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MANA 4325 Test 2 Study Guide Dr. Hall

by: Josh Radcliff

MANA 4325 Test 2 Study Guide Dr. Hall MANA 4325

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Here is the study guide for test number 2. I hope this helps some of you!
Leadership in Organizations
Dr. Alison Hall
Study Guide
Hall, Mana, MANA4325, Leadership, In, Organizations, test, 2, study, Guide.
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josh Radcliff on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MANA 4325 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Alison Hall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Leadership in Organizations in Business at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
MANA 4325 Test 2 Study Guide Dr. Hall Chapter 4 – The Leader as an Individual  Topics to know for test o How/why is self-awareness important? o How to recognize blind spots o Know the major personality dimensions and how personality influences leadership and relationships within organizations o Know what instrumental and end values are, and know how they guide thoughts and behavior o Know different attitudes and how they relate to a leader’s behavior o Know different attributions and how perception affects the leader- follower relationship o Know the differences in cognitive style and how to broaden one’s own thinking style to expand leadership potential o Know how to lead and work with people with varied personality traits  The Secret Ingredient for Leadership Success – SELF-AWARENESS o Self-awareness – Being conscious of the internal aspects of one’s nature, such as personality traits, emotions, values, attitudes, and perceptions, and appreciating how your patters affect other people. o The importance of self-awareness  When leaders deeply understand themselves, they remain grounded and constant, so that people know what to expect from them.  It also can eliminate some blind spots a person may have o Leader Blind Spots – Characteristics or habits that people are not aware of or don’t recognize as problems but which limit their effectiveness and hinder their career success  A big blind spot that can be very damaging is being a jerk - someone who hurts relationships with employees, subordinates, and peers. It can drive a company into the ground.  Another blind spot is being too nice – Being a people pleaser can prevent a leader from seeing that they are damaging their relationships and careers by being overly concerned with what others think of them  Personality and Leadership o Personality – The relatively stable set of unseen characteristics and processes that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, and people in the environment o A Model of Personality – The Big Five personality dimensions (listed below)  1. Extroversion – The degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable meeting and talking to new people  “Dominance” in a situation is similarly related  Not as important of a characteristic to have as most people may think because 4 in 10 leaders are introverts, not extroverts  2. Agreeableness – The degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good natured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate, understanding, and trusting  High agreeableness means you are warm and approachable  Today’s successful leaders know how to get people to like and trust them  3. Conscientiousness – The degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented  More important than extroversion  A person who focuses on a few goals  Guilt is a positive emotion for a leader because it is associated with a heightened sense of responsibility to others.  4. Emotional Stability – The degree to which a person is well adjusted, calm, and secure o Handles stress well and can handle criticism, not taking mistakes personally o Having high emotional intelligence means you understand others’ feelings well.  5. Openness to Experience – The degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, and willing to consider new ideas o Being open to taking on new challenges and being creative will help a company grow, which we learned earlier is important in a leader today. Traveling and experiencing all sorts of different cultures and interests is important in making a well- rounded leader  Importance of the Big Five is for leaders to understand their strengths and deficiencies in these categories so they can be more aware of themselves and their tendencies.  Personality Traits and Leader Behavior  2 main attributes that impact behavior  1. Locus of Control – Defines whether a person places the primary responsibility for what happens to him or her within himself/herself or outside forces o Internal locus control – people believe they are masters of their own fate. They control their destiny  Very self-motivated people in control of their own behavior, participate in more social activities, and more actively seek information.  