Soc 100: Midterm Review
Soc 100: Midterm Review Soc 100
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emeline S on Friday March 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 100 at Adelphi University taught by Dr. Primeggia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Adelphi University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Soc 100 Midterm Review Sociology as a Science (Weber): 1. What is the meaning, nature, and limitations of science? a. Metaphor of the Cave (Plato) b. Science is the path to Truth (they go hand in hand) c. People fall into patterns/resist change i. The earth is round ii. Climate Change iii. Sun is the center of the solar system d. Science gives facts/data people make choices based on this data: i. “Science of the ‘is’ not the ‘ought’ 1. Acting on fantasies (ought→is) can now be studied and analyzed a. fantasies=motivation e. Defense Mechanisms i. Protection from thoughts of others and yourself 1. Denial, Anger, Avoidance, Repression, Projection f. Science is empirical and always in the process of change g. Instinct vs. Human Drives (survival, sexual, social) i. Hardwired, uncontrollable vs. taught acceptable ways to realize drives 2. How are the Social Sciences possible? a. Value Freedom/Neutrality i. Researcher must be as objective as possible Culture (material and immaterial aspects of life) 1. Products of people’s minds and hands shared and transmitted through generations 2. Established way of life 3. Culture must be transmitted and fluid a. America: i. Opportunities and what you do with them ii. Truth and Justice iii. Patriotism iv. Bravery v. Rights (education/women’s/property/self/etc.) vi. Freedoms 4. NO FAIRNESS what do you do with your limitations? 5. Expectations/Recipe for living a. Defines morality, ethics, sense of sexuality 6. Cultural Universals a. Smiling b. Language as basic tool of communication c. Sports d. Entertainment e. Some kind of religion/some form of government f. Traditions i. America: Thanksgiving, 4th of July, Prom, Graduation Ceremony Culture as Learned Ways of Behavior 1. Ramo (Wolfboy) a. Born looking human, BUT we don’t become human until we take on culture of society 2. Culture Shock 3. Assimilation: come to new society, give up old ways, completely take on ways of new society 4. Acculturation: take on some new patterns,but retain some old patterns 5. Culture Borrowing a. Government, holidays, foods, etc. 6. Cultural Lag a. People are reluctant to accept when culture change comes (parts of culture lag) 7. Culture Conflict a. People of different cultures have conflict Norms 1. Lay out standards, expectations, and socially acceptable behaviors a. How to greet people b. How to behave in school 2. At first (new experience) people tell you how to behavthen you know how to act from past experience (no longer rely on others) understand the norms of society 3. Follow Rules=Rewarded/Don’t Follow Rules=Punishment 4. Selfenforcement 5. Norms=Order in Society 6. Internalizing the Norm (2 Levels) what keeps us following the rules a. Fear of punishment if caught breaking rules b. Believe in norms and do your best to follow rules 7. Norms come from: parents, friends, media 8. Norms must change a. Reasons: technology, media, environment 9. 2 Types of Norms a. Folkways: customary behaviors/habitual b. Mores: behaviors dealing with morality in society Social Sanctions 1. Support norms 2. Punishment to those who don’t conform/Rewards for those who do conform a. Negative: raised eyebrow, jail b. Positive: smile, honorary degree 3. Everyone seeks social approval 4. Status (2 Types) position you occupy in society/group a. Ascribed Status: labels received at birth (male/female, ethnicity, etc.) b. Achieved Status: labels you go after/achieve for yourself 5. Role a. Dynamic or behavioral aspect of status b. Everyone fills roles differently i. Different types of students, teachers, parents 1. While within parameters of role, allow for creativity in how you act in the role 2. Boundaries/limitations of teacher but how you teach is up to you a. Teachers cannot hit/stalk you b. Teachers can grade work, prepare assignments, etc. ii. You act differently in each role and within 1 role in different situations 1. Students may act differently in different classrooms iii. There is some kind of consistency throughout all roles c. Provide pattern according to which individual is to act in particular situations d. All roles are role sets: parent/child, teacher/student, etc. e. Different Roles=Different Expectations i. Role Conflict (2 Types) 1. Intra Role Conflict: conflicts within same role 2. Inter Role Conflict: conflicts between 2 roles (son/husband) 6. All social behavior is learned behavior Socialization 1. Birth→Death 2. Primary Socialization (family)/ Secondary Socialization (any other group: friends, etc.) a. Primary i. Development of ego/personalities