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HIST 177 Midterm #3/Final Study Guide

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by: Rachel Sung

HIST 177 Midterm #3/Final Study Guide HIST 177

Marketplace > University of California Santa Barbara > History > HIST 177 > HIST 177 Midterm 3 Final Study Guide
Rachel Sung
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Study guide for Midterm #3/Final
California History
Gregory Graves
Study Guide
hist 177, history 177, hist, history, Study Guide
50 ?




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"Can you just teach this course please? lol :)"
Norwood White II

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Sung on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 177 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Gregory Graves in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see California History in History at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)

-Norwood White II


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Date Created: 03/04/16
Midterm 3/Final Study Guide Part 1: Agribusiness, the grapes of Wrath, and Agricultural Immigration Part 2: Oil and Highways, Movie Business/Entertainment Industry, or WWII - Choose 1 and transition into an overview of modern (post-war) CA - ***Will be given 2 topics, have to choose 1 PART 1: Agribusiness, Grapes of Wrath, and Agricultural Immigration Background Info…(what REALLY happened) - 1840s-50s during Gold Rush o Food shortage, lots of imported goods, expensive o First thing organized was cattle grazing but w/ increasing pop. needed another solution  growing crops o Farmers organize into irrigation districts  Govt. taxes people who live there and used it to bring in water  Lead to improved lands & farmers start to grow specialty crops (ex. fruits, grapes, date palms, avocados) - By 1870s CA becomes huge agricultural state (mostly corporate owned) - By 1900s o Because of WWI, govt. encouraged agricultural production to support troops  CA becomes huge large scale agribusiness  23% of nations canned fruit came from CA & produced 80% of nations wines o California Fruit Growers’ Exchange (AKA Sunkist)  Organized cooperatives like California Fruit Growers’ Exchange  Farmers belong to cooperatives that help to keep and maintain the price of produce - 1920s & 30s o After WWI is over, agriculture continued to be produced at great rates but it was too much (overproduction) o Agricultural prices begin to fall  farmers looking to cut costs o One way was to bring in cheap labor (WHICH is the idea behind Grapes of Wrath….)  Dry farming was how farming was done before all the new tech., w/ no irrigation  1900s – TX and OK were #1 production cotton states & used dry cotton farming technique  Majority of farmers were tenant farmers (person rents land instead of own)  There were also sharecroppers (landowners allow tenants to use land in return for a share of the crops produced on their land)  As tech. advances, tractors are invented and start mechanized agriculture  less jobs for people  CA agriculture was ALWAYS mechanized, but now it was spreading to places that used dry farming (like OK & TX)  lots of people jobless o So agriculture sector is going down, contributing to the Great Depression - Great Depression o Prez. Roosevelt wanted to get nation out of depression  comes up with New Deal policy  One part of it was the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)  Problem was overproduction so tried to reduce supply  prices rise  more money for farmers  Solution: govt. paid farmers to destroy parts of their crops o Began tradition of paying farmers not to grow crops o 1934 – owners realized they would make more money if no tenant farmers  cotton tenant farmers & sharecroppers kicked out in OK (known as Okies/Arkies)  250,000 Okies/Arkies migrate to CA  Beginning of the end of small farming Grapes of Wrath by John Steinback - Soo, he kinda uses this background info in his book BUT NOT ACCURATELY o Doesn’t talk about impact of AAA & migration - Mixes impact of AAA and agricultural crisis with the Dust Bowl o Migration due to AAA and agricultural crisis due to the Dust Bowl DID happen at the same time BUT in completely different places…  Dust Bowl: sever drought during 1920s & 30s in the high plains  Puts farmers off the land, but very few compared AAA’s impact  Story takes place in Sallisaw (main characters: Tom Joad, Ma Joad & Casey), which is nowhere near the high plains & actually quite plentiful in water  Main characters are kicked off their lands & migrate to CA Back to actual history - People who migrated to CA expected better economy, but not really much better because of Great Depression o Agriculture revenue dropped from $750k in 1920 to $350k in 1922 o No one bought specialty crops  less business for farmers o Things got so bad that Democrats got Socialist, Upton Sinclair to run for Gov. in 1934 election  Started campaign End Poverty in California (EPIC) which called for even more radical changes than the New Deal  Ran against Frank Merriam  Many were afraid of Sinclair’s radical changes and he lost o Lots of conflict for Filipino workers  In 1920s, there were lots of Asian exclusion laws that didn’t include Filipinos  many workers in CA were Filipino but looked down upon - WWII starts  shortage of farm labors  Bracero program o