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by: Melisa O'Reilly


Melisa O'Reilly
GPA 3.54


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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melisa O'Reilly on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Arts 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/201956/arts-1-university-of-california-irvine in Arts at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
V I in quot33312709tober2008 Jonathan Feng i u lgnrand Particle ix University of lifornia Irvine DARK MATTER 3 Unambiguous evidencefor B39 B ui l L39Lquotrl 39 N 9 g new phySIcs Intimater connected to central problems electroweak symmetry breaking structure formation Supernovae Remarkable precision QDMh2 01099 1 00062 WMAP 2008 l liliiiiliiiiliiiiliiii i l l i 0 1 2 3 9M 27 Oct 08 Feng 2 OPEN QUESTIONS What particle forms dark matter What is its mass What is its spin What are its other quantum numbers and interactions ls dark matter composed of one particle species or many How was it produced When was it produced Why does QDM have the observed value What was its role in structure formation How is dark matter distributed now Is it absolutely stable 27 Oct 08 Feng 3 CANDIDATES Observational constraints mil Not baryonic a5 weakly 35 i interacting 111 W H i Not hot as cold 33 322 Not shortlived as stable 23 Hem ii E In KK pho f D39 39 E Ta gt g g Masses and interaction 31 1m strengths span many Ef gycw 3 many orders of magnitude 103 1 mass GeV Focus on WIMPs superWIMPs WIMPIess dark matter 27 Oct 08 Feng 4 THE WIMP MIRACLE 1 Assume a new heavy particle X is initially in thermal equilibrium XXH ff 2 Universe cools xxf ff 3 xs freeze out xx 27 Oct 08 om 5 0001 000m 106 Kolb Turner 10 100 xzmT time gt 1000 Feng 5 The amount of dark matter left over is inversely proportional to the annihilation cross section 1 What is the constant of proportionality of Total ADark Matter Density Impose a natural relation Fraction 2 2 2 HEPAP LHCILC Subpanel 2006 GA 2 kOL m SO QDM N m band width from k 05 2 s and P wave Remarkable coincidence QDM 01 for m 01 1 TeV Cosmology alone tells us we should explore the weak scale 27 Oct 08 Feng 6 STABILITY This all assumes the new New Partide States particle is stable Why should it be LEP s Cosmological Legacy Problems 1 1 Discrete symmetry 1 Stability In many theories dark Standard Model matter IS eaSIer to explain particles than no dark matter 27 Oct 08 Feng 7 WIMPS Recent proliferation of examples Supersymmetry Rparity 9 Neutralinos 39Y39wi39fef Goldberg 1983 Ellis et al 1984 Evaltjate Universal Extra Dimensions KKparity 233239 62331 9 KaluzaKlein DM Servant Tait 2002 Cheng Feng Matchev 2002 i Branes Braneparity 9 Branon DM M23 prELTSms Cembranos Dobado Maroto 2003 Propose Little Higgs Tparity a Todd DM S3133 Cheng Low 2003 27 Oct 08 Feng 8 27 Oct 08 NEUTRALINOS The neutralino is the classic WIMP xdi Z Hm 1 50 GeV 1TeV weaklyinteracting naturally the lightest standard model superpartner in many models Particle physics alone 9 neutralinos have all the right properties to be WIMP dark matter Running Mass GeV 600 4 O O N O O 7200 I I l l 10 L g1oQGev Feng 9 RELIC DENSITY QDMh2 stringently constrains models 600 Focus Coannihilation re ion Too much p039nt 9 dark matter reglon 393 Bulk g Yellow preWMAP region g Red postWMAP 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1110 Gov Cosmology excludes many possibilities favors certain regions 27 Oct 08 Feng 10 WIMP DETECTION Correct relic density 9 Efficient annihilation then I Efficient production now Particle colliders U010919P109JPUI mou uonequuue tuagogyg l V Efficient scattering now