Sociology Midterm: 05, 06, and 07
Sociology Midterm: 05, 06, and 07 SOC 1004
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Sociology 05 Notes Social Economic Status Solidarity and Business Doing business within a group and having mechanical solidarity allows businesses to trust each other so things can happen. They say to do business with people you know and are close to. Some people go to large scale stuﬀ with people they'll never meet, and it's not as intense. MC: Middle class. Unions get into solidary negotiation with the middle class people who are favored in protection rackets. The person oﬀering the protection is the one threatening: protection rackets. Governments like ours began protection rackets ex: farmers, entrepreneurs, mobsters. Limits on Rights and Solidarity Feudalism: The patrimony of all households are the law, and social relationships are organized around agriculture and who controls what land. Under the patrimonial rule not many people had rights. It was about what family you're born into. There were a lot of closer sects that made it hard to do business and made it untrusting and made it hard to do long distance trade. No capitalism. The guys with arms didn't have any problem taking whatever they wanted from you. The same people raped villages. You couldn't have a labor force because owners bind workers to land. Vocab Tradition stick to the old ways. Closed sects who don't trust. Lots of mechanical solidarity. Do what God tells you Hostility trust no strangers or foreigners Caprice break contracts. No way to become an entrepreneur Theft armed take what they want (mostly men) Universalism There was a huge shift towards universalism and organic solidarity. Even the people of patrimonial families slowly gained citizenship (in waves). Ex: women in 1919 got suﬀrage. The group has the furthest to go to gain citizenship: kids. Citizenship Citizenship: when one has a sense of their own rights; increasing liberty and increasing individualism. They are focused more on themselves than the village. (More I and less we.) If you have wealth than you can buy property. Capitalism is entering. If you don't have wealth then you have to work for someone who does have it and can give you a job. "Poverty is the worst form of violence" Bureaucracy Bureaucracy: organized groups of people with arms who control turf by using armed men into a centrally controlled force. They could institute a check with paperwork to make sure people follow your rules and conform. It has the eﬀect to draw armed men into centrally controlled forces and control more and more land. Smaller amount of rulers control more land. These groups are not restrained by bureaucratic nature to control more land. This makes the problem of the military professional, and it acts in a predictable way allowing entrepreneurs to trust and know that people won't come take it. State from Protection Rivals Develop a large model central state (bureaucracy) with armed men in mechanical solidarity as they move towards monopoly (no rivals) to lower and extort costs, you both defeat and buy oﬀ rivals. This is why we like our governments. State Built by buying oﬀ Rivals You grant and defend property and set up a police force to defend your property. Which hampers competition (far away by using tariﬀs or military or attack), and it provides infrastructure that allows people to do business and have a course of law. This is how central states and capitalist economies develop together. Governments want businesses to prosper because of taxes from companies. Some pros are that you get protected, infrastructure and the competition from the other markets. Without a central state you won't have capitalism. Rent seeking is when you force the government to get things as a market advantage (property gained by force). Ex: European conquest of the Americas. Send ships that grab people, materials, expertise, and technology. Colonialism built that trade and allowed the coercion of labor (slavery). It opened up favorable markets. State as a Legitimated Mob When the developing state is able to use all of this wealth to make life easier for the money makers in its region then they are paying for protection and rents, what you get is legitimacy and a state in organic solidarity. (They submit to a monopoly). You forgive to a certain extent, pay taxes, pledge allegiance, and civil religion that combines the use of armed force with a legal system that makes people submit and love their government. The reason you love your government is because you can't ﬁght it; all armed forces have to be in the police or the military. State Built by Fostering Capitalism Capitalism. Why do we have banks or enterprises? Because these states needed someone to tax and someone to borrow money from. The state grants and defends property and suppresses rivals in mechanical solidarity colonialism (in war) and gives state infrastructure which allows capitalism to develop. Symbiotic relationship. “Free Market” Forces There is no market without the government. They control everything the capitalists need. Anything that people need to survive are controlled by people whose contracts the government supports. If you don't have a lot of capital, the odds you will in the future are low. We have to work for our wages so we can make a living. A state is deﬁned as: a monopoly on organized legit violence in a region. Force. Police worn internally to protect contracts and titles to property Taxation: transfers are payments made directly to households by the government. Market Conditioning by States Laws aﬀect: union contracts, taxes, interest rates, the housing market and stock market, subsidize industry, and moral support vs regulation of owner’s control of mean of life. Congressional members have a way of setting a tone that says it's either good or bad to invest in regulatory activity (ex: Ronald Reagan) wants the government to stay out of it. Ex: Bernie says we need more control in order to give