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# PHYS 1750-001 Study guide for exam 1 PHYS 1750

Toledo

GPA 3.8

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This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emmanuel Ayanjoke on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 1750 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Lawrence Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 432 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physics in Physics 2 at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/12/15

Study gaide for Exam 1 Introduction to physics Physics is an endeavor to determine the character of human nature We study physics to manipulate nature and satisfy curiosity Law relationships between observable phenomena Eg Newton39s Law Theories mathematical explanations of phenomena Scientific Method How research is carried out and documented 1 Introduction 2 Data collection techniques or mathematical assumptions equations 3 Results 4 Analysis of results what they mean 5 Conclusions and future directions BibliographyReferences Review questions and answers What is physics Physics is an endeavor to determine the character of human nature We study physics to manipulate nature and satisfy curiosity What are models in the context of physics A model is used for situations when it is known that the hypothesis has a limitation on its validity The Bohr model of the atom for example Laws Relationships between observable phenomena Theories Mathematical explanations of phenomena What is reduction Isolation of cause and effect by experiment What is deduction Logical inference What is the radius of the Earth w 3 959 mi The sun 92960000 mi What is the radius of the Earth s orbit 93 miilion miles How close is the nearest star to the sun 437 light years What is the Milky Way The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System How many stars does it contain 100400 billion stars What is its diameter 100000 light years What is the Local Group The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way What is the Virgo Supercluster The Virgo Supercluster Virgo SC or the Local Supercluster LSC or L5 is a mass concentration of galaxies that contains the Virgo Cluster in addition to the Local Group which in turn contains the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies What is the Cosmological Principle Cosmological principle is the notion that the distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale How old is the Universe 138 billion years How is the Universe changing with time The universe is rapidly increasing with time What are the consequences of this change The Moon is moving away from Earth and Temperature of sun is decreasing slowly The Atomic Scale Every material is made up of baryonic matter which are baryons protons and neutrons arranged in the nuclei of atoms Proton and neutron are made up of up and down quarks Quarks are point particles They have both electric and color charge There are four forces in nature which are Gravity Electromagnetism the weak force and the strong force Gravity is only attractive and acts between objects having mass Electromagnetism can be both attractive and repulsive and acts between objects having electric charge The weak force acts in the nucleus between charge and color It is reSponsible for certain forms of radioactive decay The strong force acts in the nucleus between objects with color It is reSponsible for holding together quarks and baryons in an atomic nucleus Bosons are carrier particles They are gravitons photons W and Z and gluons Review questions and answers What are baryons a subatomic particle that has a mass equal to or greater than that of a proton What are they made of quarks What are the most elementary particles that make up our world quarks How many quarks and what kinds make up a proton two 39Up39 quarks and one 39Down39 A neutron one 39Up quark and two 39Down39 quarks What is color as applied to quarks Colors represent the charge of quarks and antiquarks Quarks could be any color but antiquarks will be a negative color of a quark Baryons are closely packed in an atomic nucleus which means the volume of a nucleus is about A times the volume of a single proton where A is the number of baryons What is the radius of a uranium nucleus having 238 baryons Wastes