SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 2
SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 2 SOC 100
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by luke koppa on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 at Colorado State University taught by John Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Behavioral Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapter 4 Social Interaction in Everyday Life Social Status o Who am I? Various answers, all are social statuses o Social Status= a social position that a person occupies Ascribed no choice Male vs female, white vs. black, young vs. old, etc… Achieved chosen, a result of our actions Criminal, student, good guy, etc… Master status the most noticeable or definitive status Professor Brouillette= instructor Barack Obama= President Lebron James= Basketball Player We want our master status to be positive o We want our statuses to work for us, and to work for society o ExConvicts get master status of Criminals not what they want Person fits many labels o Ex: Lebrong James Black Male Gen Y millennial Father th Truant student in 4 grade Philanthropist Husband Football player Basketball player (likely master status) o Ex: Miley Cyrus White female American Actress Recording Artist (master status?) Granddaughter of Dolly Parton Southern Baptist Child Born out of Wedlock Gen Y Millennial Role o Definition= behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status o Ex: an employee at wendy’s (status) is supposed to arrive at work on time, be clean, and be polite to customers (role) Status = position in society Role= expected behavior o Can be freedoms and restrictions o Each status has different role(s) Role Strain: o Definition: occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies o Ex: Student status Strain between role of getting enough sleep and role of going to class Role Conflict o Definition: Occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time o Ex: Father status vs. Husband status Conflict between earning $ for son (father) and spending time with wife (husband) Sociologist opinion on role/status issue o Most people focus on problems in life as an individual issue o Sociologists focus on statuses and roles as origins of issues o If we look at statuses’ impact on our lives we can take some of the strain off of ourselves o Ex: Newly elected Congress members Daily schedule consists of only 3/10 hours of possible work Rest is calling, constituent visits, strategic outreach to get $$$ Individual POV: congress doesn’t get anything done because politicians are lazy and unproductive Sociological POV: role strain of congress member makes progress much more difficult. How does one determine a deviant act? o Belief o Tradition o Law o Whatever people say is deviant IS deviant (symbolic interactionist) Opinion of people in the environment Symbolic interaction o Microlevel perspective o Society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups Social Construction of Reality: o Process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction The Thomas Theorem o Definition: situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences o If people say things are true, they’re true Not ultimate truth, but sociological truth o Although reality is “soft” as it is fashioned, it can become “hard” in its effects Understand other people’s reality Ethnomethodology o Definition: study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings o Reality depends on person’s perception Positive/Biological science o There is one reality that we are trying to find o See stimulus and reaction o Different from symbolic interactionist Symbolic Interactionist science o See stimulus, Interpretation, reaction o Reality is inside people’s minds “we don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are” o Anais Nin o We cannot help but see things from our own perspective Dramaturgical Analysis: o Definition: study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performances o Performances: Front stage/Back stage Public vs. private self Private self/back stage serves as practice for public self o Impression management How to present/create public self What to say, what to wear, how to act, etc… o Civil inattention Purposefully ignoring certain things Ex: not telling someone they have toilet paper stuck to their shoe due to trying to not embarrass them o Nonverbal communication facial expression, eye contact, touching Touching can be seen as a power move, sexual, no meaning All depends on context and people’s realities o Personal space o Breaking the rules How to discover what the rules are need to break them Activity with personal space o Men and women asked to walk toward another person and raise hand when the other gets close enough o Femaletofemale was closest o Femaletomale was furthest Social construction of language o Examples of different meaning of synonyms Unemployed vs. between jobs Girls vs. women Handicapped vs. exceptional child Colored people vs. people of color Sexually active vs. promiscuous Used car vs. preowned car o Not just communicating, it is shaping ours and others reality o Humor o Product of reality construction o Humor provides a way to express an opinion without being serious, relieves tension o Humor often is a sign of real conflict o Can be used