workers greater access to the means of making a living. Labor unionism has the biggest eﬀect on weigh scales nationwide. Categorical Status A lot of sociology is studying the history of inequality. For the most part, these groups are not visible on site, class isn't a physical status anymore, and we don't wear it on our sleeves. All this is about the decline of categorical status. Declined household production and small household production, patrimonial rule. Rise of individualism. Mixed up the markers of rich and poor so you can't tell. Class status is invisible in most situations and outside their circles unless it's something exclusive. SES Groups Contemporary distribution of status. Seven groups: Winners: capitalists, serve on boards and executive oﬃces and make decisions. Financially elite that directs wealth and spends on business, luxury and exclusion. There are high entry fees to be in this group Investing class: kids, heirs, family members that share the wealth but don't make the decisions. Mainly it’s being rich for a living. Both of these have status group rituals: Only members of the SES are there, to celebrate their group, generate solidarity. Ex: country clubs, weddings. You have to be rich or know someone in order to go. Celebrities: The one group that is recognized wherever they go. Spends money more publically than the investment class does. They are at the center of high intensity rituals where people scream in solidarity. The group that was like aristocrats were back in the day. Only group that's marked wherever they go. Insulated as well. Occupational groups: You and me. Work for pay checks. Huge proportion of the U.S. population. These spend on reproduction of their credentials. Entrepreneurs: run small ﬁrms, work with each other and trades. Operate in small networks and with low intensity rituals that aren’t frequent. Criminals: people engaged in enterprise but it's not legal. Mostly remain unable to gain legitimacy Indigent people: spend immediately on sustenance. Homeless, unemployed. Remain invisible. Decline of Categorical Status There has been a decline of categorical status because there is a rise of individualism, a fall of patrimonial rule, & a decline of household production. Fixed Categorical to Situational Status You get where you're going because of your family background, familiarity with rich people, individual reputation, friendships, or bureaucratic certiﬁcation Individual repute is focus in many. Talking to friends before class. Remaining Categories Some categories remain such as race, gender, age, etc., they endure as categorical status (one element of inequality, you can eyeball who is who for the most part.) Reserve labor. There is some level of force used somewhere. Inequality: They are responsible for more and having fewer rights, authority (obedience), ﬁnancial capital (less money), status (deference), occupations and labor (low paying jobs). Youth as a Reserve Labor The youth are excluded from jobs, control of most means of life, and ritual exclusion. They are reserved labor forces. Respond with scornful, intense ritual and say fuck you. The group in American culture that largely lacks status and kids adopt to feel cool: the culture of black people. Categorical identity: easily identiﬁed. Reserve labor force is usually excluded from control of most means of life, jobs, at most times. Women are a great example of this. One of the consequences is that you're excluded from a lot of other things as well. Ritual exclusion from much else. Some will respond with organic solidarity and scornful, intense ritual. Youth are the last mandated status group, there are things you'll get arrested for because of laws. Migrants as a Reserve Labor Early colonists brought slaves, migrants as reserve labor. In the 19th century huge waves of immigrants on in the form of labor ex. Chinese who worked like slaves on the railroads. 20th century, share cropping when slavery is outlawed but the poor still work for the white slave owners. They need as many workers as they can during the spring but then they don't need them after causing them to become very poor. Group Positioning/ Threat When the native group gets hostile with the incoming, migrating group. Hostility between status groups. Everywhere you go people can see your categorical status marked with ritual exclusions. Reduction of sense of threat Blue collar sector and mass education. The integration of factories plus the wave of migration had to reduce and resulted in the decline of racial categorical status. Category fades because they were able to integrate and went from being a distinct race to a regular one. Moth ethnics become "white". They ended "Fordism": giving up wages you can aﬀord to buy the products your making (retention), to make sure his customers stayed he gave them beneﬁts and healthcare (enough money to save and give to kids), he also would not lay them oﬀ at the top of a hat and gave them security and social insurance, and if you stuck with him you got promoted to move up. It allowed for people to own homes, take vacations, and send your kids to school and have mobility advancement. Henry Ford wanted white men in union jobs (he was very selective), most union jobs had only white men as workers. Even the dependents were white. Bases of Racial Category There will be political suppression that keeps people from voting and occupational segregation. Financial boycott you would keep your banks from investing where blacks do business. “Cotton Belt South”. You were either bounded by your land by poverty or by force. African Americans The African Americans won't be able to work themselves out of debt. We celebrated demeaning images of black men in the 19th century. A vision of black men as unruly, dangerous reserve labor. Cultural of mechanical solidarity among white people because they were glad to be white and proud. Maintenance of Hostilities 20th century, they didn't need as many people to work. So their desire