Can handle more complex problem solving  More likely to seek leadership positions o External locus control – Believes outside forces determine what happens to them  Prefer lots of structure and direction in their work.  2. Authoritarianism – The belief that power and status differences should exist in an organization o High degree of authoritarianism usually means you respect the hierarchy system and doing your part o Don’t really like people expressing their personal feelings. o Will dictate how much power the leader delegates to others o As we studied in earlier chapters, today’s leaders are moving towards a lower degree of authoritarianism. o Either can be good as long as the followers share the same degree of authoritarianism as the leader  Values and Attitudes o Instrumental and End Values  Values – Fundamental beliefs that an individual considers to be important, that are relatively stable over time, and that have an impact on attitudes and behavior  End Values AKA terminal values – Beliefs about the kind of goals or outcomes that are worth trying to pursue  Ex: People who strive for security, a comfortable life, and good health focus on end values.  Ex: People place value on social recognition, pleasure, and an exciting life  Instrumental Values – Beliefs about the types of behavior that are appropriate for reaching goals  Ex: Being helpful to others, being honest, exhibiting courage  People have both end values and instrumental values, but their order of importance changes from person to person.  **Understanding peoples’ value differences can help improve communication and effectiveness; reminds me somewhat of the Path-goal theory  National culture, generational differences, family background, and how a person was raised all have a high effect on what a person values.  **Values influence how leaders relate to others  Ex: a leader who values obedience, conformity, and politeness may have a difficult time understanding and appreciating a follower who is self-reliant, independent, creative, and rebellious  Leaders can be more effective when they clarify their own values and understand how values guide their actions and affect their organizations. Clarifying and stating corporate values are an important part in defining how an organization operates o How Attitudes Affect Leadership  Attitude – An evaluation – either positive or negative – about people, events, or things…Wow, really philosophical definition there…  Attitudes towards followers are developed from a leader’s attitude about human nature in general.  Douglas McGregor identified two different assumptions about human nature  1. Theory X – The assumption that people are basically lazy and not motivated to work and that they have a natural tendency to avoid responsibility o People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives o The average person has little ambition and prefers security above all o Believes in task-orientation and concerned with production  2. Theory Y – The assumption that people do not inherently dislike work and will commit themselves willingly to work that they care about o A person will exercise self-direction and self-control when he/she is committed. o A person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility o Imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems are exhibited by many in the population o The intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partly utilized, and we are capable of so much more. o People-oriented and concerned with relationships o McGregor believes this is better than theory X  Social Perception and Attributions o Perception – The process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information o Because of individual differences in attitudes, personality, values, interests, and experiences, people often “see” the same thing in different ways.  Ex: A person might have developed the attitude that leaders are insensitive and arrogant, based on a pattern of perceiving arrogant and insensitive behavior from supervisors over a period of time. If a person moves to a new job, this attitude will continue to affect the way he or she perceives superiors in the new environment. o Perceptual Distortions – Errors in judgment that arise from inaccuracies in the perceptual process. Some of the most common errors are below:  Stereotyping – The tendency to assign an individual to a broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual  Prevents people from truly knowing those they stereotype and prevents talented people from advancing in an organization and fully contributing their talents to the organization’s success  Halo Effect – An overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable  It blinds the perceiver to other characteristics that should be used in generating a more complete assessment.  Projection – The tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people  They project their own needs, feelings, values, and attitudes into their judgment of others  Best safeguard to this error is good self-awareness and empathy  Perceptual Defense – The tendency to protect oneself by disregarding ideas, situations, or people that are unpleasant  People develop blind spots in the perceptual process so that negative sensory data do not hurt them.  Recognizing peoples’ blind spots can help people develop a clearer picture of reality o Attributions – Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior – either characteristics of the person (internal) or of the situation (external)  They help people decide how to handle a situation.  