Chapter 01 Matter and Energy
Chapter 01 Matter and Energy Chem 1A
Santa Ana College
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Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 1 ** In this chapter – Explore how the properties of substances are linked to their atomic-level structure** Define Automism? AUTOMISM: A belief that all forms of matter are composed of extremely tiny, indestructible building blocks called atoms. 1.1 – STATE OF MATTER 1.1 – STATE OF MATTER Define Matter? I) MATTER: A. Anything that has mass (m) and occupies space Define Mass? II) MASS (m): A. The property that defines the quantity of matter n an object Define Chemistry? III) CHEMISTRY: A. The study of the composition, structure and properties of matter and of the energy consumed or given off when matter undergoes a change. What are the 3 phases matter exist IV) Matter exists in 3 phases (physical states) in? Define each phase. A. Solid 1. Has a definite volume and shape → Molecules in this array may vibrate a little depending on their temp. but they are not free to move past the molecules that surround them. (Crystalline pattern) Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 2 B. Liquid 1. Has a definite volume but not a definite shape. Takes the shape of the container it is in. → Molecules can flow past one another. Still in close proximity to each other, but their nearest neighbors change over time. C. Gas (vapor) 1. Has neither a definite volume or shape. It expands to occupy the entire volume and shape of its container. 2. Highly compressible Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 3 → Molecules are widely separated and have much more freedom of motion. → This empty space between particles accounts for the compressibility of gasses. Define atom? V) ATOM: A. The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element. What is the atomic theory? VI) ATOMIC THEORY: A. All forms of matter are composed of microscopic particles consisting of individual atoms or molecules held together by forces called chemical bonds. Define Molecules? VII) MOLECULES: A. A collection of atoms chemically bonded together Define Chemical Bond? VIII)CHEMICAL BOND: A. A force that holds two atoms in a molecule or a compound together. Can Matter be transformed? IX) Matter can be transformed from one physical state to Explain. another as its temperature is raised and lowered. Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 4 A. SUBLIMATION: 1. Transformation of a solid directly into a vapor Define Sublimation? (gas) B. DEPOSITION: Define Deposition? 1. Transformation of a vapor (gas) directly into a solid. CONCEPT TEST Ice cream vendors often use dry ice, which is solid carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 to keep their ice cream frozen. Over time, the dry ice disappears as solid X) CONCEPT TEST: CO 2urns into CO gas. 2 A: What is the name of this A. Sublimation change in physical state? B: What is the name of the B. Deposition reverse process in which dry ice is produced from CO 2 gas? Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 5 1.2 – FORMS OF ENERGY 1.2 – FORMS OF ENERGY Changes of states are accompanied I) Changes of state are accompanied by transfer of energy. by what? A. The direction of transfer are indicated by arrows 1. Upward-pointing arrow (↑) a. Changes that req. the addition of energy 2. Downward-pointed arrow (↓) a. Represents the release of energy. Define energy? II) ENERGY: A. The ability to do work Define work? III) WORK (w): A. The energy required to move an object through a given distance. B. The exertion of force (F) through a distance (d). C. w = F x d D. doing it is one of the processes by which energy is transferred Define Heat? IV) HEAT: A. A flow of energy from one object or place to another due to differences in the temperature of the objects or places. B. The spontaneous flow of energy from a warm object to a cooler one. Define thermal energy? V) THERMAL ENERGY: A. Often used to describe the portion of the total energy of an object or system that increase as its temp. increases. Define Chemical reaction? VI) CHEMICAL REACTION: A. The conversion of one or more substances into one or more different substance. B. EXAMPLE: 1. The energy that powers our bodies is derived from chemical reactions fueled by glucose (blood sugar) VII) POTENTIAL ENERGY (PE): Define potential energy? A. The energy stored in an object b/c of its position or composition. B. EXAMPLE: 1. The chemical energy stored in glucose Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 6 VIII)KINETIC ENERGY (KE): Define kinetic energy? A. The energy of an object in motion due to its mass (m) and its speed (u) B. ???????? = ???????? ▯ What is the formula for kinetic ▯ C. EXAMPLE: energy? 