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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Derby on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10300 at Ithaca College taught by Howard K. Kalman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Midterm Study Guide : Strat Communication • Communication that is purposefully consistent with an organizations over all strategy • Clear consistent and authentic • Enhances strategic positioning • Reinforces the organizations culture • Communication is the process of creating shared meaning PR: • Manages reputation of an organization by ensuring consistent messaging • Identifies internal and external stakeholders • Conducts research to understand stakeholder’s perceptions • Develops campaigns to improve/maintain that perc eption • Monitors the reputation of its own reputation and the rep of competitors • Responds quickly and strategically to crisis that can damage the company’s reputation • Manages/works closely with other functions: o CRS/Community Relations/Government Relations o Investor Relations o Human Relations o Marketing & Advertising Community Relations & Corporate Social Responsibility • Oversees thee organization’s efforts to actively participate in the communities which are affected by the company • Effective community relations and social responsibility • Impact on the world • Identifies key causes that align with the org’s mission and values • Looks at issues: sustainability, charitable support, and quality of life • Causes: o Local o National Marketing: • Manages communication between the organization and its customers • Identifies the desire and needs of target audiences by conducting market research o Focus groups, surveys, review of customer data • Develops and implements ways to satisfy its customer better tha competitors • Uses customers feedback to determine product design, pricing, promotion, and distribution • Manages closely with: o Advertising o PR o Product Research and Development • Critical to organizations success Advertising: • Creates brand awareness through print, digital and broadcast campai gns • Work closest with marketing to conduct and analyze market research and then develop and test messages so that the resonate with the target audience • Advertisements sell products, reinforce an orgs reputation or builds awareness • Advertisement must be in line with corporations mission • Looks at Advertisement Campaigns to see if they are EFFECTIVE Digital Media • Develop brand awareness and build relationships with targeted customers • Involves o Manages social media and email • Uses visual design principles • Develops verbal, visual, and interactive content • May work with the communications/PR department or part of marketing/advertising Internal Communications: • Informs employees about the organization in which they work • Encourages employees engagement, loyalty, and b rand advocacy • Recognizes employees for efforts and accomplishments • Monitors and develops employee concerns • Develops employee engagement campaigns • Informs employees about changes in organization • Works largely with HR Training and Instructional Design : • Collaborates with internal depts. To assess needs, and designs • Design, develop, and deliver classroom/online training • Assist new product launches by training sales and customer service staff • May train external customers to use company’s products by creating us er manuals, inline tutorials, or job aids Event Management: • Develop and manage events that support an organizations goals • Identify a desired outcome • Creatively and strategically design an event to achieve the outcome • Coordinates closely with internal stak eholders as well as external vendors/sponsors • Creates event concept; coordinates timelines and budgets • Conducts post-event evaluation Theories in CMD: • Organizational and Corporate Communication • Learning • Management • Design CMD: • Scientific management, classical human relations/resources, cultural= how organizations organize and people manage • How People Learn= behavioral, cognitive, emotionally; individually (identity); implications for training • Design Thinking= to enhance user experiences of media a. Empathy b. Collaboration c. Proto-types Theories in IMC: • PR • Media planning • Marketing • Advertising IMC: • Information Processing= attitude change • How to get People’s Attention and How People Filter Messages • Cognitive Dissonance • Buyer Behavior • Message Design Communication Domains (Typology): • Human Communication: o With self (intrApersonal): body language o With others (intErpersonal) o Within group o Across cultures • Organizational Communications : o Communication within organizations • Corporate Communication: o External communication (branding, image, reputation) o Internal communication (keeping employees informed) • Strategic Communication: o Goal-Driven Communication Definitions of Communication : • “Shared meaning created among two or more people through (non)verbal transaction” • “Process of constructing shared realities” • “The act, by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effects, and provide opportunities for feedback” Strategic Communication is Grounded in Theory: Fundamental Features of Communication : 1. People (senders/receivers/theorizers) 2. Messages – the creation and interpretation of 3. Symbols – the uses and meaning 4. Channels/Medium 