Distorted attributions come from:  1) The Fundamental Attribution Error – The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and overestimate the influence of internal factors o Ex: When a person is promoted to CEO, people may look at the character traits that got him there when in reality, it could have been external factors like business conditions creating a need for someone with his strong background at that particular time  2) The Self-Serving Bias – The tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors on one’s successes and the influence of external factors on one’s failures o People give themselves too much credit for what they do well and give external forces too much blame when they fail.  Cognitive Differences / Cognitive Style – How a person perceives, processes, interprets, and uses information o Patterns of Thinking and Brain Dominance  Left brain thinkers are logical and analytical thinkers who take a linear approach to problem solving, whereas the right brain is associated with creative, intuitive, values-based thought processes.  Ned Herrmann broadened these ideas into what is called the whole brain concept – An approach that considers not only a person’s preference for right-brained vs. left-brained thinking, but also conceptual vs. experiential thinking; it identifies four quadrants of the brain related to different thinking styles  Quadrant A – Associated with logical thinking, analysis of facts, and processing numbers.  Person is rational and realistic, thinks critically, and likes to deal with numbers and technical matters.  The scientist.  Leader is directive and authoritative, focuses on tasks and activities, and likes to deal with concrete information and facts  Quadrant B – Associated with planning, organizing acts, and careful detailed review  Person is well-organized, reliable, and neat.  The manager  Leaders are conservative and highly traditional. They tend to avoid risks and strive for stability. They follow rules and procedures  Quadrant C – Associated with interpersonal relationships and intuitive and emotional thought processes.  Person is sensitive to others and enjoy interacting and teaching others.  The teacher  Leaders are friendly, trusting, and empathetic. They are concerned with people’s feelings more than with tasks and procedures and may put emphasis on employee development and training  Quadrant D – Associated with conceptualizing, synthesizing, and integrating facts and patterns  Person is visionary and imaginative; likes to speculate and break the rules, takes risks, and may be impulsive.  The artist  Leader is holistic, imaginative, and entrepreneurial. They enjoy change, experimentation, and allow followers a great deal of freedom and flexibility  o As a leader, it is important to be aware of the different parts of the brain their followers use. They can gear the communication to fit that person better. Leaders can recruit people with varied cognitive styles to help achieve important goals o Problem-Solving Styles: Jungian Types and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  MBTI Assessment – Test that measures how individuals differ in gathering and evaluation information for solving problems and making decisions. In each of the following categories, you will test for either one or the other:  1. Introvert (I) vs. Extrovert (E) – Where to people get their interpersonal strength and mental energy from?  2. Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N) – How does a person absorb information?  3. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) – How much consideration does a person give to emotions in making a decision?  4. Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P) - What is an individual’s attitudes toward ambiguity, and how quickly does a person make a decision?  Leaders can flex their communication style as needed to connect more meaningfully with employees.  Of the four different categories, it is pretty clear that the two most commonly associated with leadership are thinking and judging.  Working with Different Personality Types o Leaders can learn to work more effectively with different personality types by following some simple guidelines: o 1. Understand your own personality and how you react to others. Avoid judging people based on limited knowledge, and realize that everyone has different facets to their personality. Learn to control your frustration to help you keep different personality types focused on the goal and the task needed to reach it. o 2. Treat everyone with respect. People like to be accepted and appreciated for who they are. Even if you find someone’s personality grating, remain professional and keep your irritation to yourself. Don’t gossip or joke about others. o 3. Acknowledge each person’s strengths – Everyone wants to be recognized for their unique talents, so be sure to acknowledge and make use of people’s useful personality characteristics. For instance, a pessimistic person can be difficult to be around, but these gloomy folks can sometimes be helpful by calling attention to legitimate problems with an idea or plan. o 4. Strive for understanding – Clarify questions every time there’s a potential for miscommunication. Follow up each question or request with a statement explaining why you asked and how it will benefit the organization as well as the individual. o 5. Remember that everyone wants to fit in - No matter their personalities, people typically take on behavior patterns that are