Direct detection 27 Oct 08 Feng 11 DIRECT DETECTION WIMP properties 39 39 39 39 v 10393 c Kinetic energy 100 keV 3 Local density 1 liter 10 6 g Detected by nuclear recoil in E underground detectors Two 108 approaches 3913 Backgroundfree detection Annual modulation U 1010 7 10 10 10 WIMP Mass GeVczl SpinIndependent scattering CDMS20042005139caimlysi 20083c XENONlO 2007 Not 136 k d g 39 I I I I I I I SU 1 CDMS Pro cclcd 25kg 7 ST ISuoIab Theorles xq I I Ith 300 ku LXeJijectmnUni 2007 Bull and GEmlolo 2003 r EXperl ments X ucleus Baltz and Gondolo 2004 Markov Chum Monte Carlos Meet in the middle xp 27 Oct 08 Feng 12 THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS Mo deldependent but in SUSY we can say something There are two classes of annihilation processes 27 Oct 08 96 x w it x x I f x M Neutralino DM 9 gravitymediation SUSY flavor and CP problems 9 heavy sleptons and squarks Relic density 9 mixed BinoHiggsino neutralinos with 6 10398 pb Many SUSY models mSUGRA general focus point SUSY gaugino mediated more minimal SUSY 21 models split SUSY will be tested in the next few years Feng 13 DIRECT DETECTION DAMA Annual modulation expected Drukier Freese Spergel 1986 WIMP Wind DAMA 85 signal with T 1 year max June 2 26 keV DAMWNHI 0 29 tonxyr lt D7M7 IIBRTAT IS3At0ngtrltyrgt g 1 target I ass 873 kg target mass 2328 kg 0 L 5 1 1 2 5 i gt g T145 1 1 1 1 E 395 1 nWJN 1 HI 1 3 3 1 0 5 km 391 WT f1 IRE1 53 1411 1 AWE 7 wt 5 J J 3v 1 WI rm i iLHW 1 L F quotW 3 T T 111 1 1L 1 L l 1 I 7 T g I 1 I a s 3 1 1 i 1 I 1 Eu m 39 if 511 Lquot 1 111 51 395 7111117 1 11 151 j Time day 27 Oct 08 Feng 14 CHANNELING DAMA s results have been puzzling in part because the allowed region is excluded by experiments This may be ameliorated by astrophysics and channeling in quot Lli ii i fi fjf crystalline detectors efficiency for nuclei recoil energy 9 electron energy depends on direction Channeling reduces threshold 0 O shifts allowed region to lower O Q masses Consistency restored Channeled f 2 ion Gondolo Gelmini 2005 Drobyshevski 2007 DAMA 2007 I 27 Oct 08 Feng 15 27 Oct 08 TAKING STOCK WIMPs are astrophysically identical Weaklyinteracting Cold Stable Is this true of all DM candidates No But is this true of all DM candidates motivated by particle physics and the WIMP miracle No SuperWlMPs identical motivations but qualitatively different implications Feng 16 SUPERWIMPS Feng Rajaraman Takayama 2003 Supersymmetry Graviton 9 Gravitino G Mass 100 GeV Interactions only gravitational supenNeak GnotLSP GLSP SM SM G LSP G Assumption of most of Completely different literature cosmology and particle physics 27 Oct 08 Feng 17 SUPERWIMP RELICS Suppose the gravitino G is the LSP Increasmg lt0Avgt 1 WIMPs freeze out as usual 2 3 l 1 WIMP t l G quotquotquotquotquotquotquot But then all WIMPs decay to 1 gravitinos after so to MPIZIMW3 seconds to months xmT time Gravitinos naturally inherit the right density but interact only gravitationally they are superWlMPs also KK gravitons axinos etc Feng Rajaraman Takayama 2003 Bi Li Zhang 2003 Ellis Olive Santoso Spanos 2003 Wang Yang 2004 Feng Su Takayama 2004 Buchmuller Hamaguchi Ratz Yanagida 2004 Roszkowski Ruiz de Austri Choi 2004 Brandeburg Covi Hamaguchi Roszkowski Steffen 2005 27 Oct 08 Feng 18 CHARGED PARTICLE TRAPPING SuperWIMPs are produced by decays of metastable particles which can be charged Charged metastable particles will be obvious at colliders can be trapped and moved to a quiet environment to study their decays Can catch 1000 per year in a 1m thick water tank Feng Smith 2004 Hamaguchi Kuno Nakawa Nojiri 2004 De Roeck et al 2005 27 Oct 08 Charged particle trap Reservoir