Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide PSC 1003
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Laura Castro Lindarte
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Bill Mikhail in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Date of Exam: March 9, 2016 Midterm 2 Study Guide: ● The exam will focus on three questions like the last one. ● The first question will be focusdecisionmaking cases ○ You have to choos out of 5 cases ○ For each one you have to analyze it bas levels (personal, domestic, regional and global) ● The second question will be focusedrotocol cases ○ More specificalthe visit of chairman Deng and the marriage of Maxima and king of Holland ● The third question will be focusR is changing ● Decision Making: ○ Professor said to answer it in bullet points making sure to hit all the points in the outline and add two or three sentences of extra details. ○ The levels of decision makingindividual, domestic, regional and global ○ The Sinatra Doctri1989 ■ USSR is made up of many ethnicitwhich united due to working class revolting to take oOMMUNISM FACING PROBLEMS NOT WORKING ■ To fix thGorbachev tried to terminate the alliance system loyal to Soviet Union based on Eastern Europe known as the WARSAW PACT ■ “Have it your way?” Unlike 1956 and 1968 when USSR sent tanks when shifting from communism, if any leader in satellite nation wanted to move out of communism and was in Warsaw Pact, Gorbachev would say “do it your way.” a. This ended the Brezhnev Doctrine that USSR had been following before ■ Global: a. End Cold War b. No more alliance in Europe and a new phase in AmericanSoviet relations ■ Regional: a. Europe was successful and changing with NATtalking not fighting for 40 years) b. Germany was a success c. Big framework of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) d. Gorbachev wanting “a common european home” and against continuing with the military blocs e. Rising European common market ■ Domestic: a. Situation inside all nations was veno food, no resources) ■ Personal: a. Gorbachev’s Glasnost and Perestroiktrying to open up communist countries of East Europe b. Reagan and those in satellite nations were done with old ways (rise on opposition leaders rose charter of 66 demands freedom) ○ The Panama Canal Treaty: eptember 7, 1977 (ratification 1978) ■ USA used to own canal buransferred ownership to Panamanian government ■ One reason to do this wasbuild stability in the region ■ Dictator: Omar Torrijos ■ Debate in USA with some people saying that they should keep the canal a. Huge issue during Ronald Reagan's Campaign ■ American officials wanted to give the canaecause it had become a symbol of American control of Central America ■ Global: a. Cold War occurring b. China rising and other areas needed attention. ■ Regional: a. Central America was in turmocivil wars in El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua) ■ Domestic: a. People in Panama believed that if they got the canal they would get more sovereignty, b. USA debate with delegates from all territories why to give up canal. c. Show generosity to Panama and give attention to other things. d. Republicans were against it but by 1980s everyone was ok with it. ■ Personal: a. Many American officials had said they would give back the canal b. Dictator Torrijos saying that he would burn canal if it was not given back to Panama ■ By giving the canal back, the USA could begin to focus on the other countries not just Panama. ■ USA made it known that it would use force if anyone tried to use canal to attack or limited USA’s usage of it. ■ By 2000, Panama would get the canal. ○ Suez Canal: ctober 1956 ■ Essential to world trade because links Mediterranean with Indian Ocean a. Cuts distance because ships would not have to go around the Cape of Hope ■ Found in Egypt ■ Ismail wanted to make Egypt part of Europe so modernizand took over mission of building Suez Canal. ■ French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps helped ■ 1869 Canal was opened ■ Ismail in debt and forced to give up throne ive canal mortgage to Britain and France. ■ The 1952 the military took over ann 1956 Nasser announced that canal was nationalized to make money. ■ Oct. 31, 1956 the Britain, France and Israel attacked canal in Suez Crisis ■ In USA, presidential elections occurring in 2 do froze British assets to stop crisis ■ Prime Minister Bulganin of Soviet Union announced that it would sent nuclear bombs to London and France ■ Global: a. Cold War, France and Britain no longer in command instead of USA and USSR. b. Avoid regional and global crisis in Middle East c. USA and Britain faced disagreement with USA freezing British assets d. Soviets made a rift in the Western alliance by threatening to send nuclear bombs to Paris and London e. Everyone wanted to keep the canal open ■ Regional: a. Middle East facing anticolonial drive making there a need to stabilize