the norm for their environment. Leaders can create norms that keep everyone focused on positive interactions and high performance  Gary Vaynerchuk video shown in class o Accept your shortcomings and know your strengths o Know your personality, traits, emotions, values, attitudes, and perceptions o Appreciate how your patterns affect other people o It’s important to stay grounded so people can know what to expect Chapter 5: Leadership Mind and Emotion  Topics to know for the test o Know how mental models guide behavior and relationships o Engage in independent thinking by staying mentally alert, thinking critically, and being mindful rather than mindless o Break out of categorized thinking patterns and open your mind to new ideas and multiple perspectives o Apply systems thinking and personal mastery to your activities at school or work o Exercise emotional intelligence, including being self-aware, managing emotions, motivating oneself, displaying empathy, and managing relationships o Apply the difference between motivating others based on fear and motivating others based on love  Leading with Head and Heart o Successful leaders today are whole leaders, meaning they use both their head and their heart when they lead. o Using heart is important in times of uncertainty and rapid change. o Using your head is important for organizational issues such as goals and strategies, structure, finances, etc  Mental Models – Theories people hold about specific systems in the world and their expected behavior o An accurate mental model helps a leader understand how to arrange the key elements in their mental system to get the desired outcome o A leader’s assumptions shape his/her mental models o Assumptions  Much like Theory X and Theory Y from Chpt. 4  Someone who assumes that people can’t be trusted will act very differently in a situation than someone who has the assumption that people are basically trustworthy.  Leaders have assumptions about events, situations, and circumstances as well as about people  Assumptions can be dangerous because people tend to accept them as “truth.” o Changing or Expanding Mental Models  The best leaders have “contextual evidence” – the ability to sense the social, political, technological, and economic context of the times and adopt a mental model that helped their organizations best respond.  It’s challenging because people tend to stick to something that works as opposed to changing to adapt when times change  Global mindset – the ability of managers to appreciate and influence individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that represent different social, cultural, political, institutional, intellectual, or psychological characteristics  Best advice to develop this – surround yourself with people from different cultures  Developing a Leader’s Mind in four ways: o 1. Independent Thinking – questioning assumptions and interpreting data and events according to one’s own beliefs, ideas, and thinking, rather than pre-established rules or categories defined by others.  Good leadership isn’t about following the rules of others but standing up for what you believe is best for the organization.  Mindfulness – A state of paying attention to new information and a readiness to create new mental categories in the face of evolving information and shifting circumstances.  Mindful leaders are open-minded and stimulate the thinking of others through their curiosity and questions  Good leaders apply critical thinking to explore a situation, problem, or question from multiple perspectives and integrate all the available information into a possible solution. o 2. Open-Mindedness  Can me hindered by Pike Syndrome – when people assume they have complete knowledge of a situation because of past experiences and don’t consider alternatives from different perspectives  “beginner’s mind” – being open-minded and not have preconceived notions about something  “expert’s mind” – using your past experiences to say you have knowledge and using that knowledge for assessing things o 3. Systems-Thinking – The ability to see the synergy of the whole rather than just the separate elements of a system and tend to learn to reinforce or change whole system patterns  A leader connects the dots to the big picture instead of just seeing each dot as a separate, individual piece.  Systems thinking enables leaders to look for patterns, of movement over time and focus on the qualities of rhythm, flow, direction, shape, and networks of relationships that accomplish the performance of the whole.  “peripheral vision” – ability to view the organization through a wide-angle lens rather than a narrow lens  Systems thinkers can see circles of causality – how one thing affects multiple other things, which circle back and affect that first thing. o 4. Personal Mastery – The discipline of mastering yourself; it embodies clarity of mind, clarity of objectives, and organizing to achieve objectives  Clarity of mind – a commitment to the truth of current reality, which increases the opportunity to achieve desired results  Clarity of objectives – Helps leaders focus on the end results, the vision or dream that motivates them and their team or organization  Organizing to achieve objectives – bridges reality and vision of a better future; leaders pull reality up to the dream and down bring their dream down to reality o They above 4 relate: Independent thinking and open-mindedness improve systems thinking and enable personal mastery, helping leaders shift and expand their mental models.  