for slavery goes away because the south was becoming industrialized. Whites became more racist and responded in mechanical solidarity with Jim Crow laws. Segregation, Deprivation, and Terror Middle class built upon: access to jobs, race isn't a problem, physical security, high wages and pensions, appreciation of business, land. The nonwhites and nonunion were reserved labor, they only called you when they needed you and you worked for cheap and were probably poor. Feudalism is about going into debt and never able to pay oﬀ so they're anchored to the land and never able to move, no investment, no integration. Black's barred by white solidarity A militia/ police violence, they knew there were places they couldn't go, refusals to hire, no SS beneﬁts because they exclude jobs, low wages/tips, redlining (refusals of loans in regions occupied by blacks 193468): no bank loans/ mortgages where blacks live. If you loan money to people on black neighborhoods you'll lose money. The homes in redlined places will not appreciate, they might even lose wealth. Redlining/The End of hostilities? Because African Americans were heavily concentrated they made plans for boycotts; civil rights movements. They tried to reduce racial terror and forcing professional integration. They showed that white racism was violent and proved that they would attack you if you were black. They did this to show the rest of the world how violent American white people were to blacks. While the blacks were at it, they asked to be a part of schools, getting jobs, going to college, etc. A lot of the chains were lifted once redlining became illegal. Aﬃrmative action opens whiteonly professions and creates black middle class. Some mechanical solidarity recedes, the white pride disappeared. But, Deindustrialization The African Americans were then stuck in urban ghost towns, and impoverished withdrawal made spectacles of SES groups. The poverty associated with the deindustrialize cities is keeping race alive in this country and preventing occupational integration. It keeps categories distinct, in most situations, even in professions. Political economy of insular SES. Urban poverty, maintain racial category, mechanical solidarity. Sociology 06 Notes Alien Solidarity, contract theory, crusades Class and status (honor) are no longer aligned. Class groups deal with wealth in diﬀerent ways. What class you belong to doesn't matter when you're in the grocery store; your class only matters when you're with other members of your class. As a result: there are few status groups because little spending on status, categories marked only within insular circuits. Local Spending Local Honor Most of us don't spend money on activities designed to increase our status. Elites spend their money on their own ﬁrms and enterprise, charityhonors. Entrepreneurs spend it on enterprise. Celebs draw more participation than honor. Employees spend on life and families not honor. Less categorical deference for the same reasons. Rituals focus more on individuals and are less intense. The Last Status Group: Kids vs. Adults The last oﬃcial categorical divide. Kids rituals as intense, mechanical solidarity. There is a lack of institutional ritual status, and an oﬃcial claim to deference. Constantly humiliating kids telling them they aren't old enough. Poor people used to be treated like kids. The Last Ritual Deference: The Inner City Poor, urban streets and overt (readily apparent, not secret or hidden), and there is ritual deference. If you go into a high crime neighborhood you need to be on your guard and look tough. Walk around demanded deference at others as a preventative defense. It results from a lack of institutional ritual status, very little oﬃcial protection. E and D Powers Eﬀectiveness: how able you are to control resources and make things happen vs. Deference: make people do what you want. EXAMPLES: E vs. D Financially elites (probably wouldn't recognize) vs. celebrities (No power) Functionaries vs. executives/owners Institutional authorities vs. out of their oﬃces Causes of split between status and class, shift from category to individual Growth of a central, bureaucratic government Withdrawal of epower from local patriarchs Power now occupational/situational The growth of a government has made the patrimonial household wither away and make local patriarchs not able to control resources. Certain kinds of violence are going away because of this shift. You can no longer have your family members hurt because they disobey you. Deference: power. Not only does it withdrawal political power in the household but it has a shift towards working in specialized buildings that are out of the public eye in invisible, situational groups. We spend more on maintaining our enterprise/individual career or in our own group and don't spend it on displays of our class status. Celebrities spend their money on their categorical status. There is a decline of the patrimonial family but a rise of individual careers, choice of situations and rituals. There will be less mechanical solidarity and more organic solidarity in rituals. Group Positioning Theory The people who come and migrate to new land in competition for new jobs threatens locals. Even with there are friends that bridge the groups, there is still a threat and standoﬀ notion and hostility. We maintain hostility by subtyping and strategic framing (your groups success turns into individuality, but the other group that threatens you's success, you explain it in cheating.) Sociological and individual frames. The skin heads use the frame sociological because their individual performance determines how life works out for them, drop out of college, he thinks with a degree he won't succeed, group activities determine your outcome. Individual frame would be about his own personal performance and to use an individual to work harder. Ex: someone passing you in track and causing you to work harder. Higher Learning/ Laissezfaire The success of a