5. Noise/Interference 6. Contexts and Social Locations** Communication Encompasses : • Intrapersonal – self communication • Interpersonal – between more than one person • Group/Team • Public • Intercultural • Media and New Technologies • Organizational (Focus of Stat Comm) Seven Theoretical Traditions: 1. Socio-psychological: Interaction and influence 2. Cybernetic: Information processing 3. Rhetorical: Public address and persuasion 4. Semiotic: Meanings are in people; language (signs/symbols) help for shared meaning 5. Socio-cultural: Reality is socially constructed through micro level interactional processes 6. Critical: Concerned with power dynamics and inequalities 7. Phenomenological: Experiences and dialogue Fundamental – users of technology, uses, mediums, contexts/locations Area of Research – new media technologies Semiotics – meanings are in people; language (sig n/symbol) help for shared meaning; what is the meaning of technology? Intel Make it Wearable Campaign (look up YouTube video) • Intel and Genevieve Bell = Technology and Anthropology “marriage” o What is the meaning of technology in people’s lives? What Theories Do: • Sharpens our perception by focusing our attention • Clarify observations • Provide a framework of understanding o Social Penetration Theory: § Symbol: Onion - each layer is a part of you, the deeper you go the more vulnerable you are • Predict Outcomes • Trigger Social Change • Spark Research Theories of Strategic Communication: Helps us to differentiate “the importance of communication in the strategic communication process as opposed to the strategic organizational process that does not necessarily revolve around communication” (Holtzhausen & Zerfass, 2014) What is Theory?: • All theories are abstractions: o Organize & clarify human experience o Extend our knowledge o Stimulate and guide research • Goals of Theory: • To explain (make sense of) a phenomena • To predict future outcomes Theory vs. Model: Theory Model Explains a naturally occurring phenomenon Representation of some phenomenon Educated guess about how something works Explains how something works - shows interrelationships between parts Predicts a future outcome Theory-Model – it can be both Five Perspectives in Communication : • Theories of Rhetoric: o Emphasis on message construction § Words chosen, phrasing • Transmission Theories: o Channels for moving content o Encoding/Decoding • Interaction Theories: o Group development and interactions o Social interactions • Transactional Theories: o Negotiated interchanges o Communication as a system of interchanges o Emphasis on both content and relationship • Psychological Theories: o Effects of individual’s conceptual filters o Socio-cultural “fields of experience” o Search for meaning Communication Models: • Shannon-Weaver: o Linear Model o Problem: no feedback all one way • Interactive-Transactional o Communicators create and interpret messages within personal fields of experience o Both parties receive and send (two way communication) • Model of Strategic Communication: o Analysis § Context + Audience+ Message+ Channel o Strategic Intent § Selecting Goals o Strategic Action § Crafting prototypes (messages) § Implementation o Tracking-Evaluating Results Coding: • Encoding o Sender consciously attaches meanings to symbols form feelings and ideas • Decoding o Receiver interprets and creates an understanding of the message Noise: • Affects sender’s message • Types of Noises: o External § Factors outside of the receiver o Physiological § Biological, personal factors o Psychological/Cognitive § Internal framing (accuracy of schemas-how the brain organizes concrete and abstract concepts) Environment: • Physical surroundings • Cultural background • Context: Past personal experience • It influences how we encode and decode messages Axions of Communication : • Dynamic • Continuous • Circular • Unrepeatable • Irreversible • Complex Strategic Communication is Informed by Research: Basic Model of Research : CONTEXT => RESEARCH QUESTERN => METHODS => FINDINGS => IMPLIC ATIONS CRITERIA BELIEFS, ASSUMPTIONS, VALUES Key Questions: • Who did the study? Why? (context) • What questions did they ask? (research question) • What did they do to find an answer? (methods) • What answers did they find? (findings) • So what? (implications) • How do we know if the results are valid? (criteria) o How can we say that the research is good quality or not? • What was assumed? (beliefs and assumptions) • Why bother in the first place? (values) Forms of Inquiry: • Inquiry- search for knowledge • Research- search for knowledge of what is o “Diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications, etc.” (Dictionary.com) • Design- search for knowledge of what might be • Philosophical Argument- search for knowledge of what should be • Political Debate- search for knowledge of what will be Thick Description vs. Generalization • In depth detail • Broad spectrum that covers one area and then is applied to many Paradigms of Inquiry: • Coherent Assumptions, methods, and criteria • Rationalistic (quantitative)** • Naturalistic (qualitative)** • Critical Assumptions of Rationalistic vs. Naturalistic Paradigms: Rationalistic/Objectivist Naturalistic/Rationalist A reality independent of human presence Reality (multiple realities) may exist, but all we can know are our interpretations Obeys governing laws that underlie