Fed. Govt. contractors went to Mexico to hire workers to work in farms o But many started to come into the country without contracts (undocumented workers)  price of labor down  terrible working conditions, exploitation of workers o Cause was taken up by Cesar Chavez  1996 – Organized farm workers into the United Farm Workers (UFW)  Wanted to boycott CA grape growers o Growers signed contract with UFW aimed at improving plight for farm workers  Dolores Huerta – cofounder of UFW o very powerful force in UFW movement PART 2: Oil and Highways, Movie Business/Entertainment Industry, or WWII OIL AND HIGHWAYS Late 1850s - New kind of mining starts for Black Gold (AKA oil) o People knew about oil for long time but wasn’t considered valuable until they found out that it’s refined form (kerosene) could be used for lamp oil - John D. Rockefeller started to monopolize all old mining areas o Established Standard Oil Co. (by 1880s, owned about 90% of oil companies) Late 1800s - Use for oil starts to expand (ex. lubricant, heat source for steam engines) - Didn’t start oil drilling CA at first, since it was too much work - ~1890s, first oil well drilled in CA by Unocal - 1892: Edward Doheny found out that tar pits meant that there was oil o Started drilling around La Brea Tar Pits $$$$$$ o By 1895, pumped out 700k barrels of oil/day o Becomes Arco - 1895: Standard Oil Co. comes out to CA (AKA Chevron) o Drilled first off shore oil wells off coast of CA in Summerland 1900: CA produced 4.3 million barrels of oil, 1910: 78 million 1920: 105 million - CA was #1 oil producing state - Oil business was #1 business in CA - One place that big oil was being produced was Signal Hill (oil derricks were literally in your backyard) - Gasoline is being produced 1930s - Found better ways to get oil from offshore to onshore  lots of coastal developments occur o Used idea of diagonal drilling, built islands for drilling rigs - Tons of oil refineries started to spring up Post WWII - Tech for drilling even further offshore is developed WHAT does this have to do with highway growth/boom?? - Turn of 20 C, only 4k cars, 1920: 1 million cars, 1930: 24 million cars  more demand for gas!! SO CARS! - Henry Ford invents the “horseless carriage” (car) o by 1910s, very successful, 1920 50% of cars were a Ford o he started the nation of wheels - Cars very important for cities growing in West o West: cares more acceptable and useful  East already had other means of transportation (trains/subways/buses)  In LA, there was 1 car for every 3 people  One of the most car based cities in the nation - Henry Huntington starts thePacific Electric Railway (AKA Red Cars ) o Series of trolley systems that literally went everywhere in LA o Eventually replaced by freeways History of Highways in CA - Begins with the CA State Bureau of Highways est. 1895 o Created to battle Southern Pacific RR (who dominated CA RR) o They wanted to break the grip of the RR by creating highways - 1909: CA issues firstState highway bonds o $18 million for building highways - 1912: first CA state highway construction begins o Problem: not much money, could only afford highways made with wood (plank highways) - 1916: fed. Govt. gets involved and passes Federal Highway Aid Act o Set up a system of federal highways o Started national program to connect every major city in the U.S. by highways (Ex. US 101, Route 66, & bridges like Golden Gate) o Helped to give lots of people jobs too - These projects showed that CA was really important o Population was growing really fast and needed to do something about it! o CA had huge traffic problems and highways weren't good enough  So got together with fed. Govt. and created "superhighways" (AKA freeways)  First one was the Pasadena Freeway - After WWII, fed. Govt. comes back again o 1950s: Congress passes National Defense Highway Act  It was called that cuz it would cost LOTS of money & the only way to get it passed was it to sound good  The idea was that in case of national security, civilians would be restricted and used for military purposes  Lead to huge boom in car transportation  Lead to huge advances in CA like the construction of first 4-level interchange (4 layers of highways) & better highway systems - 1972: CA creates Caltrans AKA CA DOTS o Replaces old bureau of highways and expanded to include trains o Comes up with…  SigAlert : when unexpected event closes 1+ lanes for 30+ minutes  Bott Dots : the dots on the lane markers that make sound when you drive over them THE MOVIE BUSINESS - Turn of 20 C, motion pictures were huge - Originated with inventorThomas Edison , who in 1870s, invented thKinetoscope o Picture with light going through them, when you turn the crank, looks like motion picture o First movies were made in New York (Also Germany and England) o Then move business to CA  Producers came to CA originally because NY was more $$$$ (higher taxes and stricter laws)  Also found conditions were better in CA o Most motion picture companies move around Hollywood  By end of 1810, lots of movie studios moved to LA area  By 1914, 50 major movie studios in LA area - The Great Train Robbery (1905) o First movie shot in Edison studio o Business continues to make movies - D. W. Griffith o Made first really big hit movie calBirth of a Nation (1914) o Really good filming techniques, bad story (about KKK) - Hollywood started to draw NY actors