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How do we learn gender roles?

How do we learn gender roles?


School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Human development and family studies
Course: Introduction to Human Development and Family Studies
Professor: Molly countermine
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: HDFS
Cost: 25
Name: HDFS 129 notes 9
Description: notes from 3/1-3/3
Uploaded: 03/05/2016
3 Pages 104 Views 4 Unlocks

HDFS 129 notes from 3/1-3/3

How do we learn gender roles?

Gender Socialization

Sex v. Gender (They’re not the same!!)

∙ Sex: the biological dimension of being female, male, neither, or  both

∙ Gender: the sociocultural dimension of feeling female, male,  neither, or both

∙ For most, these two are aligned  

Gender Identity: conception a person has of self as being male, female, neither, or both

∙ In place by 3 years old

Gender Role: cultural expectations about how males/females should  feel, think, and act

∙ How do we learn gender roles?

o Observation and imitation of parents, siblings, peers,  teachers, media images…

o Children are punished (scolded, shamed) for gender  inappropriate behavior and rewarded for gender  

Which does a culture value?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the ancient roman republic?

appropriate behavior

o Girls can be tomboys more than boys can be feminine  Girls as tomboys is more accepted

o Adolescence is particularly important time gender  socialization; pressure to behave more stereotypical  


Differential gender socialization

∙ Socializing males and females with different expectations about  the attitudes and behaviors appropriate to each gender ∙ Starts at birth, even prenatally

o Once moms find out the sex of their baby, they start  talking to it differently

∙ Parents tend to restrict adolescent girls more tightly than boys o Where they can go, whom they can go with…


∙ Parental influence

When to wean?

o Fathers are more active in gender role development than  mothers Don't forget about the age old question of What is lifespan human development?

o Parents encourage “male” and “female” chores, toys, and  behaviors

o Gay/lesbian parents?

HDFS 129 notes from 3/1-3/3

 Their kids usually turn out better (because they did  not have a particular gender pushed on them) Don't forget about the age old question of What is law of parismony?

∙ Peer influence

o Children who play in gender appropriate activities are  rewarded by peers; those who don’t are criticized

o Children demonstrate clear preferences for being with and  liking same gender peers

o These influences are all strongest in middle/late childhood ∙ School/teacher influence

o Pressure to achieve is greater for boys than girls

o Boys are generally given more negative attention in school  Boys are usually sent straight to principal, while girls  may get a change to talk out the issue with a teacher

o Girls’ learning problems/disabilities aren’t identified as  often as boys’

∙ Media influences

o Kids under 6 (including 2/3 of all infants and toddlers)  spend an average of 2 hours a day in “screen-time”

o For kids ages 8-18, it’s about 7.5 hours a day

o AAP recommends no screen time for children under age of  2; and no more than 2 hours a day for children ages 3-18

Cultural Influences on Parenting

Why do we parent? Don't forget about the age old question of Where is voodoo originated?

∙ Altricial- we are born in a helpless condition, requiring prolonged  parental care

∙ Precocial- active and able to move freely from birth, requiring  little parented care

∙ Physical needs

∙ Socialization

Parenting is a biological and evolutionary process that is shaped by  cultural and social forces

How do we parent?

∙ When to feed the baby

∙ What to feed the baby

∙ Where to put the baby

∙ Where the baby sleeps

∙ When the baby sleeps

∙ What to do when the baby cries

HDFS 129 notes from 3/1-3/3

∙ What is the baby’s schedule

∙ Who will take care of the baby when mom and dad aren’t around

Sleep arrangements

∙ 2/3 of the world sleep with babies as normative parenting  practice

o Industrial countries (Japan, Italy) as well as rural  We also discuss several other topics like What are the two meta theories in regards to development?

communities in Mexico and China

∙ Independence v. interdependence

o Which does a culture value?

o U.S. values independence

∙ Research says… (When baby sleeps with parents) If you want to learn more check out What does consumer sovereignty mean?

o Shorter night wakings

o Lighter sleep for mom and baby

 Less likely for baby to die from SIDs

o Higher levels of independence in preschool

o Increased cognitive competence

o Higher self-esteem

“If you have a baby, sleep with it!” – James McKenna


∙ Brest is best

∙ Newborns are hard-wired to nurse

∙ Size does not matter

∙ Continuous v. scheduled feedings

o Continuous is better

∙ Great for baby’s immune system

∙ Smarter babies

∙ When to wean?

o Average age worldwide= 2 years

o Average age in the U.S.= 3 months

 Not good

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