Cl 3 loafW5 7 i More A barges V a v M at i ii i ftfa I ma 1 a y l a i a 3 g t mesa h lowEQW i o a e W 4f 7 3 255 oas gortt 3P What are the four physical forces in nature Gravity Electromagnetism the weak force and the strong force What material properties do these forces interact with Gravity mass Electromagnetism eiectric charge The weak force charge and color The strong force color What structures is each force reSponsible for building Strong force because it holds together quarks How are these forces exchanged from one particle to another Particles of matter transfer forces by exchanging bosons with each other Methodology Review questions and answers What are the two types of error in any measurement Random error and systematic error What causes random errors Factors that randomly affect measurement of the variable across the sample Systematic errors Unknown errors within a device or measurement 39 How man si nificant f5 ures shoul the result of a iven calcul f tion have m s Th e t go oatobeyquot to wicda i o Usain Bot ran the 100 meter race in 963 s in the 2012 Olympic Games What was his average speed to the correct number of significant figures 3 p Q d Mr m4 Spg d q jQ3 amp same The US deb r is now 184 x1012 dollars The US population is 314 x108 How much do each of us owe lg T Oiz 1 535 W 339 7 gagquot la 33 Solve The eqm cn L 419 2ST 4 for The temperature T L 4pvr m T 9quot W 2 wgfgjfiewg w 2 What is The surface area of a sphere in rerms of its radius r A W F The luminosity of the sun is 38 951026 waits The Earth is 15 x1011 m away How many waits s rr39ike each m2 of rhe Earfh at neon near The equa ror Hin39r The luminosity of The sun is uniformiy distributed over any Sphere centeregl on The sun de quotWT a T QCQ i3 5e 52 W 39 m H 2 if 2lt if xgys we 3 5 392ng 5432 M3 i h 2 5 1373431 waf m Text Probiems and solutions 32 Caiculate fhe approximate number of atoms in a badzr39ium Assume That The average mass of an atom in The bacterium is Ten times The mass of a hydrogen atom Hint The mass of a hydrogen atom 3 on The order of 10 27 kg and The mass of a bacterium is on the order of 1015 kg 34 hijcaf m 24 mass 0 m QTM 0 x g xED Z L 3 V 7 1m bacha um a 2 3 g E E 9391 W R I 5 a V g 0 5 j w lt MES mam a m 7 ME 2 m w r L if Mia 0quot Hm 2 i z quot 3 q 1 QOQD am 69963 67 ygw g 3 5 3 A1326 mm m gwt moi atom 36 C9 diam O 3 3 Q n P x T 21 A person measures his or her heart rule by counting The number of bea rs in 30 3 If 40 4 1 beats are counted in 300 t 05 s wha r is The heart rate and its uncertainty in beats per minute Agendage fig begin 5am few 0 r I arrquotram Wmmnmmnmmm 1 quot pew yr 30 I c gm a M 3 re 2 Kinematics What is displacemeal Velocity Acceleration What are their units DiSplacemem is an object39s overall change in posi on wi rh respect To direcTion m Velocity is The displacemen r divided by The time ms Acceleration is The Time rate of change of velociTy of an abject msz Whm is The accelerafian of gravity at The surface of The Earth 98 ms2 How long does i r Take an object to fall 10 m on Earth Solve 10 05 g tzfar t Tex r Problems and solutions 246 A swimmer bounces straight up from a diving board and falls fee r first info a pool She starts with a velocity of 400 ms and her Takeoff point is 180 m above The pool a How long are her feet in The air b What is her highesT poim above The board c What is her velocity when her feet hit The wafer L Q m 21 0 w I39 W x ewe Wis 0 W 0 8mm Ea39W39 l 3 T 3 g m 3 W Va T q Vega 39 e w i Ag if mamxe 5 u ltczeexgep be quot7 6 L Q 2 eeemds 1 4x025quot 3 i q g iigg j Q 3 C v I 535 Mad m 4 j 27aibW I3 2 41 Calculcn e The disPIacemen r and velocity at rimes of 10500 b 100 c 150 and d 200 s for a ball Thrown straigh r up with an initial velocity of 150 ms Take The point of release To be yo 0 1 3 quot quot me X Jefoe i fj q w v 3 Uf mwm m m 0quot 2 6 3 0 tquot We 2 gt4 5n we 939 Olgggmggmmtg iaam MS m B br Formulas for Kinematics 1 vt 2 V0 a t 39 to 2 V 2 05 Mt vo 05 Zvo a t 39to vo 05 a t to 3 xt 2 X0 vt to x0 V0 t to 050 t 102 4 xt x0 vat 05a 2 2 5 20XXnvZVo 6 a V1 vo Dt k 39E w 6 W ag dig if 43s h f V 3 h Mag 1 W w V a r If V 4 gt14 gm m Q pmmbm 1m Wax HQ FF 9quot 33 2 4 W39sIW my m quott W kn mu Jo tf R 3 WW 3 Vectors and 2d Kinematics Review quesTions and answers WhaT is The graphical process of adding or subTracTing vecTors VecTors may be added