1. When the energy in glucose is released during vigorous exercise, part of it is transformed into KE, which is the energy of motion. IX) THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: Define the law of conservation of A. The principle that energy cannot be created or energy? destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another. At the molecular level, particles of X) At the molecular level, particles of matter can have matter can have significant energies depending on what two factors? significant energies depending on their temperature and physical state. CONCEPT TEST XI) CONCEPT TEST: If the speed of a vehicle doubles, by what factor does its kinetic energy A. Increases by a fact▯ ▯of 4 ▯ 1. ???????? = ????(???? ) = ???????? increase? 1.3 – CLASSES OF MATTER 1.3 – CLASSES OF MATTER What are the two principal classes I) The two principal classes of matter are pure substances and of matter? mixtures. Define pure substance? II) PURE SUBSTANCE: A. Matter that cannot be separated into simpler matter by a physical process. B. Has a constant composition that does not vary from one sample of it to another. Define physical process? III) PHYSICAL PROCESS: A. A transformation of a sample of matter, such as a change in its physical state, that does not alter the chemical identity of any substance in the sample. B. Doesn’t change the structure of composition of the particles that make it up. What are the two groups pure IV) Pure substance is subdivided into two groups: substances are divided into? A. ELEMENTS: Define elements? 1. A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by any chemical process. Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 7 2. The basic building blocks of matter B. COMPOUNDS: Define compounds? 1. A pure substance that is composed of two or more elements linked together in fixed proportions and that can be broken down into those elements by some chemical process. A compound’s composition is V) A compound’s composition is described by its chemical described by what? formula. A. CHEMICAL FORMULA: Define chemical formula? 1. A notation for representing the elemental composition of a pure substance using the symbols of the elements; subscripts indicate the relative number of atoms of each element in the substance. 2. EXAMPLE: a. H2O i. Reflects the fact that its molecules contain two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. What is the law of constant VI) THE LAW OF CONSTANT COMPOSITION: composition? A. The principle that all samples of a particular compound always contain the same elements combined in the same proportions. Define mixtures? VII) MIXTURES: A. A combination of pure substances in variable proportions in which the individual substances retain their chemical identities and can be separated from one another by a physical process. B. Composed of two or more pure substances C. Are classified as either homogenous or heterogeneous VIII)HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE: What is a homogeneous mixture? A. A mixture in which the components are distributed uniformly throughout and have no visible boundaries or regions. B. Aka: SOLUTIONS Define solution? 1. Another name for homogenous mixture. 2. Often liquids, but they may also be solids or gases. Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 8 IX) HETEROGENOUS MIXTURE: What is a heterogeneous mixture? A. A mixture in which the components are not distributed uniformly, so that the mixture contains distinct regions of different composition. B. Includes: 1. IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS: Define immiscible liquids? a. Combinations of liquids that are incapable of mixing with or dissolving in, each other. What is the basic property in which X) The substances in mixture can be separated from one substances in a mixture be another based on differences in their physical properties. separated? XI) There are various methods for separating substances in a What are 3 methods for separating mixture: substances in a mixture? A. DISTILLATION: 1. A process using evaporation and condensation Define distillation? to separate a mixture of substances with different volatilities. 2. Works as a separation technique whenever the components of a mixture have different volatilities. Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 9 3. VOLATILITY: a. a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes. What is volatility? b. Is inversely proportional to the strength of the interactions between the particles of a substance i. The stronger the interaction, the lower the probability that particles of the substance will have enough energy to break away from adjacent particles in the liquid phase and become particles of vapor. B. FILTRATION: Define filtration? 1. A process for separating solid particles from a liquid or gaseous sample by passing the sample through a porous material that retains the solid particles. 