to CA for movies o Ex.Charlie Chaplin  A part of thNew York/Hollywood Tradition (Eastern Europe migrants perform on NY stage as entertainers/comedians & hired to come out to CA) - People started to go to movies all across the nation - Mary Pickford was the leading female start during this time o Known as "America's Sweetheart" in late teens - 20s - By 1920s, Hollywood becoming the glamor capital of the world o Actors and actresses were worshipped o Advertised products o 50% of American population went to movies every week o Supply houses were in big business  Made costumes/props for movies - 20s was time of first sex symbols o Ex.Rudolph Valentino & Theda Bera - So CA was becoming the generator for popular culture and setting trends - 1927: Warner Bros make first talking film called The Jazz Singer o Before this, producers thought it would be a bad business move o Immediate success & revolutionize film  Movies progress from silent films to talking films - Great Depression  people looking for escape in movies o A lot of movies were about getting peoples mind off the hard times o Movie prices drop to 10 cents (from previous 25 cents) o Ex.Gold Diggers of 1935 choreographed by Busby Berkeley  These types of movies were generally about wealthy people with a thin plot to piece together musical numbers  We get the first colored movies o Americans first political standup comedian: Will Rogers  First he twirled rope (like cowboys) and did tricks but then started to talk -- > comedian  Then when talking films came out, made millions off movie o Star:Shirley Temple born and raised in LA  Was basically trained to be an actress since she was little  Biggest box office attraction in late 30s  Made number of films with African American performer, Bill Robinson  He would be servant/ranch hand in Southern themed movies - Late 1930s, epic films start to appear (better color, sound, technology) o Ex.Gone with the Wind based on book, lots of Oscars (11) that year o Ex. The Wizard of Oz - WWII - Movie business takes up war effort o Makes various movies about the war, also training films o Ex. 1942 Casablanca o Cartoons of WWII are often overlooked (ex. Disney cartoons, Donald Duck wakes up to find himself a Nazi) - 1940s – last “high” for movie industry o 90 mil people going to movies o By 1958, dropped to 40 mil people going to movies - 1960s – invention oThe Tube (TV) crushes movie industry o TV in 90% of American homes o With all the advanced tech, movie industries adapted for TVs  formation of Entertainment industry - 1970s – the Bay area also got a taste of the entertainment industry o The demand for computer generated images was increasing which created jobs for people in the Bay (economic impact) - Cultural impact o People from around the world see American films, they mostly see shots of CA because that's where they were filmed  People around the world thought that they were seeing what the USA was like, but actually only seeing what CA was like  Influenced the way people talked, dressed, etc. WWII & IMPACT ON CA - Oil business was really big in CA, so when went to war, CA was really able to provide the energy needed for the war - Show business also helped the WWII o Made lots of pro-Ally films (ex. how to build train, training exercises, etc.) - Lots of changes in nation because of WWII o The economy was doing a lot better from the Great Depression, then they start to prepare for WWII  Helped even more to push lower unemployment rates - Sept. 1, 1938 - Invasion of Poland o First act of WWII o The US starts gets involved in WWII against theAxis powers (Berlin, German, Italy, Japan)  They start to enlist more people into military  Start to build more weapons of war --> end of unemployment issue - 1940s, Allies realize they need the US to help out if they want to win o US starts to provide aid to the Allies (clothes, military weapons) o Govt. spending increased  Dec. 7, 1941 - Increased even more after the attack on Pearl Harbor  Japanese launch surprise attack at Pearl Harbor  US officially declares war against Japan and the Axis powers - History of Japanese in CA o Japanese subjects of emperor couldn't leave Japan until 1868 o Until 1920s, Jap immigration was already limited, then completely cut off o After attack on Pearl Harbor, Americans began to fear a Japanese invasion o Ellwood Pier, Feb, 1942  Japanese submarine comes up and fires at oil rig  Thought to be an attack on US  People grew even more fearful of Japanese invasion - Japanese interment o The fear of the Japanese invasion affected people of Jap. Decent o Prez Roosevelt signed executive order to bar certain citizens from “sensitive areas”  ~19,000 people were removed from "sensitive areas" and relocated o Manzanar was one of the biggest internment camps o There was no evidence of threat  It was mainly out of fear and questioned their loyalty o In Dec. 1944, internment camps ended o Eventually, govt. issued an apology and $20k compensation for those who were in the camps - US starts to spend lots of money on military supplies o Aircrafts  One of the main focuses in CA  Loughead brothers started a shop in SB, later changed name to Lockheed , moved to Burbank starts to build aircrafts for war  Donald Douglas starts another big aircraft company (now part of Boeing)  1933, aircraft industry had about 19k employees (industry wasn't doing that well