or subTracTed graphically by laying Them end To end on a SeT of axes This means adding or subTracTing vecTors according To Their lengThs on The graph WhaT do we mean by vecTor39 components Each parT horizonTal and verTical of a Twoedimensional vecTor39 is known as a component WhaT is a direction cosine A direcTion cosine is The cosine of The angle beTween The vecTor and The Three coordinaTe axes How do we add or subTracT vectors using componenTsBy adding The horizonTal and verTical companenTs of each force separately Then solving for The resulTanT force of The new horizonTal force and verTical force VecTor a ox 200 ay 000 Vector b bx 071 by 071 VecTor c Cx 2 271 Cy 2 071 Value of c 2 C x2 Cyz z 28 DirecTion of c one sincy c 15 N of E TexT problems and soluTions 320 A new landowner has a Triangular piece of flaT land she wishes To fence STarTing aT The wesT corner she measures The firsT side To be 800 m long and The nexT To be 105 m TheSe sides are represenTed as displacemem vecTors A from B in Figure 361 She Then carrechy calculaTes The lengTh and oriema rion of The Third side C WhaT is her resulT 39 ye c QMMWWWdhmwiiwan gem an A9 1 50 05 Ql A13 1 gm 33 3 O cae ll ly j 2 Eggs i716 m grew m 4357 m all J 317 437 XK77635 n6 1 lf c li 2 m C T w8lt 2m C 3 C Sin 9 j asquot 53 em 3 9 EWC g lg ao 53 m w W 324 Suppose a piloT flies 400 km in a direcTion 60 norTh of easT and Then flies 300 km in a direcTion 15 norTh of easT as shown in Figure 363 Find her ToTul disTcmce R from The sTar39Ting poinT and The direcTion 9 of The sTmighT line paTh To The final posiTion Discuss qualiTaTively how This flighT would be alTered by a wind from The norTh and how The effec r Of The wind would depend on boTh wind speed and The Speed of The plane reldTive To The air mass IDsX O m Q U Q g Cam gag y f if a Q3 dejwimifie ime e cl Tram 5 3 Q w the SPQQ iii mm e e R 3 1 mmgwml compovma t 720 A A z Owt iaa Compormn ADC ACOSQPQ 39 A3 E B j 2 88mg Force Review questions and answers We never observe quotforcequot We observe the consequences of force What is the consequence of force acting on an object Acceleration of that ob ject Why is there no real distinction between contact and field forces This is because they both make contact but in different ways In contact forces there is interaction between atoms while in field forces there is interaction between force carrier particles They both involve interaction of particles What is the SI um of for NBWWquot N In terms of fundamental SI units Fem 139 to memie r 5 quota I i i f3 gt c g s w Q c iii if if g in 1992 16 i 7 7 mini Wm quot39i 4 a d i in 3 jFOV Q Z39 2 in mass is gtlt accelemzigeo t t 3 3 iii392 of Newton CM What is inertia The resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion including changes to its speed and direction What is the difference between mass and weight Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in a body While Weight is the measure of the amount of force acting on a mass due to the acceleration due to gravity Rita accelerates a 05 kg ball from rest to 8 ms during the 010 s in which her foot is in contact with the ball What average force does she apply to the ball during the kick 0405 mi EV0 go v sarig 139 R91 l a What is the distinction between inertial mass and gravitational mass Gravitational mass is measured by comparing the force of gravity of an unknown mass to the force of gravity of a known mass while Inertial mass is found by applying a known force ta an unknawn mass measuring the acceleration and applying Newton39s Second Law m We Text problems and solutions 415 What net external force is exerted on a IIOOkg artillery shell fired from a battleship if the shell is accelerated at 240 l Q Ws 39 What is the magnitude of the force exerted on the ship by the artillery shell 3 2quot Cl 2i 4 gt4 l o a A 4 F MKQ a llOO pa Qgi ZLNW zw M07 M b 416 A brave buT inadequaTe rugby player is being pushed backward by an opposing player wha is exerTing a force of 8010 N on him The mass of The losing player plus equipmenT is 900 kg and he is accelera ng aT 120 mSZT ackward a WhuT is The force of fricTion beTween The losing player39s feeT and The grass b WhaT force does The winning player exerT on The ground To move forward if his moss plus equipmenT39 is 110 kg c Draw a skeTch of The siTuaTion showing The sys rem of inTeresT used To