2. Useful technique for removing particles that are suspended in gases as well as liquids. C. CHROMATOGRAPHY: Define chromatography? 1. A process involving stationary and mobile phases for separating a mixture of substances based on their different affinities for the two types of phases. a. The more strongly the particles in the mobile phase interact with the Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 10 stationary solid, the slower they move. b. Those that interact weakly or not at all with the stationary solid move more rapidly. CONCEPT TEST XII) CONCEPT TEST: A) A compound with the A. 1:1 formula NO may be present in the exhaust gases leaving a car’s engine. As NO travels through the car’s exhaust system, some of it decomposes into nitrogen and oxygen gas. What is the volume ratio of nitrogen to oxygen formed from NO? B. B) Which physical process – distillation, filtration, or chromatography – would you use to perform each of a. distillation the following tasks? a. Removing particles of rust from drinking b. chromatography water b. Separating the different coloring agents in a sample of c. distillation ink Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 11 c. Separating volatile compounds normally found in natural gas that have dissolved in a sample of crude oil. 1.4 – PROPERTIES OF MATTER 1.4 – PROPERTIES OF MATTER Define intensive property? I) INTENSIVE PROPERTY: A. A property that is independent of the amount of substance present. B. EXAMPLE: 1. Distinctive color 2. mp, bp, malleability Define extensive property? II) EXTENSIVE PROPERTY: A. A property that varies with the amount of substance present. B. EXAMPLE: 1. Length, width, mass, vol. What are the two general III) The properties of substances fall into two general categories: categories the properties of substances fall into? A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: 1. A property of a substance that can be observed Define physical properties? without changing the substance into another substance. 2. EXAMPLE: What is density? a. DENSITY (d): i. The ratio of the mass (m) of an What is the formula for density? object to its volume (V) ▯ ii. ???? = ▯ Define chemical properties? B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: 1. A property of a substance that can be observed only by reacting the substance chemically to form another substance. 2. EXAMPLE: a. Whether or not a particular element reacts with another element or with a particular compound. b. How rapidly the reactions take place and what products are formed. Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 12 IV) The physical and chemical properties of a compound are different from those of the elements that combine to form it. A. EXAMPLE: 1. Water is liquid at rm. temp. whereas H and O are gases. CONCEPT TEST: V) CONCEPT TEST: A) Which of these properties of A. a sample of pure iron are a. its mass intensive: b. its density a. Its mass c. its volume b. Its density d. its hardness c. Its volume d. Its hardness B) Which of the following B. properties of gold are chemical and which are physical? a. Gold reacts with a a. chemical property mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids known as aqua regia b. Gold melts at 1064 C 0 b. physical property c. Gold can be hammered into c. physical property sheets so thin that light passes through them d. Gold can be d. chemical property recovered from gold ore by treating the ore with a solution containing cyanide, which reacts with and dissolves gold. 1.5 – ATOMIC THEORY: THE 1.5 – ATOMIC THEORY: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN ACTION SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN ACTION I) LAWS AND THEORIES Define scientific method? A. SCIENTIFIC METHOD: 1. An approach to acquiring knowledge based on: a. observation of phenomena, b. development of a testable hypothesis, Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 13 c. additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis. Define scientific law? B. SCIENTIFIC LAW: 1. A concise and generally applicable statement of a fundamental scientific principle. 2. EXAMPLE: a. LAW OF DEstNITE PROPORTIONS i. 1 articulated by French chemist Joseph Louis Proust ii. The principle that compounds always contain the same proportions of their component elements; iii. equivalent to the law of constant composition. Define scientific theory? C. SCIENTIFIC THEORY: 1. A general explanation of widely observed phenomena that has been extensively tested. How is scientific laws and theories D. Complementary nature of scientific laws and complementary in nature? theories: 1. Scientific laws describe natural phenomena and relationships; scientific theories explain why phenomena happen or why relationships are true. Define hypothesis? E. HYPOTHESIS: 1. A tentative and testable explanation for an observation or a series of observations. 