ii. Turning babies (instinctual) into respectable human beings iii. Maternal Influence=Crucial (especially in early stages) 1. Give advice 2. Teach respect/morals 3. Discipline (talking, corporal punishment, rewards/punishments) iv. Paternal influence 1. Balance to mom 2. Role model for sons 3. Testing ground for daughters v. Teaching young through Guilt and Fear 1. Kids don;t want to eat, parent says there are kids starving in the world→Guilt 2. Guilt of not disappointing your parents 3. Some use guilt intermittently, some constantly (Everybody uses it) a. Hitting the right buttons works BUT used too much, doesn’t allow development, can follow you vi. You think parents raised you well/don’t see upbringing negatively you will probably raise your kids the same way vii. Psychic Violence 1. The giving and retaining of love as a constraining weapon (not said, but expressed in behavior) a. If you don’t behave, your parents won’t love you i. Silent Treatment (retaining love) often leads to wanting the other person to confess what they did wrong viii. Double Bind Theory (2 Parts): “Damned if you do, Damned if you don’t” 1. Appearance of alternatives presented, but in actuality there are no alternatives 2. Alternative is a greater entrapment than the original proposal a. “Where do you want to eat?” “Anywhere you want” “Ok, how about x?” “No, I don’t want that” b. Come home for spring break with intent to party. Mom says you both can paint the apartment or do spring cleaning, it’s your choice. In reality it’s not, because you don’t want to do either. 3. Being in love is crucial double bind a. Choose between friends and significant other b. Unhappy in relationship, but don’t want to say anything because you love them ix. People are so emotionally fragile can be easily manipulated/destroyed emotionally x. Siblings 1. See things differently depending on birth order AND gender within birth order a. Oldest (male), first 3 are boys, 4th sibling but 1st daughter 2. Competitive world, compete for parents’ attention, love, affection 3. Twins/Close in age: often “us against the world” divide and conquer b. Peer Group i. Takes on more significant role culturally as time progresses c. The Looking Glass Concept (Cooley) i. “I am what I think, you think I am” 1. The way we imagine others see ourselves 2. How we act is affected by others and their reactions 3. We read facial expressions first and go from there a. You had older sibling who had the same teacher. The teacher expects you to be a certain way based on how your sibling was in class. (EXPECTATIONS) This affects their behavior which affects your behavior. d. SelfFulfilling Prophecy i. You don’t study for an exam because you know you won’t pass there’s no way. Then you take the test and don’t pass. You say, “See, I told you I wouldn’t pass and I didn’t.” Social Stratification 1. Different socioeconomic layers within society 2. Form of social differentiation which refers to the unequal distribution of rights 3. Each profession is a hierarchy as you move up, rewards are greater 4. Unfair Distribution: economics, political authority, community prestige 5. Different expectations and opportunities at different levels of society a. Doctor vs. Elementary School Teacher 6. Social Class a. Karl Marx i. Bourgeoisie: owners of means of production (“Haves”) ii. Proletariat: workers (“Have Nots”) iii. Believes Bourgeoisie enslaved Proletariat 1. “All history is the history of the class struggle” a. The Haves vs. the Have Nots b. Social class as it’s usually seen today i. Upper ii. Middle > Working iii. Lower c. Yankee City Series (Newbury Port) Study (L. Warner): 6 Class Structure i. Upper Upper: (old rich) have nothing to prove ii. Lower Upper: (“nouveau riche”new rich) like to show off, UU looks down on LU even if LU has more money because it’s new money iii. Upper Middle: substantial iv. Lower Middle: (small businessmen, high/skilled blue collar, low white collar) into appearances, care about what others think, want to rise, look down on lower classes to create separation v. Upper Lower: (“honest worker, clean poor”) don’t have much, but take care of what they do vi. Lower Lower: seasonal worker, unemployed, unemployable looked down upon by all Bureaucracy 1. Formal organizational structure that’s supposed to be the most efficient way for that organization to achieve its goals a. Business, Education, Military 2. Supposed to be efficient, but many times aren’t a. Reason: i. Goal Displacement: real goals forgotten Bureaucrats just want to maintain system to keep their jobs 3. Foundation of Bureaucracy a. The concept and reality of authority i. Who has the right to issue commands and to whom? ii. Includes office (internal) and person who occupies position 1. Ex: vice president takes over position of president if something happens to the president iii. Lower positions ready to step