Emotional Intelligence (EQ)– A person’s abilities to perceive, identify, understand, and successfully manage emotions in self and others. o What are Emotions?  Some main emotions: Anger, sadness, relief, fear, enjoyment, love, envy, disgust, pride, guilt  A key component of leadership is being emotionally connected to others and understanding how emotions affect working relationships and performance. o Why are Emotions Important?  1. Emotions are contagious  If you are happy, you can make others around you happy, and vice versa if you are in a bad mood.  Negative emotions have proven to have a bigger effect on others than positive emotions  2. Emotions Influence Performance  Negative moods drain energy and prevent people from doing their best  People’s energy, creativity, and intellectual commitment expands when leaders unlock positive emotions  Almost everything that influences people’s moods in the workplace is under the control of leaders.  Leaders have to regulate their own emotions to remain positive and hopeful and then pull others up with them.  3. The Components of Emotional Intelligence  The competencies and abilities of emotional intelligence are grouped into 4 categories, shown in the picture and described in more detail below: o o 1. Self-Awareness – The ability to recognize and understand your own emotions and how they affect your life and work; the basis of all other competencies o 2. Self-Management – The ability to control disruptive, unproductive, or harmful emotions and desires.  Leaders control their own emotions, remain calm, and listen with warmth and sympathy  Leaders are trustworthy, conscientious, and adaptable.  Leaders remain hopeful and optimistic despite obstacles o 3. Social Awareness – one’s ability to understand others  Empathy – Being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes, sense their emotions, and understand their perspective.  Capable of understanding divergent points of view.  Also includes organizational awareness and service orientation which means being able to accomplish good tasks and recognize and serve the needs of others. o 4. Relationship Management – The ability to connect with others and build positive relationships.  Treat people with compassion, sensitivity, and kindness.  Leaders use their understanding of emotions to inspire change and lead people toward something better. o **Most importantly, emotional intelligence enables leaders to recognize and respect followers as whole human beings with feelings, opinions, and ideas of their own. Leading with Love Versus Leading with Fear o Fear in Organizations  Fear in organizations include fear of failure, fear of change, fear of personal loss, fear of being judged, and fear of the boss.  All prevent people from doing their best, taking risk, and challenging the status quo o Consequences of Fear  Fear gets in the way of people feeling good about their work, themselves, and the organization.  Leading with fear creates avoidance behavior because no one wants to make a mistake. Employees feel threatened.  When leaders inspire fear, they destroy the opportunity for feedback, blinding them to reality and denying them the chance to correct damaging decisions and behaviors o Relationship with Leaders  Organizations driven by love are marked by openness and authenticity, a respect for diverse viewpoints, and emphasis on positive interpersonal relationships.  Organizations driven by fear are characterized by cautiousness and secrecy, blaming others, excessive control, and emotional distance among people.  The relationship between an employee and his/her direct supervisor is the primary factor determining the level of fear experienced at work. o Bringing Love to Work  Love is a real force. It is translated into behavior.  Love is something you do, the sacrifices you make, and the giving of yourself to others.  Feelings of compassion, respect, and loyalty are translated into action such as acts of friendliness, teamwork, cooperation, listening, understanding, and serving others above oneself. o Why Followers Respond to Love  Leaders who lead with love meet 5 unspoken employee needs: HEART Hear and understand me Even if you disagree with me, please don’t make me wrong Acknowledge the greatness within me Remember to look for my loving intentions. Tell me the truth with compassion  When leaders address these subtle emotional needs directly, people typically respond by loving their work and becoming emotionally engaged in solving problems and serving customers.  Fear-based motivation – Motivation based on fear of losing a job  Love-based motivation – Motivation based on feeling valued in the job Chapter 6: Courage and Moral Leadership  Topics to Know for the Test o Be able to combine a rational approach to leadership with a concern for people and ethics o Understand how leaders set the ethical tone in organizations and recognize the distinction between ethical and unethical leadership o Recognize your own stage of moral development and ways to accelerate your moral maturation o Identify and use mechanisms that enhance an ethical organizational culture o Apply the principles of stewardship and servant leadership o Recognize courage in others and unlock your own potential to live and act courageously  Moral Leadership Today o The Ethical Climate in Business  Personal weakness and self-interest are the biggest pressures leaders face when it comes to doing the right thing.  