2. Important feature: a. It can be tested through additional observations and experiments. b. Enables scientists to accurately predict the results of future experiments and observations. What is the law of multiple F. LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS: proportions? 1. The principle that, when two masses of one element react with a given mass of another element to form two different compounds, the two masses of the first element have a ratio of two small whole numbers. 2. EXAMPLE: a. 15g of O may combine with 10g of S or under diff. rxn. Conditions, only 10g of O may combine with 10g of S Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 14 ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ i. ▯▯▯ ▯ = ▯ ii. the ratio of 3:2 translates into the chemical formulas SO & SO 3 2 1.6 – A MOLECULAR VIEW 1.6 – A MOLECULAR VIEW I) Some pure elements exist as molecules. Some examples What are some pure elements that include: exist as molecules? A. H , N , O , F , Cl , Br , I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 II) MOLECULAR FORMULA: Define molecular formula? A. A chemical formula that shows how many atoms of each element are in one molecule of a pure substance. B. EXAMPLE: 1. Acetone: C H O 3 6 2. Acetic acid: C H O 2 4 2 III) STRUCTURAL FORMULA: Define structural formula? A. A representation of a molecule that uses short lines between the symbols of elements to show chemical bonds between atoms. B. EXAMPLES: 1. Acetone: 2. Acetic acid: IV) Sometimes structures are represented using condensed structural formulas Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 15 V) Ball-and-stick models provide 3D view of molecules. A. Balls = atoms B. Sticks = chemical bonds What type of view does a ball-and- stick model and space filling model give us? VI) Space-filling models A. More accurately show us how the atoms are arranged in a molecule and its overall 3D shape. B. Sometimes hard to see atoms and angles between the bonds CONCEPT TEST: VII) CONCEPT TEST: CH O3 Space filling model of methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol) What is its molecular formula? 1.7 – COAST: A FRAMEWORK FOR 1.7 – COAST: A FRAMEWORK FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS SOLVING PROBLEMS VIII)COAST stands for: What does the acronym COAST Collect and stand for? Organize Analyze Solve and Think about the answer Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 16 IX) COLLECT AND ORGANIZE What are the steps in collect and A. Identify the key concept of the problem organize you should follow? B. Identify and define the key terms used to express that concept. C. Sort through the info. given in the problem D. Assemble any supplemental info. that may be needed (eq., def., constants, etc) X) ANALYZE What are the steps in analyze that A. Determine how to relate info. collected to the you should follow? answer. B. Sometimes it’s easier to work backwards to create the relationship. C. May include rearranging eq. to solve for unknown or setting up conversion factors. D. Drawing a sketch E. Look at #s involved and estimate answer XI) SOLVE What steps should be taken when A. Conceptual Qs -> soln. flows directly from your solving the problem? analysis B. Quantitative Qs -> insert the starting values and appropriate constants into the relevant eq. or conversion factors and calc. answer. C. Make sure units are consistent and cancel as needed, sig. figs. XII) THINK ABOUT IT What questions should you ask A. Does this answer make sense based on my own yourself when thinking about the experience and based on what I have just learned? problem and your answer? B. Is the value reasonable? C. Are the units correct and the # of sig. figs appropriate? XIII) What, How, Why 1.8 – MAKING MEASUREMENTS 1.8 – MAKING MEASUREMENTS AND EXPRESSING THE RESULTS AND EXPRESSING THE RESULTS I) METER (M) Define meter? A. The standard unit of length B. Named after the Greek metron = “measure” C. Equivalent to 39.37 inches. Define Joule? II) JOULE (J) 2 A. The SI unit of energy, equivalent to 1 kg(m/s) Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 17 Commonly used prefixes for SI units: SI Based units: Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 18 Conversion factors for SI And other commonly Used units: III) PRECISION & ACCURACY Precision and accuracy are widely A. Precision and accuracy are widely used to describe used to describe what? how well a measured quantity or a value calculated from a measured quantity is known. Define precision? 1. PRECISION: a. The extent to which repeated measurements of the same variable agree. b. Indicates how repeatable a measurement is Define accuracy? 