which  lowers it.  

15. What is the function of a lipoprotein lipase and where is it found? On the inside  walls of capillaries.  

16. T or F: Protein mediated uptake is important in fatty acid transport in enterocytes. T. 17. What is a lipoprotein? A transporter for triglyceride and cholesterol.  

18. How can you increase your HDL? Don't smoke, try to exercise, eat fish, and eat  food with lower glycemic index.  

19. Name two factors you should consider when choosing a vegetable oil? It’s smoke  point, what types of fatty acids are in it, and if it has polyphenols and  vitamins.

20. What are the desirable or optimal levels  

LDL-C < 100

HDL-C > 60

Total cholesterol < 200

Triglycerides < 100

21. A biotech company working on a new medication for a skin disease found in clinical  trials for a skin disease found in clinical trials that the new drug stimulates the  growth of brown fat. should the be happy or frustrated? They should buy more  stock so they can burn more energy which allows people to lose weight.




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