solve each mm For This siTuaTion draw a free body diagram and wife The neT force equaTion N at quot brin 0 fith Mixijftai Forge W 79K be Ii 1quot n 239 CH 63 quot 3 Kw m M M W 3 Timmy m Q s s Q Cltltai 3 QiOR hr 2 208 a W ig t Q n W m f OP9Q 031W 00 page ND 53 x m 133 V gas 5quot W39 W mass we mg e sf O we 6Q aquot me TM we Fermulas for Forces Newton39s 2quot l law defines force in Terms of mass and acceleration F 2 ma Newton s law of gravitation s rmi es The gravitational a mc risn force of one mass 0 makequot F9 6m m 2 NZ 6 6673 x 10 11m3 kgquot1 5392 r Application of Forces Review questions and answers What is the normal force The force that prevents objects from falling through each other What is friction Any force that opposes motion What is the typical formula for the force applied by sliding friction mg Sin What is m in that formula Mass What determines its value fundamental properties of the object Be able to set up and solve sliding friction problems What is tension The pulling force on a rope Be able to set up and solve tension problems How do pulleys provide a lifting advantage By multiplying the force applied Text problems and solutions 512 If an object is to rest on an incline without slipping then friction must equal the component of the weight of the object parallel to the incline This requires greater and greater friction for steeper slopes Show that the maximum angle of an incline above the horizontal for which an object will not slide down is 6 tan1 Xs You may use the result of the previous problem Assume that a O and that static friction has reached its maximum value Uan quot i3 no 9707908 37quot lt3 M 0539104 sm slidmj dawn 1M toeF3 5 3de 26150 9 30 M Qompanw gquot SLOPE ijcginbi 15 291d w 0 xmj Cm MAW a 533 aaQM I fquot 35 m j 442 A 760kg person is befng pulled away from a burning building as shown in Figure 441 Calcukn e fhe Tension in The Two ropes if the person is momen rar ily me onless Include a freebody diagram in your salu on Figgm gm E he f f T3 is h i siss g 13 gs fs f egisig i rs is 133 i312 fagsg Ti if sass sia i223 gs a gi i 2 gs a saga fags 2 TQDSEO 0 CL fmj 0f3 X T315 x w u N Nat hQi gm t 4f 3 T 33 w a It QCLQ QFCA Q T C03 3 Pm objacf mifhxz m faan V Energy Review questions and answers How is work defined in physics An object is said to have done work if there is a displacement of that work in the direction of a force applied to it When network is done an an object what happens The object moves a certain distance in the direction of the force that acted on it What is kinetic energy It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity What is the SI unit of work and energy Joules In fundamental SI units kngs What is the work kinetic energy theorem and how is it applied It means change in work done by an object is equals to the change in Kinetic Energy What is potential energy Energy possessed by an object that is not in motion but at a certain height above ground level How much potential energy is added to an object if it is raised h in Mass gravity height 3 Potential energy What is Hoake39s law When an elastic object is stretched it exerts a force which returns it to its normal position What are the units for the spring constant k N m How much potential energy is stored in a Spring compressed x m e 3 at h Under what conditions is mechanical energy conserved Only when objects are moving freely without friction How is conservation of mechanical energy expressed 717 a How much gravitational potential energy relative 1390 The ground on which it is built is stored in The Great Pyramid of Checps given That its mass is about 7 x 109 kg and ifs center of mass is 365 m above The surrounding ground b How does 39this energy tempura with The daily fond intake of a person Qf f g gm E9 my 3 7gtltzoq gtlt Wax ggw W 9 W 2 g iOg di 33 m a I I 39t quotr Jim gm gfww m M ii no 00mg 3 Fi L101 59 120 mic gheemi Cid Way 3 a x H Ml Cheap Formulas for Energy AW FsAsmasAs AW05nw2 05mm3 EK 12 mv2 nwh Ep EK constant Ek05nw2annwh Spring EP W 05 kxz Fkxl Power Review questions and answers What is the definition of the watt The SI unit of power equivalent to one joule per second A horsepower Horsepower hp is a unit of measurement of power the rate at which work is done About how many watts does a typical human consume and radiate as heat at rest 120 watts What are typical