b. Another crisis was occurring in Hungary announced that they didn’t want communism so Gorbachev send the tanks c. France was facing troubles in Algeria d. Beginning of ArabIsraeli conflict e. America’s disagreement with Nasser f. France lost in indoChina ■ Domestic: a. Egypt needed money to build dam in Nile, World Bank didn’t give money because it seemed too communist b. In the middle of the industrial revolution so Britain needed to export cotton easily c. Instability of France’s fourth republic d. Soviet wanting to test how strong the relationship between western countries e. Troika ystem in the Soviet Union f. Labor Party taking on the Tory in Britain g. US election in 1956 crisis occurred two days before election ■ Personal: a. USSR: Bulganin, Egypt: Nasser, France: Guy Mollet, Israel: Ben Gurion, USA: Eisenhower and Dulles ○ Namibia: arch 21, 1990 ■ German colony (part of Scramble for Africa) ■ Big white population but majority still black ■ After WWI, Germany was punished and Namibia was given to South African 1990, communism falling so let’s solve other world crisis ■ Global: a. Wanted to give majority rule to people of Namibia b. Gorbachev defunding proSoviet guerrilla movements c. SovietCubanSouth African cooperation d. UN Resolution 435: proposed ceasefire and UNsupervised elections in South Africa, led to independence of Namibia e. UNTAG peacekeeping to ensure peace elections and make process peaceful f. Preparing the ground to end segregation in South Africa ■ Regional: a. South Africa would give resources to neighbors because had better economic b. Europe wanted to change Nambia c. SWAPO is weak d. African diplomacy trying to bring solution to Namibia ■ Domestic: a. SWAPO if Namibia is able to solve problems then so can South Africa b. Relative tranquility in Namibia ■ Personal: a. Sam Nujoma was leader of Namibia and called for reconsolidation (inspired Nelson Mandela) b. Castro, Gorbachev and leaders of South Africa ■ Class division NOT do severa in Namibia ○ Morocco asserting claim over West Sahara:9751979 ■ Arab African culture ■ Used to be called the Spanish Sahara ■ Global: a. Spanish withdrawal b. Soviet disinterest c. Moroccos raising fears of Soviet strategic advantage if a proWestern government doesn’t occupy Sahara d. Always been ambiguity by the big powers over the status of Sahara e. James Baker had a mission there to grant Western Sahara selfdetermination ■ Regional: a. UN General Assembly calling for Spain to decolonize Sahara b. War between Morocco, Mauritania, and two Sahara local organizations c. Rival between Morocco and Algeria because Algeria became socialist once it gained independence from France in July 1962 d. Dispute between Morocco and Polisario wasted resources of Africa at a time of great challenge to Africans and Arabs ■ Domestic: a. Starting big mobilization campaign in Morocco b. Rise of selfautonomy and independence movements among small population of Sahara ■ Personal: a. King Franco of Spain died in 1975 so Spain is trying to be a democracy b. King Hassan II of Morocco wanted territory ■ Presently Morocco still controls Sahara with some sections being controlled by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) ■ No country has recognized Morocco’s control of Sahara a. Issue has been divisive between Africa and Arabs b. UN hasn’t been able to hold referendum on the future of Sahara c. UN designation of Sahara as a nonselfgoverning territory ■ Conflict could be revived if natural resources are found ● Protocol: ○ Nations do businesoth symbolic and substances ○ When Khrushchev came he went to broadway and met actress ○ Problem faced byKing of Belgium when deciding college because didn’t want to insult anyone ■ Decided to go to Stanford to learn English ○ Kitchen Debate:debate betweenvice president Nixon and Khrushchever what system led to better kitchen ○ Protocol is made to have goodwill environment with foreigners ○ Protocol issue is done to defuse conflict ○ Protocol has ceremonial aspects ■ Nations’ actions are symbolic (WWII celebration throughout world is example) ■ Reagan appointed Hungarian secretary to be ambassador ■ Carter send majority leader to be Japanese ambassador because wife is Japanese ○ Celebrities now involved ■ “Personal element or touch” Sahad giving Nixon’s daughter present ■ President Yeltsin given copy of Federalists Paanting to help with their democracy ■ China got piece of moon to show USA’s technology advanced ■ President of Portugal went to visit Monticello (TJ’s home) to see correspondence between TJ and Portugal figure ■ Jacqueline Kennedy has statue in Egypt ■ Israel giving visitors bread and salt ■ Nasser had to go to mosque and pray ■ “A protocol has to be exercised in this case…” ○ Ex: Kerry visiting wine cellar in Moldova because culture ○ Egypt accused USA of helping war ■ President Sadat of Egypt welcomed Elliot Richardson to Nasar’s funeral a. Treat awesome because