Feng 19 IMPLICATIONS FROM CHARGED PARTICLE DECAYS 2 2 4 b m m Tl gtlG w 1 N m m Measurement Of l m and E9 mg and GN Probes gravity in a particle physics experiment Measurement of GN on fundamental particle scale Precise test of supergravity gravitino is graviton partner Determines QG SuperWlMP contribution to dark matter Determines F supersymmetry breaking scale contribution of SUSY breaking to dark energy cosmological constant Hamaguchi et al 2004 Takayama et al 2004 27 Oct 08 Feng 2O SUPERWIMP COSMOLOGY Late decays can modify BBN Late decays can modify CMB Resolve 6397Li problems black body spectrum p distortions 52B 112 I H mm 101 LUZ n 03 i i 7045Mquot Micwmva BACKGRUUN SPECA39RUM muerQBE I x m m 3 D N m 5 A 4 LO LO 9 Inumny 1DquotirgsImsrssccmquot zooz odd JexJes spieizi 2 4 i 3 BaIyDH39LO39PhDCOH ratio n 27 Oct 08 Feng 21 SMALL SCALE STRUCTURE SuperWIMPs are produced in late decays C Ill I IIWH i IIIHH i Hum i Hum Suppresses small scale structure mquot as determined by XFS Q 10 Warm DM with cold DM pedigree Tran sfcr Function k Dalcanton Hogan 2000 Lin Huang Zhang Brandenberger 2001 Sigurdson Kamionkowski 2003 N SuperWIMP Profumo Sigurdson Ullio Kamionkowski 2004 10 Kaplinghat 2005 4 Sterile v N Dodelson Widrow 1993 9003 19H5UId9gtl I lllllll I lllllll l HIIiIIl l lllllll l lll ill 10 W 10quot Ill In 1039 k lli l lpcl Cembranos Feng Rajaraman Takayama 2005 Strigari Kaplinghat Bullock 2006 Bringmann Borzumati Ullio 2006 27 Oct 08 Feng 22 WIMPLESS DARK MATTER Start over What do we really know about dark matter All solid evidence is gravitational Also solid evidence against strong and EM interactions A reasonable 1St guess dark matter has no SM gauge interactions ie it is hidden Lee Yang 1956 Gross Harvey Martinec Rohm 1985 What one seemingly loses The WIMP miracle Nongravitational signals 27 Oct 08 Feng 23 HIDDEN SECTORS Can we recover the WIMP miracle but with hidden DM Consider gaugemediated SUSY breaking with one or more hidden sectors Each hidden sector has its own gauge groups and coupHngs 27 Oct 08 SUSY Breaking MSSM Hidden X Feng 24 THE WIMPLESS MIRACLE Particle Physics SUSY s M02F Breaking lt gt IV NiSQ XIgtXSltIgtX MSSM Hidden X g 1 If F W Li quot N WEE quotquot 137r39311 Superpartner masses interaction strengths depend on gauge couplings 27 Oct 08 FengKumar2008 Cosmology mX m F g g2 1672M Q depends only on the SUSY breaking sector QX QWIMP QDM Any hidden particle with mass mX will have the right thermal relic density for any mX Feng 25 WIMPLESS DARK MATTER The thermal relic density constrains only one combination of gX and mX mi 93 9X QC lt0vgt These models map out the mo remaining degree of freedom gX 10392 a 10393 10 gt 10395 mX 27 Oct 08 This framework decouples the WIMP miracle from WIMPs gives a new class of candidates with WIMP pedigree but with a range of massescouplings 900a rm ru uej I o h2 011 x Iimweak 1 TeV 5 mweak100 I v l I I 10396 10 1 10392 10 102 mX GeV 104 Feng 26 STABILITY This requires that an mX particle be stable Can one be MSSM q mX sparticles W Z t N O peyvG Flavorfree MSSM 01 Yukawas mX sparticles W Z q l quotror 239 N O gyvG If the hidden sector is a flavorfree MSSM a natural NLSP candidate the stau or tau would be stabilized by charge conservation 27 Oct 08 Feng 27 WIMPLESS DETECTION WIMPIess DM may have only gravitational effects SUSY Breaking But connectors with both MSSM and hidden charges may mediate interactions with the SM j Connector I r Hidden l n J X A f Y X A f Related ideas ArkaniHamed Finkbeiner Slatyer Weiner 2008 Pospelov Ritz 2008 9003 lJE lJlS peUJeej JEUJHM uej 27 Oct 08 Feng 28


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