efficiencies in energy conversion for human uses When performing intense exercise efficiency is measured to be in the typical range of 1826 Text problems and solutions 39 a Find the useful power output of an elevator motor that lifts a 12500 kg load a height of 350 m in 120 5 if it also increases the speed from rest to 400 ms Note that the total mass of the counterbalanced system is 10000 kg so that only2500 kg is raised in height but the full 10000 kg is accelerated b What does it cost if electricity is 00900 per kW h 0 warquot 339 we rk d9 9 0amp5 accelem cm 2661551ng quot17m am it accelewa b r1 2 g timequot 39 PCwa 00003 4 4QOO 37lt36 a I I On Th1 t2 7 12 Hop 391 b00413 100 90 k3 Potential f W W limit Ehng L 3 Zgoor ii x35 mike 25004223 w 5 I 3 er quot 7l t 5398 wai WI 008 W fgg 2 8 fl 2 U0 GTE 6 g 80 3 S agku 603 g I V39Z 0139 9 J 1 f 7 50 mm 37 A 500kg drags rer accelerates from res to a final speed of 110 rule in 400 m about a quarter of a mile and encounfers an average frictional force of 1200 N What is 15 average power ou rpm in wa r rs and horsepower if rhis Takes 730 s 470ch2 7 meet3 2 01mm sfaihmon mass 2 oeiocf f i ne hm 3 500 2210 753 A 76 0amp6 0 fame 393 75 73 2 J v JNCHGW e 75 154420 1200M I g 334 M 90 Owlpim 3 fm fwk daring u 0 C w c a Mme PM 9W 391 9334 00 3 7082 Moattits 7 5 I 654 hp Formula Bank AEltEKmgh na ltEu initial P AE At where At is the time it took to get to height h Momentum Review questions and answers How is momentum defined It is the quantity of motion of a moving body measured as a product of its mass and velocity By how much does a force F acting over a time t change the momentum of an object FT What does conservation of momentum mean Conservation of momentum means that the amount of momentum which enters a system will be the some amount when it exits How is momentum conservation related to Newton39s 3 d law Consider a collision between two objects For such a collision the forces acting between the two objects are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction Newton39s third law i e F1 F2 so also F1 T1 Fz T2 Text problems and solutions 37 Professional Application Space probes may be separated from their launchers by exploding bolts They bolt away from one another Suppose a 4800kg satellite uses this method to separate from the 1500kg remains of its launcher and that 5000 J of kinetic energy is supplied to the two parts What are their subsequent velocities using the frame of reference in which they were at rest before separation kma z 392 2 m u a 7 670003 2 BOOHScoJ 2 5000 5 50 VZ U1 000 quotquot560 V2 587 v 5739637 1116 lt i 23 Professional Application Train cars are coupled together by being bumped into one another Suppose two loaded train cars are moving toward one another the first having a mass of 150000 kg and a velocity of 0300 ms and the second having a mass of 110000 kg and a velocity of 0120 ms The minus indicatesdirection of motion What is their final velocity 0 3075 foals WS 1 Q 50 00k3 l 3910 000 1413 ml 0 ml 02 ml Lmlj Wool 500000 mfg 4 C Moooox 10 42 lSOOOm llqoooljF 51800 5260000 Q9 3180 Qei omtp 039 2 mS39 11 U Formula Bank AP ltFgtAt Where p is momentum f is force and T is Ti me a Fm Where a is acceleration I 2 2i Ami ri2 Where I is angular momentum Moments of inertia for common shapes Hollow cylinder around center I MR 2 Solid cylinder around cen rer I 12Ml22 Solid Sphere around center I I Z5lllll22 Newton 395 second law r I a N m Angular momentum L 2 Iw kg m 23 Torque r 2 AL At For every torque there is an equal and opposite torque w 239 angular velocity in radianssec a angular acceleration in rad2 1 radian 57296 0 2p radians 360 9 Conservation Laws Conserved quantities 1 Number of protons neutrons baryon number 2 Linear momentum I 3 Angular momentum 4 Energy 5 Electric charge 6 Number of leptons includes electrons and neutrinos 7 Color charge a property of quarks 8 Anti matter vs 39regular39 matter Important points Baryon conservation gt conservation of mass and individual elements Space translation symmetry lt gt conservation of linear momentum Time translation symmetry so conservation of energy Rotation symmetry 9 conservation of angular momentum WardTakahashi identities ltgt electric charge conservation r i a 39 a t 15 I39 39 f I fan mania e39 39 gnaw i333 39

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