group individual and racial virtue in working free market, success of other groups is caused by government meddling. The government and professional police force use strategic framing. It went from traditional to laissezfaire racism, the government should stay out of it. This is strategic framing. Individual eﬀort and natural free market are all that success requires. Superior groups had discriminatory policy resistance to policies. Laissezfaire means the government should stay out of it. From Traditional to Laissezfaire New politics of integration: Fordism and laissezfaire racism (which basically says that with migration and downsizing into a region that doesn't have much work then the people start getting upset). Working class blue collar integration heals the wounds of migration of immigrants. There is rage at other groups mainly saying that I don't like you, and there is resistance to policies that would benefit the people they don't like. Ex: any affirmative action policies, you resist them. Along the way of laissez faire there is strategic framing, you think their success is caused by the government and yours is individual. Symbolic politics: they are symbolic to the extent that they aren't practical, they express a feeling and blame people for problems, a cry of unhappiness. Ex: if you don't have proper documentation they won't care. If it costs more to implement than it is an improper law. Crusading as Ritual Crusading is wanting the laws changes and targeting a group they don't like. It is symbolic, not an efficient way of government. They are symbolic and very impractical. You're probably gone be dramatic about it. Ex: If we don't get rid of these people then we will die and lose our freedom. Wants others to be rounded up and expelled and have rituals to sacrifice others. They have very intense mechanical solidarity because they gather and probably have a speaker that you agree with and applaud and generates hostility so you support what they are saying. Some crusades we have going on right now is #blacklivesmatter because we need to prosecute some police officers and want them to be reformed. The campaign has built in series of rallies which promote crusading. Sociology 07 Notes Jobs Dual Labor Market Primary labor market is where you want to go. The good jobs, ex: one with benefits, vacation, good pay, job security, physical safety, discretion. If the commonwealth goes up then you'll make more money and get raises. Creation of the middle class. Secondary labor market: low or unskilled, these are the people who are fired first, wages not based on human capital or profitability of industry, little promotion to primary sector, shortterm, precarious (they work year by year). Ex: housekeeping, food services, blue collar jobs American Dreams of Security People aren't eerily invested in keeping a set of employers employed. The government doesn't regulate contracts and stays out of it. Deregulation: relaxation of antitrust regulation and antitrust fraud enforcement. Then companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars bailing out firms once they commit fraud. They also undo laws against usury (short term, high interest loans to poor people) simple annual rate not to exceed 36% in VA. Efficient Market Efficient market hypothesis says that all else being equal, people are rational in the finance industry to provide the best advice to your clients to maximize the stability, they rate things like money, firms, industries, interest, profits, funds, etc. Contagion: people surrounding enthuse you about the same things they are enthused about, conformity, getting caught up with each other. (Shared mood). It’s using group think as sociology. There is corporate interlock and elite networks. You don't see those people because they are in tightly woven groups and have a low profile. Ex: 2006 eve on the real estate blowout. Efficient Market Hypothesis within Individual Frame Rational choice: the notion that a worker would make her judgement and rational choice on her own judgment and not on the group's. It is the individual frame theory. She leaves ready to kick ass but then gets caught up in her job and group. Deindustrialization Part of this is deindustrialization because factories close and finance industries are taking over. Unions are declining and employment becomes precarious. The unions that built fordism are going to end and there is a shift in income and a rise in the super rich. Responses to Precarity What happens because of precarity? One thing is that there is a gender division of labor narrows. (Moms have to get a job to support the family) live month to month on wages. Another is that the length of the workday is growing longer. Temporary work is becoming increasingly popular, and working class men are dropping out of the labor market. Sometimes women are working a lot more than the men are. The primary sector shrinks because of this. People take different kinds of jobs, people become frustrated, and people think the country is going in the wrong direction. It went from bluecollar unions to low pay/benefit precarious service. There is less faith in the American Dream because of downsizing and job erosion. Fast Food Jobs End of fordism, decline in buying the power of minimum wage. The government is involved whether it wants to be or not. Ex: government paying pizza hut's wages. Some are Better Shielded from Risk than Others Fordism shielded modest families and allowed people to be secure and support their family with union job tenure and income support. Precarious labor market/ welfare reform shifts much risk to them. The freedom to work hard is under some stress and the willingness to work hard is low. There are a lot of job hunts, savings, and faith based investments in education. Causes bankruptcy and recession. People are shaken by fraud and job loss, and it puts up racial hostility. A huge rise in the secondary job sector.
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