2. ACCURACY: a. Agreement between an experimental value and the true value b. How close the measured value is to the true value. c. A measurement that is validated by calibration with an accepted std. material is considered accurate. IV) SIGNIFICANT FIGURES Define Significant figures? A. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES: 1. All the certain digits in a measured value plus one estimated digit. The greater the number of Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 19 significant figures, the greater the certainty with which the value is known. B. Consider an experimental result: 1. An aspirin tablet is placed on the balance and displays 0.0810g. How may sig. figs? a. The first 2 zeros are not considered significant b/c they serve only to determine the location of the decimal pt. therefore there are only 3 sig. figs. i. Why is the right most zero significant? ⇒ Answer related to the ability of the balance to measure masses to the nearest 0.0001g. Explain the guideline to help handle C. Guideline to help handle zeros in deciding the zeros in deciding the number of sig. number of sig. figs. In a value: figs. In a value? 1. Zeros at the beginning of a value, as in 0.0592, are never significant. 2. Zeros after a decimal point 8nd after a non-zero digit, as in 3.00 x 10 , are always significant 3. Zeros at the end of a value that contains no decimal point, as in 96,500 , may or may not be significant. a. They may be there only to set the decimal place b. Can use scientific notation to indicate whether or not these terminal zeros are significant 4 i. 9.65 x 10 indicates that the value has 3 sig. figs and that the terminal zeros are there only to set the decimal place. 4. Zero between nonzero digits, as in 101.3, are always significant. CONCEPT TEST: V) CONCEPT TEST: How many significant figures are there in the values a. 0.0592 a. 3 Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 20 b. 3.00 x 10 8 b. 3 c. 101.3 c. 4 VI) SIGNIFICANT FIGURES IN CALCULATIONS When should significant figure rules A. Significant figure rules should be used only at the be applied? end of a calculation, never on intermediate results. The mass of a nugget is 4.72g and B. The mass of a nugget is 4.72g and its volume is its volume is 0.25mL. What is the 0.25mL. What is the density of the nugget, density of the nugget, expressed in expressed in▯the ap▯.▯▯ ▯ate number of▯sig. figs? the appropriate number of sig. figs? 1. ???? = = = 18.88 = 19 ????/???????? ▯ ▯.▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯ 2. need to invoke the weak-link principle a. based on the idea that a chain is only What is the weak link in sig. fig. as strong as its weakest link. calculations involving multiplication b. In calc. involving x or ÷ or division? i. Weak link is the value with the fewest sig. figs. c. ∴ final answer can’t have more than 2 sig. figs. What is the rule of thumb when rounding? C. If the first insignificant digit is: 1. > 5, round up 2. < 5, round down D. In general when measured numbers are + or – What is the general rule in sig. figs. When measured numbers are 1. Result has the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the measured number added or subtracted? with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal. CONCEPT TEST: VII) CONCEPT TEST: Does our measured density value prove that the nugget is pure gold The measured density value only fails to prove that the or does it only fail to prove that the nugget is not gold? Explain the nugget is not gold. The density alone doesn’t conclusively prove that the nugget is gold. Other properties must be difference between these two analyzed to further determine if the nugget is in fact pure conclusions, and explain why you gold. prefer one over the other. An adventurous thru-hiker begins hiking the Appalachian Trial at its southern terminus at Springer Mt., Georgia, at 7:00 AM on April 3 and completes his journey at its northern terminus on the peak of Mt. Katahdin, Maine at 4:47 PM on August 28. According to the Chapter 01 – MATTER AND ENERGY: An Atomic Perspective 21 Appalachian Trail Conservancy, the trail is 2175 miles long. a: What is the hiker’s avg. a: ▯▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯▯ ???? ▯▯ ▯▯▯ ???? ▯▯ ▯▯ = 14.6959 ▯▯▯▯▯ speed in miles/day? ▯▯▯,▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ = 14.70 ????????????????????/???????????? b: Which do you think is the b: The distance (4 sig. figs. ) weak link in calculating the hiker’s avg. speed: the actual distance hiked or the time that it took? VIII)Sample Exercise 1.1 – Using Significant Figures in Calculations Sample Exercise 1.1: A. Collect and Organize Suppose we add a penny with a 1. Calc. combined mass of 49 pennies that were mass of 2.5271 g to 49 other pennies with a combined mass of weighed to the nearest 0.01 g and a single 124.01 g. What is the combined penny that was weighed to the nearest 0.0001
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