what we observe Settings are unique, events are unpredictable We can discover Truth through independent observation (standing Understand through interaction and interpretation (acknowledge outside & being objective) subjectivity) Leads us to preselect methods, isolate variables, deduce, and Allow methods to emerge, explore whole, indu ce, describe generalize (e.g., run experiments, conduct surveys, etc.) particulars of case (in such a way that others can understand and use) Quality is a matter of validity, reliability, objectivity Methods of how Research is Collected : • Survey • Interview • Scientific Research • Focus Groups Types of Research: • Experiments • Correlation • Meta-Analysis • Descriptive • Evaluation • Action Research Findings: • Analyze the data • Describe the data Implications: • What does it mean? • How can we improve? Research Roles: • Marketing • Event Planning • Training • Employee Communications Role as a Researcher: • As a Student: o Course projects, internships, solving problems with roommates • As an Employee/Consultant: o Research plays a central role in making informed evidence based decisions about business strategy & operations § Surveys, focus groups, interviews § Proprietary Research • Sometimes made public, many times not • For organization’s internal use only What is Research?: • Inquiry- pursuit of knowledge • Research- knowledge that is true (Describe, explain, predict) o Discovery of answers to questions thro ugh application of scientific and systematic procedures o Social Science Research: Use of scientific and systematic methods to uncover patterns in the lives of people o Communications research: examines patterns of human behavior and communication artifacts Quantitative Qualitative Objectivist/Rationalist Subjectivist/Interpretivist Generally relies on numeric measurement Generally relies on researcher as observer Reduces phenomena to numeric data Data recorded ethnographically (narrative) Examples: survey, poll, experiment, test Examples: interviews, focus groups (sometimes), participant observation Produces “generalizations” Results in “transferability” (from sample to population) (user interprets applicability to new situations) Both EMPIRICAL (based on observation and experience) Strategic Communication is Process Oriented: Different Models: o Generic. = GAME o Public Relations = RACE o Training = ADDIE o HR/Comm Audit = HPT o Advertising = AIDA **Different models emphasize and deemphasize different thi ngs Budget in a model Public Relations as a Process: RACE • Research – Defining PR Problems • Action – Program Planning • Communication – Executing • Evaluation – Evaluating the Program The ADDIE Model • Analysis • Design • Development • Implementation • Evaluation GAME Process Model: • Goal- Specific, Measurable, Resources o Aim to accomplish, identify time & resources • Audience- Research, Profile, Target o Who they are, What do they know, motivation • Message- Design, Test, Deliver (Implement) o What’s core message, design, how t o disseminate • Evaluate- Metrics, ROI, Modify o How measure success, outcomes achieved, ROI AIDA Model (Advertising Process Model): • Awareness- Attract Attention • Interest- Provide some information to create interest • Desire- Describe benefits; use images and l anguage to persuade • Action- Urge action (time limit for price promotion) HPT Model- Performance Improvement Model • Gap Analysis o Current vs. Desired State; Identifies needs o Linked to organization’s strategic goals • Cause Analysis o Identifies underlying root cause(s) of performance problems • Intervention Selection o Chooses one or more solutions to rectify problem(s) --systemic • Implementation o Introduces change program (communicates & provides support) o Considers organization’s culture and history • Evaluates intervention over time (summative & confirmative) Based on Research: • Set your goals: o What do you want to accomplish? o How much time do you have? o What resources do I have to work with • How do your communications goals align with your business goals Who are you Targ eting?: • Who is my audience? • What do they know? • Why should they care? Primary Audience • Will make a decision or act on the basis of your message o Customers, employees Secondary Audience • May be asked by the primary audience to comment on your message or to imp lement your ideas after they’ve been approved o Media, vendors Identifying your Target Audience: • Demographics o Age o Gender o Martial Status o Geographic Location o Education Level o Income Level • Behavior o Health Choices o Online Engagement o Media Consumption • Psychographics o Lifestyle o Interests o Values o Beliefs Audience and What they want: • Develop your message: o What’s the core message? o How can I effectively communicate it? o What is/are the best channel(s)…. • Messages have to resonate with audience o Test your messages prior to putting them out in the public Types of Evaluation: • Formative o Improve a program under development • Summative o Assess quality in final form • Confirmative o Confirm something continues to work well over time Research Process: 1. Start with an interesting question a. May be stated as a problem b. A barrier or gap in current knowledge c. Conduct a background literature review 2. Formulate research question (hypothesis) a. Educated guess about relationship among variables b. Ground hypothesis in reason & experience c. Critically think through factors & select variables to study 3. Design study and collect data a. Select data collection methods (interviews, observation, surveys, focus groups) b. Or design experiment with lab subjects c. Relationship among variables is what is assessed 4. Analyze the data a. Statistics, ethnographic coding, etc. 5. Interpret and report findings a. Discuss patterns & explain findings b. Write up results (consider publication ) Refereed/Peer Preview: • Ensures that research study met rigorous scientific methods o Reduces publication of flawed studies • Manuscript is read blind by several reviewers o Reviewers don’t know who author is o Provide extensive comments on research o Recommend for/against publication o Acceptance rates vary—can be very low (<10%) Characteristic of Good Research: • Requires Evidence (data): o Empiricism: Observation, measured • Systematic o Study is repeatable (replication) o Claims can be tested (checked for falsification) • Unbiased (Objective): o Avoids Introducing error; triangulation • Generalization; requires multiple studies • Research must be based on evidence o Empirical—based on careful systematic observation • Research must be testable o Must be able to investigate using some methodology • Results must be replicable or repeatable o Ensures that findings are real and can be counted on • Must be part of the public record o So others can repeat, challenge, find errors, correct • Objectivity requires researcher to minimize personal bias and distortion • “Generalize-ability” of findings o Findings can be extended to similar situations or similar people Research Myths: • Conclusions can be drawn from a single study • Quantitative methods are better than qualitative methods o Hard measures are objective o One method can answer all questions • Results can not be “proved” only falsified Process Oriented: • Many process models o Most are project management models • Domain-Specific Models o Most have similar elements General Principles: • Sequence • Each step/phase builds on the previous one • Each component works together as a system o Each art/step/phase is interdependent Value of Models: • Verbal or visual representation o Represents how something works o Some models have greater fidelity than others • Promotes consistent and systematic approach to doing work o All steps essential and interdependent • Reduces uncertainty • Serves as a guide for accomplishing tasks o Step-by-step In concerns with Problems: • Apply Theories and Processes: • Need to understand context and broader concept in order to have an edge and do better Strategic Communication is Audience Driven: STP: • Segmenting – process of breaking audience into subgroups • Targeting – selecting segment that will be the focus of strategic communications efforts • Positioning – communicating distinct messages in a way that will appeal specifically to the target group Why STP?: • Audiences respond to messages from within different contexts • You cannot reach everyone • Not everyone is going to be interested • Strategic communications can be EXPENSIVE 3 Major Types of Segmentation : • Demographic o Age o Gender o Martial Status o Geographic Location o Education Level o Income Level o Occupation o Ethnicity o Religion o Generation o Geographic Location (Segmentation) § Region – Continent, country, state, neighborhood § Population Density/Size of Metropolitan Area – Urban, suburban, rural § Climate – weather patterns • Psychographic o Personality o Activities o Attitudes o Values o Interests o Beliefs § The reasoning and emotion behind decision -making § “Inside meanings” § What motivates and persuades • Behavioral o Health Choices o Online Engagement o Media Consumption Psychographic – VALS: • VALS – Values and Lifestyles System • Based on resources ($) and personal motivations • Predicts how a person will express themselves and react to a message • Ideals: o “Principle orientation” o Thinkers/Fulfillers – highly practical people § Look for durability, functionality, value, comfort o Believers – strong principles § Prefer things that are similar/ est. § Favor American products § Highly Loyal • Achievement o Status o Achievers: § Career and image oriented • Favor prestige: like success and predictability § Strivers • Favor stylish products to emulate purchase s of wealthy consumers • Impulse buyers • Self-Expression o “Action-oriented” o Want to impact the world o Experiencers § Impulsive, young, risk takers § Sociable o Makers § Action-oriented, self-sufficient • Innovators o All 3 motives § Abundant resources § Self-confidence • Survivors o Few resources o Focus on meeting needs rather than fulfilling desires o Not often a key target for mainstream, consumption -based campaigns Purpose of Audience Analysis: • Target message to fits needs of audience • Increase likelihood of attention to message • Focus message design efforts • Avoid wasting time, effort, money “The starting point for all planning efforts” Audience Analysis: • General Description o Types of Audiences § Primary • Direct receivers of message • Key decision-makers § Secondary • Not direct recipients of the message • Affected by message in some way • Audience Characteristics o Demographics o Psychographics/Behavioral § Behavioral Segmentation • Based on actual customer behavior toward products • Variables: o Benefits sought o Usage rate o Brand loyalty