Feeling like leaders have to please shareholders may cause them to behave unethically towards customers, employees, and society.  Leaders have to make their organization look successful, and the pressure to do that may be too much for them to do it completely honestly. o Leaders Set the Ethical Tone  What goes on at the top sets the tone for the rest of the organization  Leaders signal what matters through their behavior, so unethical behavior will trickle down in the company.  Ethical leaders focus on employees, customers, and the greater good.  Unethical leaders pay attention to personal gains first  Ethical leaders are honest and fair  Unethical leaders practice deception  Ethical leaders share the credit or success and accept blame when things go wrong  Unethical leaders take lone credit and blame others  Leaders speak up against acts they believe are wrong  Many people have a natural inclination to protect the organization and won’t speak up if it will hurt it. o  Acting Like a Moral Leader o Business is about values and not just economic performance o ***The single most important factor in ethical decision making in organizations is whether leaders show a commitment to ethics in their talk and especially their behavior*** o Leaders articulate and uphold high ethical standards, and they behave morally even if they think no one is looking. o o  Marshmallow Video watched in Class o Kids told if they can sit there and not eat the marshmallow for 20 minutes, they will be given another marshmallow. o Those who had patience and persistence proved to be better leaders when they grew up compared to those who couldn’t wait and ate the marshmallow without waiting.  Becoming a Moral Leader o Moral Leadership – Distinguishing right from wrong and doing right; seeking the just, honest, and good in the practice of leadership  Seeks to enhance the lives of others o Pre-conventional Level of moral development – The level 1 of personal moral development in which individuals are egocentric and concerned with receiving external rewards and avoiding punishment o Conventional Level of moral development - The level 2 of personal moral development is where people learn to conform to the expectations of good behavior  People at this level follow the rules o Post-conventional Level (AKA Principled level) – The level 3 of personal moral development in which leaders are guided by an internalized set of principles universally recognized as right.  A level 3 leader is visionary, empowering, and committed to serving others and a higher cause o Most adults operate at level 2, the conventional level o Direct relationship between high morality and high ethical behavior.  Servant Leadership – Leadership in which the leader transcends self-interest to serve the needs of others, help others grow, and provide opportunities for others to gain materially and emotionally o Where leaders help develop followers’ potential to become leaders o The most recent stage of the leadership continuum defined below, which is very similar to the stuff we’ve already talked about regarding the relationship development between leaders and followers o 1) Authoritarian Management - Leaders direct, control, and manage people.  Similar to autocratic leader  Top-down control  Followers are subordinates with no power o 2) Participative Management – Beginning in the 1980s with teamwork  Leaders still determine an organization’s purpose and goals, and makes final decisions  Employees are expected to make suggestions and be team players o 3) Stewardship – A belief that leaders are deeply accountable to others as well as to the organization, without trying to control others, define meaning and purpose for others, or take care of others  First shift in thinking moving the needle from control centered in the leader to control centered in the follower  Four principles for this framework  1. Adopt a partnership mindset – As partners, leaders and followers are totally honest with one another  2. Give decision-making power and authority to act to those closest to the work and the customer – Everyone becomes a leader and is responsible for doing core work of the organization  3. Tie rewards to contributions rather than formal positions – Redistributing wealth so people can make more money when they make more contribution  4. Expect core work teams to build the organization – Teams of employees define goals, maintain control, and respond to a changing environment themselves o 4) The Servant Leader  Four basic precepts  1. Put service before self-interest  2. Listen first to affirm others – Leader listens authentically  3. Inspire trust by being trustworthy – Leaders are honest and focus on the well-being of others  4. Nourish others and help them become whole – Leaders believe each follower has a unique potential to impact the world positively  Leading with Courage o Doing the right thing is hard, but great leaders still have to find the courage to do the right thing o What is courage? – The mental and moral strength to engage in, persevere through, and withstand danger, difficulty, or fear.  