in malicious way o Is serious in the manner in which we use it When would you help or harm someone? o Good way to analyze human interaction Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations Organizations have become increasingly important in society o We interact with more, larger groups on daily basis than previous generations o Class poll 1/5 has worked in a fast food restaurant Social group o Definition: two or more people who identify and interact with one another Class poll almost none would like fewer significant relationships Majority have right number 40% would like more o Primary social groups intimate, really know a person Relationship exists/is worthwhile because of the other person (relationship itself) Personal orientation Usually long duration Broad relationship involving many activities Goal, end Ex: Families, spouses, best friends, o Secondary social Groups Relationship exists due to circumstance, goal (not about the person/relationship) Goal orientation Variable duration, often short term Narrow relationship involving few activities Means to an end Ex: work colleagues, other students The Temporary Society (Bennis & Slater) o Movement from having less primary relationships to more secondary relationships o Consequences of this change: 1. Individuation more separated from personal/reliable groups 2. Concomitant feelings of alienation Feelings of being lost/unfulfilled 3. Interchangeability Any person with same set of skills expected to work just as well in any area and not get hung up on personal considerations Ex: Motel or Fast Food chains will be the same throughout the world 4. Otherdirectedness Deciding what to do based off of how well one can fit in to the group As opposed to Tradition Directedness (look to past for input), Inner Directedness (self, regardless of others) 5. Intensification of marital relationships The small, personal groups that people used to turn to for support are no longer there As a result people rely completely on spouse/family for support o Puts more pressure on family than in previous years Formal organization o A highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner o Trade personal relationships for professional advancement and more secondary relationships o A bureaucracy Bureaucracy o Rational model designed to perform complex tasks efficiently o Max Weber Said that bureaucracies are much more efficient than previous primary groups Said they were the key to raising standard of living Listed 6 elements to promote organizational efficiency Specialization of duties o Allows people to become experts in certain activities due to not having to do everything else Hierarchy of offices o Organizes specialized duties o Evaluate/manage based purely off of performance and not personal Rules and regulations o Allows for impersonal organization Technical competence o Employment based on technical abilities Impersonality o All are equal Formal, written communications o Rise in standard of living would not be possible without this organization Personal needs/wants are not addressed Problems with bureaucracy o Bureaucratic alienation Bureaucracy designed to treat people as segmented pieces (how good their brain, hands, legs are) Leads to boredom, possible acting out by employees o Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism In attempt to become efficient, bureaucracies can become inefficient Following rules rather than common sense can lead to inefficiency/problems o Bureaucratic Inertia Bureaucracy may not be able to adapt o With new computer technology, privacy has declined In search for efficiency, bureaucracies control the flow of information and privacy has decreased Example: Apple vs. FBI o Time orientation Time has become more valuable We have broken time down into smaller increments, which has influenced our opinions on time Ex: changes to baseball to make it faster “time is money” Psychological time: our reaction to the time we have In Praise of Slowness book by Carl Honore Damage caused by speeding up every aspect of our lives o Health, environment, society in general o Ex: Honore began to speed read bedtime stories for his son, made him realize the effect of the “roadrunner” culture Cause of acceleration of society: how we think about time itself o Thinking of time as linear use it or lose it (time is scarce) o Makes use try to exploit time to the fullest People realizing the damage this causes led to Slow Movement o Slow Food, slow cities, alternative medicine, slow sex, lower working hours, Clicker question: Do you think you have enough free time? Barely any said too much Most said not enough Rest said they had enough In the future how do you think this will change In general, thought free time would not change much Slightly more said they would have less Goal of Life? Ones with the most toys when they die, win! bumper sticker Ones with the most toys when they die, still die! bumper sticker Many more written words Lords prayer 66 words Declaration of independence 1322 Govt regulation on sale of cabbage 26,911 Peter’s Principle o In a hierarchy, individuals tend to rise to their level of incompetence Once at that level they are incompetent and will not get promoted further Parkinson’s law o We will fill whatever time we give ourselves o Work expands to fill the time available for its completion