o User status (potential, first-time, regular) o Occasions (holidays & events that stimulate purchases) o Personality o Cultural Artifacts § Characteristics of the Group § What norms do they share? • Shared values, attitudes, beliefs § What traditions, standards, and rules? Application of Psychographic Attributes: • Focus on benefits (not features) o Consider personal gain: what enhances sense of self-worth, accomplishment, achievement • Determines whether to use rational ( logos) appeal or emotional (pathos) appeal • Provides insight concerning whether audience is neutral, positive/supportive, or hostile to message Learner Characteristics (for informing and educating): • Identification/Description of Primary Learners o Identification of secondary audiences • Prerequisites o Required knowledge, skill • Desired Preferences o Knowledge, skill • General demographic characteristics • Intellectual ability (IQ) • Existing knowledge and skills o What they already know • Previous experience • Maturity level • Motivation and attitude (readiness to learn) • Expectations & assumptions • Learning styles/preferences • Learning disabilities Who Am I to Them? • What is my relationship to the audience(s) o Authority factors o Power factors o Affinity group (loyalty) o Is attention to message voluntary or mandated? Types of Marketing: • Mass Marketing o Audience is homogeneous o Allows for economy of scale o One size fits all not optimal • Target Marketing o Recognizes diversity o Doesn’t try to please everyone with same solution Audience Analysis: Gatekeeper – has the power to stop message from getting to primary audi ence Watchdog – can’t stop the message directly, but can influence the primary audience through political, social, or economic power Strategic Communication supports Organizational Stability, Change, and Resilience: Why Strategic Communication? • Employees unclear about organization goals • Change: Buy-in from employees • Work processes unclear and error prone • Poor supervision/feedback/coaching/training • Inconsistent internal and external messages • Culture suppresses innovation • Public’s increasing demand for tran sparency Strategy Concepts: • Strategy – long-term goals of an organization o A set of ideas that creates competition advantage • Goal: Where the organization wants to go • Tactics: How the organization is going to get there o Both involve decision-making and trade-offs Purpose of Strategy: • Ensure organizational survival • Guide growth and renewal o Need for innovation • Reduce uncertainty and create order • Communicate direction and focus o Consistency if messaging • Build alignment among operating units o Need for innovation • Provide a framework for decisions • Create competitive advantage StratComm’s Role in Strategic Planning: • Assist in developing goals and plans • Assist leaders with communications o Designing messages o Coordination internal events (town halls) o External communication (public, investors) Partners not Take Orders Levels of Strategic Planning Multi-Business Corporate- Level Corporation Business Unit Level Strategic Strategic Business Unit Business Unit (SBU) (SBU) Functional- Level Development Marketing Technologyn Resources (R&D) (IT) (Training) Strategic Planning Process : 1. Analyze internal & external environment 2. Identify needs & opportunities 3. Derive strategic goals 4. Identify & select projects 5. Communicate, cultivate & maintain buy-in 6. Execute strategies 7. Evaluate Situation Analysis: • Analyze past events • Examine current conditions • Forecast future trends • Tools: o SWOT Analysis § Internal: Strengths and Weaknesses § External: Opportunities and Threats o BCG Matrix (Boston Consulting Group) Star Question Mark (Problem) H Cash Cow Dog t - ke M L Relative Market Share High - Low Strategic Decisions: • Strategic Position o Low Cost Leadership o Focus Differentiation – niche segment, uniqueness, brand image • Strategic Ideology o Purpose § Mission • Meaning differs in eac h organization • Purpose: Why firm exists, what it does • E.g. Charity: “Provide jobs for unemployed” § Vision • Long-term future state • Short, simple inspiring statement • E.g. Charity: “A world without poverty” § Strategic Goals • Specific, measurable goals o Shared Values § Honesty § Respect § Family-oriented o Core Competencies Strategy Development Paths: • Planned Strategy o Strategic Intent • Emergent Strategy o Trial & Error Experimentation Continuously Adapt to Environment : • Future-Proof your organization: o Strategic Variety o Intellectual flexibility o Structural flexibility **Contribution of SC Professionals: • Ability to adapt and assist with change efforts • Develop intellectual assets o Core competencies o Capture and share knowledge throughout firm o Facilitate new thinking • Reduce employee uncertainty and fear of change to promote organizational stability • Help make organizations and individuals more resilient to ongoing change Strategy is…: • The evolution of original ideas • Stemming from a vision of what can be • Recognizing ever changing markets, conditions, and opportunities Fallacies of Strategic Planning • Prediction o Forecasting only works in stable environment • Detachment o Separates strategic thinkers from doers • Formalization o Rational systematic data gathering and interpretation confines u nderstanding (paradigm)
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