Leaders create the future by moving forward in the face of uncertainty, by taking chances, by acting with courage.  F.E.A.R. – False Evidence Appearing Real  AKA anxiety.  It takes courage to overcome these fake fears you put inside your head  Courage Means Accepting Responsibility  Leaders accept responsibility for fixing what is wrong and redefine the mission and core values to focus on quality care.  Courage Often Means Nonconformity  Going against the grain, breaking traditions, reducing boundaries, and initiating change.  Leaders take risks for a larger, ethical purpose, and they encourage others to do so, too.  Courage Means Pushing Beyond the Comfort Zone  When you go outside your comfort zone, you hit a “wall of fear,” which takes courage to break through.  Courage Means Asking for What You Want and Saying What You Think  Abilene Paradox – The tendency of people to resist voicing their true thoughts or feelings in order to please others and avoid conflict o Leaders do not do this  Courage means speaking your mind even when you know others may disagree with you and may even deride you.  It means saying no to unreasonable demands from others  Courage Means Fighting for What You Believe  Fighting for valued outcomes that benefit the whole.  Standing up against those who are doing wrong  How Does Courage Apply to Moral Leadership? o Balancing profit with people, self-interest with service, and control with stewardship requires individual moral courage. o Acting Like a Moral Leader Requires Personal Courage  Leaders know themselves, and constantly practice honest self- analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.  It takes courage to build relationships, listen, and have personal experience with others o Opposing Unethical Conduct Requires Courage  It’s okay to be a whistleblower (AKA tattletale) – Employee disclose of illegal, immoral, or unethical practices in the organization  Do what is right even if it may cost you your job  Finding Personal Courage – How do you find it? o 1. Believe in a Higher Purpose – Leaders who have a strong emotional commitment to a larger vision or purpose find courage to step through fear. o 2. Draw Strength from Others – Leaders who have strong ties or close friends in the organization are deeply interested in the lives and activities of others, and will thus be more committed to the goals and purpose o 3. Harness Frustration and Anger – Anger can help fuel a commitment to show everyone you can be successful if done correctly  Anger, in moderate amounts, is a healthy emotion that provides energy to move forward o 4. Take Small Steps – Courageous leaders can develop courageous followers by modeling courage in their own behavior and by helping people practice courage.  Finding courage is a deliberate act rather than an instantaneous response  The Smartest Guy in the Room Video in Class o Video that led to the collapse of Enron o Even the highest of leaders can be motivated by greed, deceit, and pressure to succeed and meet the demands of vendors, which can cause them to act unethically Chapter 7: Followership  Topics to Know for the Test o Know how to effectively manage both up and down the hierarchy o Recognize your followership style and take steps to become a more effective follower o Understand the leader’s role in developing effective followers o Apply the values of effective followership, including responsibility, service, challenging authority, participating in change, and knowing when to leave o Implement the strategies for effective followership at school or work o Know what followers want from leaders and vice versa o Use feedback and leadership coaching to help followers grow and achieve their potential  The Art of Followership o Learn to Manage Up as Well as Down  Managing up – Consciously and deliberately developing a meaningful, task-related, mutually respectful relationship with your direct superiors  You must be able to manage both up and down  Manage your boss and those below you o Managing Up Presents Unique Challenges  People are afraid to give negative feedback or criticize their boss for fear of losing their job  What Your Leader Wants from You o 1. Make-It-Happen Attitude – Take responsibility and initiative; get things done and push yourself to the limits, doing more than what is expected of you o 2. A Willingness to Collaborate – Followers realize that their actions affect those around them, including the leader; their actions affect the larger system, and they must be willing to work with those around them o 3. The Motivation to Stay Up-to-Date – The company will grow and change, so you need to keep up with it and be willing to keep learning when you start the job o 4. The Passion to Drive Your Own Growth – Followers demonstrate a desire to work hard to better themselves, and they continually challenge themselves so they can get better without having to depend on the leader for development  Styles of Followership o 2 dimensions of followership  a. Critical Thinking vs. Uncritical Thinking  Critical – Thinking independently and being mindful of the effects of one’s own and other people’s behavior on achieving the organization’s vision o Asks insightful questions, and considers many alternatives. o Considers the underlying reasoning behind decisions