Japanese Model o New employees same salary, same responsibilities o Lifetime security (lifetime employment) HP attempted to imitate this policy o Broadbased training in all phases of their operation o Collective decision making (quality circles) Low level employees had input into their operations o Holistic involvement in the lives of employees Picnics, games, etc… Mcdonaldization of society o Nonfast organizations mimic the organizational principles of Mcdonalds o Mcdonalds became successful due to organization of assembly line of food o Focuses on more stuff rather than better stuff o 4 principles Efficiency – get most done as quickly as possible Predictability – you know what you’re getting Uniformity standard plan; leaving nothing to chance Control through automation – humans are most unreliable factor o Leads to: Burger Kingization Starbuckization Seven Elevenization Etc… affects many aspects of our life Education o New registration process vs previous (going and getting a card for each class) Work Criminal justice system Health care Religion o Large MegChurches often have several thousand members Travel Virtually every other aspect of society Chapter 6 Sexuality and Society Do we have complete choice about sexuality? o Change in opinions about samesex relations Clicker: Safe Sex practices should be first introduced in school to students in: o Elementary 14% o Junior high 70% o High School 13% o College o Never; they should not be taught in school Clicker: too much emphasis on sex in TV and movies? o Yes 66% o No 21% o Uncertain – 13% Why study Sexuality? o Wasn’t talked about 50 years ago o 1. Human sexuality is an important component of every society o 2. How people express sexuality: Varies from society to society Varies within a society over time o 3. How we express our sexuality is learned o 4. Our values & subsequent behavior are shaped by our exposure to various forces within social environment: family, schools, peers, mass media o 5. How have these forces shaped our values and behavior regarding sexuality? Runner’s world o 64% say running makes them better lovers o 66% think about sex while running o 8.3% think about running while having sex History o Ancient Greece Function of women= bear children Female sexual actions= more Male sexual actions much more relaxed Idea transferred to today society? o Reformation (early 1500’s) Sex and marriage connected Focus on primary relationship aspect of marriage o Renaissance Focused on enjoyment/expression More free with sex, less strict o Puritans Very strict Sex not talked about o Kinsey 1948 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male Book stated that males were having sex to have fun, not just to bear children/relationships o Today? Sex more accepted outside marital bonds More of a leisure activity now Sexuality Procreation Relational Recreational Childbearing Experience Feeling Human Object Primary relationship Secondary relationship Treating person as objective/secondary relationship lead to negative results? o Violence? Clicker: sexual relations between man and women before marriage? o Always wrong 11% o Almost always wrong 5% o Wrong only sometimes 20% o Not wrong at all 55% o Uncertain 9% Sexual controversies from national study o Always wrong 21% o Almost always wrong 5.5% o Wrong only sometimes 15.8% o Not wrong at all 54.1% o Uncertain 3.6% Clicker; how do you feel about extramarital sex (cheating) o Always wrong 59% o Almost always wrong 19% o Wrong only sometimes 7% o Not wrong at all 9% o Uncertain 10% National Poll: feelings about extramarital sex o Always wrong 78.4% o Almost always wrong 11.9% o Wrong only sometimes 6.7% o Not wrong at all 1.2% o Uncertain 1.8% Takeaway from results o Nation is permissive to premarital sex, but not as much extramarital o College students not as different in opinions Sexual Revolution o 1960’s: fostered new openness toward sexuality The pill gave females more power over sexual relationship than before Attitudes toward sex changed dramatically Double standard challenged o Extramarital sex 75% of men and 90% of women remain faithful during marriage o Premarital sex Men and women almost equal in percent reporting engaging in premarital sex Premarital sex is broadly accepted among america’s youth Sexual Controversies o Teen pregnancy in US Highest rate among other highincome countries Sex education in schools: solution or a problem Decrease pregnancy Increase sexual promiscuity? Sexual Counterrevolution o Reemergence of fundamental religious groups o Holistic health movement o Increased concern over economic consequences of children born out of wedlock Majority are teens and poor o Backlash to sexual revolution Women’s groups o HIVAids Sexual Violence and Abuse o A culture of rape o Rape o Date rape (or acquaintance rape) o Myths about rape Theoretical Analysis o Functionalist How can sexual activity be used to maintain society o Interactionist o Conflict inequalities o Feminist theory o Queer theory Prostitution o How does it destabilize or stabilize our economy? o What are the functions of it? Abortion Controversy o Deliberate termination of a pregnancy o 1973 Roe vs. Wade U.S. Supreme Court o Prochoice o Prolife o Circumstances of the pregnancy makes a big difference in how people see this issue
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