since not that many people could afford planes)  but during WWII, aircraft industry grew  1944: 300k employees  Produced about 300k planes by end of WWII o Since planes need computer tech, it created the computer industry in CA, post-WWII as well o Ship building  Another main defense industry in CA  Main guy, Henry Kaiser  When WWII began, wanted to monopolize ship building industry o Started to buy out companies in CA and build ships  At beginning of war, took 25 days to build ship o By end of war, only took around 17 days to build a ship  Mostly produced liberty ships (cargo ships)  1942: Wanted to build state of the art steel plant for his ships o Asks govt. for money, gets it o Site location in Fontana  Had 300k people working in his shipyards o There were so many people and wanted to provide a cheap medical plan for his workers  Eventually became Kaiser Permanente  Workers would get free health plan, and family members would be only 10cents - Camp Pendleton o Created with the idea that military wanted a training place in the West Coast  Wanted to have training exercises in Pacific Ocean o By beginning of 1943, 50k military trainees here - Camp Irwin o Fed. Govt. buys land in Bakersfield CA so that people could train in conditions similar to desert war zones - May 7, 1945 VE Day (Victory in Europe Day) o Nazi surrenders to US - But in summer of 1945, war was still going on in the Pacific o Japanese would no surrender even though being constantly bombed o New Prez., Harry Truman , gets word about a secret projecManhattan Project  Had been going on since 1939  Making an atomic bomb that was developed to use on the Germans  They had first successful test: Trinity Test o Truman didn't hesitate to use the bomb on Japan ><  Aug. 6, 1945 B12 bombers fly overHiroshima and drops bomb  Killed 75k people  Japan STILL doesn't surrender so Aug. 9, second bomb dropped on Nagasaki o A lot of the framework for the bomb was done in Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in CA o Aug. 14, Japan finally surrenderVJ Day (Victory over Japan Day) - Before, CA was constantly going back and forth between economic prosperity and depression o When military is important --> economic prosperity o When military dies --> economy dies - But after WWII, the economy didn't go down o Because after WWII, Cold War starts and military spending still remains  Aircraft industry becomes aerospace industries  Ship industries become computer industries CA POST-WAR MEGATRENDS (whatever topic you chose to write about from 3 events mentioned above, you have to tie it to this section. Basically, all the events help CA to develop, making more people want to come to CA, causing CA’s growth [I think tying entertainment to post-war CA trends would be hardest tho]) - Between 1940-60, CA grew faster than any decade before then - Reasons for population growth o Millions of service people & families came to CA during WWII to train & decided to stay o 1946: GI Billpassed  Gave veterans cheap loans for houses and education  Lead to housing boom and more educated peoples o CA finally has big league sports  Now CA has a big attraction, making it a go-to place (ex. football [49ers, Rams] baseball [Giants, Dodgers]) o Great Space Race against Soviets  Soviets launch first satellite into spSputnik , leading to the race to see who could send man to the mood first  So govt. poured huge amounts of money into space programs  Since CA was already major player in aircraft industry, it pushed for the transition into aerospace industry creating more jobs and attracting more people - Responses to population growth o Urban sprawl /urbanization  People move out of the city and into suburbs, creating suburbias  Huge housing tract home style development (a lot of houses are systematically built on a tract of land & they all look the same) o Expansion of public education  Increased demand for education mainly because GI Bill made demand for education dramatically increase so the govt. had to expand public education Lead to the expansion of and  community colleges, CSUs, UCs - Growth interruptions – In 1970s, rate of growth slows down o Fear of earthquakes  1971 Sylmar Earthquake  Killed ~100 people and lots of damage to medical facilities o Lots of delays  Since CA was growing SOOO fast, lots of things couldn’t keep up  Highways, although great development, had lots of traffic & smog o 1973 OPEC Oil Embargo  OPEC decided to withhold oil from the US causing spike in gas prices and major gas shortages  Had huge effect on CA since CA greatly relied on cars  So lots of people thought “let’s not move there now” or they left o Water shortage  In the 1980s, there was a proposal to builPeripheral Canal that would bring more water into CA  People were against it because more water would mean more growth & CA was already growing TOO much - Domestic immigration o From WWII – 1970s, most people came to CA from other states o But since then, CA has a lot more international immigrations  Whenever there was trouble somewhere in the world, like war), people would come to the US  Since many flights stop in CA before transferring flights to another state, many people just stayed in CA - Now, CA is a minority-majority state o Meaning the Caucasian population is less than 50% o Second minority-majority state (1 is HI)


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