want to improve relations ■ Wanted to be friends with China because lost alliance in Iran ○ Reagan’s secretary was from Austria and became ambassador of Austria when he became president ○ Reagan invites French President Francois Millegrand in aniversary of York battle ■ Taken to Silicon Valley to learn of computer ■ Obama went to French gallery ○ Argentina vs Holland: ■ Crisis because of marriage between Dutch prince and a woman who had family member of Junta of Dirty War in Argentina ■ Protocol to make Dutch people less mad ■ Father was not allowed to walk her down the aisle ■ Máxima had to do many things to show respect for the victims ○ Visit of Chairman Deng: ■ Organized trip to project American culture and help him conduct business with American companies ■ Exposed to USA culture went to visit NASA offices and rodeo in Houston ■ Went to Kennedy Center because of opera house ■ Salutes statue of Lincoln in memorial, honoring USA a. Lincoln memorial influenced lots of international memorials (ex: Taiwan Shah’s tombs) ■ Met with Nixon ■ Went to Philadelphia because USA history ■ Got certificate from Temple University where there is a large population of African Americans ■ Went to dinner in McLean, Virginia ■ TIME magazine interviews ● How IR is changing: ○ Political science and IR utilyze things from other fields ■ Advantage is that it allows you to see how events affect IR ○ Shortening of historical cycle: ■ Things happening faster ■ Compared to past more things are happening in short time periods ■ New phenomenon called “ACCELERATION OF HISTORY” ○ New international institutions that are NONPOLITICAL ■ Ex: FIFA and Eurosong ■ Election of new FIFA president becomes political ■ In eurosong, German singer got taken out because involved with Naszi nationalism ■ Foundation of nonpolitical actors NOT to stop war ● It is based on activities that people like but as nations care more there is increasingly more competition without political or military ○ Multiplicity of Constituenceach time DC is growing more because more groups are appearing(more technology, people and issues) ■ Ex: Korean Americans now more influential because more Koreans in USA ■ No longer discuss with one or two people instead talk to 5 ○ Unexpected Crises: ■ Example of this is Zika out of Brazil ■ Refugees to Europe ■ Malala:won Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2014 ○ Rise of comparative stats and indexes: ■ Compare nations when considering things like travel, language and investing ■ Nations now compare own performance with others when deciding what policies to do ■ Used to not be the case ■ In scramble for Africa, countries were happy with what they go without comparing themselves to other ○ “Failed Stateno one expected that states would do so bad ■ Somalia ○ One theory by Washington University professaniel Chirot that said to decrease violence you need social networking ■ Ex: England has different clubs to socializf they were found in poor nations then energy would go here NOT violence ■ Relate to culture as well ■ Why do poor nations engage in violence more than rich ones? ■ Culture adds or takes away from violence ○ Professor Edward Luttwak:look at violence in soccer ■ Good because takes away from legit violence (all energy goes into soccer not legit violence) ■ Can be tolerated to an extent ■ SOCCER VIOLENCE > ACTUAL VIOLENCE ○ Rise of new zone of conflict: ■ Ex: North Pole is melting, might led to conflict between nations ■ Toyota Wars:aka Mitsubishi War ● Conflict is decentralized ● Rebels don’t use big equipment instead use normal cars and carry guns ● Too expensive to buy technology and even more to maintain it ● Seen in Libya, Mali and ISIS ● HALF TRUCKS > TANKS ● Los Zetas (Mexican drug cartel) used this technique ○ Tendency Toward Miscalculation: ■ Biggest fear comes from East Asia because you have big nations with lots of people that are growing ■ Fear that if one like China acts one way then Japan will react ● Crisis East Asia could become huge like WWI ■ Reason why scholars looking at WWI because series of miscalculations but became major crisis ■ “Europe’s past could be Asia’s future” ○ Map Changing: ■ Russia shipping oil and gas through different routes ■ Changing economic borders ■ BakuCeyhan Pipeline ■ Railway linking Iran and Turkmenistan ■ China and Russia linking through railway (might go to Korea) ■ New routes through airlines ○ Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe helped with unification of Germany and end of communism ■ Europe worked to end crisis ○ Conflict is pursued in decentralized waany different groups fight ■ No longer happens in the classic battlefield ○ Nations facing crises that limit sovereignty ■ Ex: Greece being unable to control their borders confusion with huge amounts of refugees ■ Not known how to handle it (need to look at how nations and citizens act)
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