in for higher position 1. Other people will be put into their positions 2. System must go on 4. Everyone should only be doing their job to achieve end goal 5. Every aspect of society affected by a different bureaucracy 6. Bureaucrats supposed to show loyalty (company is priority) 7. Often people act a certain way in bureaucracy (just following orders) a. Extreme Ex: Nuremberg Trials Nazis “just following orders” b. At certain times, humanity must come first/M orality i. Make a choice there are times not to follow orders and to get involved 8. For bureaucracy to work, there must be Objectivation: a. Learning to treat yourselves and others as objects/things “forget the human” 9. Tries to create boundaries (teacher/student, employee/customer, etc.) a. Protect against occupational burnout i. Wrongly believe giving too much of yourself=burnout ii. Burnout occurs when you give and don’t get any positive response→frustration 1. Giving as teacher/doctor/etc. and student/etc. Give nothing back iii. Burnout usually occurs in personoriented occupations 10. Seniority a. Advantage: job protection→people work harder b. Disadvantage: individual too comfortable in position→become bored→not doing job well c. “Last hired, first fired” i. Often those with seniority aren’t good/better at job than younger ii. System protects older/more seasoned workers Capitalism Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 1. Weber wants to show the positive relationship between religion and new form of capitalism (“Modern Capitalism”) a. Noticed industrialization started in predominantly Protestant countries 2. Major Thrust of Capitalism: PROFIT a. Selfinterest b. Competition c. Supply/Demand d. Big Business i. Creates materialistic society (defined by what we own) 3. Modern Capitalism a. Industry moves into primary position for economy b. Profit→Reinvestment→Expand→PROFIT c. Middle Class Capitalism i. Needs middle class as workers, savers, investors 4. Evolution of View of Working a. Roman Catholicism i. Working was repayment to God for original sin (show you’re worthy of heaven) b. 1500s Martin Luther 95 Theses (Protestantism) i. Translated Greek Bible to German ii. Weber says he mistranslated “Ponos” (pain/burden) to mean “calling/duty” 1. Important preceding word: “Work” “Work Ponos” now takes on different meaning c. “Providence” i. Accept position God placed you in, work hard in position and God will reward you in heaven d. Heart of Calvinist Religion i. Belief in predestination 1. God’s chosen some for heaven, some for hell nothing you do can change it 2. “No guarantees” but God gives signs (Calvinists wanted to know if they were destined for heaven or hell) a. Sign you might go to heaven→hard, successful work e. Unintended consequence of Protestant Reformation (Weber) i. Change capitalism in western society ii. Work Ethic→building block of American culture 1. “Work hard and you will succeed (financially)” iii. If you work hard for things, you appreciate them more Political Institutions 1. T. Hobbes “The Social Contract” a. How fragile the social political system is b. How do you go from “survival of the fittest” (past state of nature) to cooperative society? c. People give up some of their freedom to be protected by an external force/policing agency (Leviathan”) i. Only ones allowed to use force for the good of the people d. State of Nature ↓ Clans work together Protect themselves and each other Build up trust Communicate Create Leviathan ↓ Society 2. (Weber) Political System is legitimate when peoplebelieve in itlegitimacy a. In a legitimate system: those with authority have the right to issue commands (laws) people are mandated to follow 3. 3 Political Systems a. LegalRational i. Authority given to the position, not the person ii. General, applicables that are supposed to cover ALL situations (Bureaucracy) iii. Complete distinction between person and position (office) 1. Exceptions: President (24/7), Police Officer (tour of duty/ when off duty, may identify as PO and intercede in situation) b. Traditional i. No separation (King and Queen) ii. People believe in system as legitimate because it’s always existed c. Charismatic i. Believe person possesses extraordinary/superhuman powers ii. Believe in person/has charisma 1. Ex: Hitler, C. Manson, JFK, Martin Luther King Jr. iii. Need following that sees them,believes in them, willing to follow them iv. Qualities Charismatic Leader Should Have: 1. Wellspoken 2. Passion 3. Confidence 4. Leadership 5. Instill belief 6. Get results 7. Comes across as sincere v. Charismatic Authority is shortlived (threat to the system) 1. Booted out or assassinated 2. After death, attempt to pass on the charismatic authority a. Through family/blood (JFK→Robert Kennedy) b. Person to institution (Christ to Papacy) vi. Charismatic people CHANGE HISTORY
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