and problems  2. Uncritical Thinking – Failing to consider possibilities beyond what one is told; accepting the leader’s ideas without thinking o Blindly following the leader  b. Active vs. Passive behavior  Active – being involved and taking initiative  Passive – Not wanting to do much and being lazy o 5 Styles of Followership   1. Alienated Follower – A person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization  Typically caused by a negative past experience being active  They have the capabilities but just prefer to be quiet and keep to themselves  2. Conformist Follower – A follower who participates actively in the organization but does not utilize critical thinking skills in his or her task behavior  Avoids conflict and does what he/she is told without question  3. Pragmatic Survivor Follower – A follower who has qualities of all four other styles, depending on which style fits with the prevalent situation  Uses whatever style will boost his/her position or decrease risk  4. Passive Follower – A person in an organization who exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation  Let the leaders do the thinking; aren’t good followers at all  Typically produced in situations where the leader does not reward the followers and punishes them  5. Effective Follower – A critical, independent thinker who actively participates in the organization  Best type of followership  Have courage to put the best interest of the organization first and they confront risk and conflict  Strategies for Managing Up – Understanding the Leader and Knowing relationship-building tactics o 1. Understanding the Leader – Get to know their working preferences and adapt to them (in other words, try to become a teacher’s pet)  Be sensitive to the leader’s work style and needs o 2. Tactics for Managing Up  Develop a task-related relationship with the boss so you can add value to the organization even when your ideas disagree with each other  Know behaviors that annoy the leader  Graph below best summarizes what you can do to influence your leader and manage up   The Power and Courage to Manage Up o Here are some sources of power for managing up  1. Personal Sources – Having superior knowledge and expertise in skills that are valuable to the organization gives you power  Put in a lot of effort and persuade the leader using facts and reason to support your argument (aka rationalization)  2. Position Sources – If you are in a position that is visible and very involved with the flow of information, you will get to build a network of relationships that would make you very valuable to keep around, giving you power to manage up and speak up to your leader o Types of Courage Needed to Manage Up  The Courage to Assume Responsibility  Take pride in your position at the job and feel a sense of personal responsibility and ownership to your responsibilities  The Courage to Challenge –  Take a stand against a leader who is doing something unethical or not in the best interest of the organization. Challenge your leader for the good of the organization if necessary  The Courage to Participate in Transformation  Support the leader and organization when the organization has to change and transform  The Courage to Serve  Figure out the needs of the organization and continually seek to serve those needs  By displaying the will to serve others over themselves, followers act for the common mission of the organization  The Courage to Leave  If a follower is faced with a leader or an organization unwilling to make necessary changes, it is time to take his/her support elsewhere.  You need to leave if you are at such a difference of moral opinions with your leader  What Followers Want from Leaders o Top four: honesty, forward-thinking, inspiring, and competent o Four ways leaders enhance the abilities of followers:  1) Offering clarity of direction  Create a vision of what the organization is working for and why they are working towards that.  Clear goals help people focus  Clarify how each follower’s position ties in and helps reach that organizational vision  2) Opportunities for Growth  Leaders can evoke leadership coaching – A method of directing or facilitating a follower with the aim of improving specific skills or achieving a specific development goal  Help followers realize their potential  3) Frequent, Specific, and Immediate Feedback  Feedback – Using evaluation and communication to help individuals and the organization learn and improve  Give feedback to improve and develop the follower in a way that signals the leader cares about the follower’s growth.  Ways to give good feedback o A. Make it timely – Give feedback as soon as possible o B. Focus on the performance and not the person – Point out what needs work, but also point out what went very well o C. Make it specific – Give examples or illustrations if need be so the follower clearly understands o D. Focus on the desired future, not the past – Let mistakes go rather than offer negative feedback.  Minimize fault-finding; instead describe the desired behaviors and outcomes o Protection from Organizational Intrusions  Good leaders take the heat so others don’t have to.  When people can’t or won’t learn and change, good leaders will get rid of them so they stop affecting the entire team.


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