INTRO TO CINEMA
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Esteban Hammes on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DRAM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Neupert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/202058/dram-2120-university-of-georgia in Drama at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
9282008 300 00 AM Legs of Cinema Industry 1 Production a Critical Flicker Fusion pulses of light appear as a constant beam b Apparent Motion we see movement from rapidly changing imagesobjects g 2 Hitchcock 1942 9 tight closeups ofUncle Charlie from niece s pointofview 2 Distribution 3 Exhibition a Theatrical 9 public pays admission b Nontheam39cal 9 home video cable screenings in schools and colleges Work of Production I Early Cinema I Edison 9 developed rst camera to make 35mm short lms I Lumiere brothers 9 invented their own camera which exposed short 35mm role and served as projector I Melies 9 built camera based on purchased projector discovered simple special effects I Basic Technology I Gauge 9 width of lm strip 8mm 35mm I Storyboard 9 comicstriplike drawing of individual shots I Film Stock vs Video 1 Resolution 9 lines of detail a 35mm 9 at least 3000 2 Pixels a 35mm 9 212 million I Aspect ratio 9 relationship of frame s width to its height most common in America 1851 Signi cance of Film Form 0 Form overall system of relationships among parts of lm 0 Function role or effect of any element within the lm s form 0 Plot Development Beginning vs End W Keaton 1924 9 Buster alone at theater vs end with girl Buster wins 2 times 1st in fantasy and 2quotd in real life 0 Meaning 1 Referentz39al 9 allusion to particular items of knowledge outside of lm that viewer is expected to recognize 2 Explicit 9 significance presented overtly 3 Implicit 9 significance left for viewer to discover upon analysis or re ection 4 Symptomatic 9 signi cance that lm divulges often against its will by virtue of its historical or social context a 0 Evaluation 1 Intensity a Vivid striking or emotionally engaging 2 Complexity a Engages interest on many levels creates intriguing patterns of feelings and meanings 3 Originality a Takes familiar convention to make fresh experience 4 Coherence a Unity Flow of Story Information 0 Story all events that we see and hear plus all though that we infer or assume have occurred 0 Diegetic World 0 Diegetic 9 things that fit the ctional time and space of presented world 7 Hitchcock 1959 9 opening scene 9 woman has hair short in one scene to distinguish her from younger version of herself in ashback i 9 ashback narration of aftermath of mysterious dockyard explosion that triggers investigation 0 Nondiegetic 9 titles music fades dissolves 1953 9 cowboys walking out into the sunset with what is thought to be nondiegetic music but band is suddenly shown in shot of desert 0 Plot everything visually and audibly presented to us in its order of presentation 0 Added nondiegetic material 0 quot jx 9 what if plot playing over same day Auteur director recognized for hisher individual traits in story and style 0 Hitchcock 9 supreme technician 1 Strong narrative presence 2 Wrong man themes 3 Women often put through mental and physical ordeals 4 Dark humor dominates o Hawks o Tough functional stories 0 Miseenscene and gesture 0 Typical diegetic world 9 malecentered I No optimism or spirituality I Women must prove themselves 0 Masculine attire husky voices o Gutsy dames 0 Romance H i T Hawks 1940 9 argument between Walter and Hildy they both take rum in their coffee o Schnabel 0 Central characters are independent selfcentered and refuse to compromise 0 Style is determined by their mental state 0 Blurring of reality and fantasy I Difficulty telling between diegetic and nondiegetic 0 Strong soundtracks o Bergman 0 Themes philosophical social and personal con icts I Personal politics and morality tensions I Tortured doubting characters I Life is a sort of test we never know if we passed failed or wasted our time Classical Hollywood Cinema CHC 0 Genre 0 Narrative conventions l Goaloriented protagonist 2 Scenes are motivated by causeeffect ofthose goals 3 Deadlines are essential for organizing time and action 4 Closure and resolution 0 Range of Information how much information is received from plot 1 Restricted 9 what central character in scene sees hears and knows o Sherlock Jr 9 We follow Buster follow the bad buy 2 Unrestricted 9 narration provides more information to us than any one character can know 0 SherlockJr 9 We see bad guy pawning watch while Buster undertakes investigation 0 Depth of Information how deeply narration lets us into character s vision and mind 1 Objective 9 we see and hear as if overhearing events a SherlockJr 9 Buster outside his dream b 2 Subjective 9 man looking through window a Perceptual 9 point of view I SherlockJr 9 Buster reads his book u E 9 man s point of view from looking through window b Mental 9 inner images and sounds I Memories ashbacks fantasies Miseenscene 1 Setting 2 Costume amp Makeup 3 Lighting 0 Three point lighting 0 Key light brightest illumination coming into the scene 0 Fill light illumination from a source less bright than the key light used to soften deep shadows in a scene 0 Backlighting illumination cast onto gures in the scene from the side opposite the camera usually creating a thin outline of highlighting on those gures I Halo effect isolates figure from setting 0 High key lighting comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light 0 Low key lighting high contrast between light and dark areas of the shot with deep shadows and little fill light 4 Figure expression 9 Jerry is put off by Dorothy s worship of his memo 9 president in tense scene where his finger and phone do all dramatic acting Lighting 0 Major Features Quality 2 Direction 3 Source 4 Color Cinematography 0 Shot scales 9 camera s distance from characters and setting 0 Extreme long shot building landscape or crowd of people 0 Long shot standing human gure 0 Medium long shot object about 4 or 5 feet high most common 0 Medium shot human gure seen from waist up 0 Medium close up human gure seen from chest up 0 Close up person s head seen from neck up 0 Extreme close up small object or part of body 0 Perspective 9 manipulation by camera lens 0 Wide angle distorts and exaggerates depth I 3 9 three men running into horizon 9 shot from low angle to emphasize obesity of character 0 Telephoto attens depth g 9 man running in place 0 Deep focus considerable distance between plane closest to camera and plane farthest away 9 c Iz c Welles 1941 9 Thatcher s library 0 Racking focus shifts from one plane to the next I r 9 conversation between French couple across subway station 0 Exposure adjustment of camera mechanism in order to control how much light strikes each frame of lm passing through aperture I 9 overexposure of wizard s staff 0 Level height distance 0 Framing 0 Long take I CHC norm 9 812 sec 9 Japanese woman and businessman move from opposite sides of room to sit together 9 goes through several eras of Russian history 0 Shot sequence special long take entire scene unfolds in one take 9 crane lowers to reveal scene with couple getting into a car containing a bomb 0 Mobile framing Pan camera movement with camera body turning to right or left scans space horizontally Tilt camera body swiveling upward or downward on stationary support scans space vertically Tracking 01 dolly shot travels through space forward backward or laterally Crane shot change in framing accomplished by placing camera above subject and moving through the air in any direction U 9 prisoner tries to signal that he is suffocating in tunnel dug for escape supports narrative form r 9 directs attention away from character and onto details of wall in apartment dominates narrative and de ects attention from narrative Handheld r w39 9 journey through woods as if kids are filming phenomenona quot 1 Woody Allen 9 shaking of camera during couple talking h Circling characters Spike Lee 9 camera circling around group in office as man tries to get a promotion Steadicam 9 bodymounted camera a39 Ashby 1976 9 camera weaving in and out of people and tents as main character walks through campsite 0 Characteristics 0 Allows mobility 0 Two settings normal eyelevel or low camera height 0 Creates strong cues for perceptual depth amp voyeurism 12132008 124200 AM Signi cance of Film Form 0 Meaning Referential 9 allusion to particular items of knowledge outside of lm that viewer is expected to recognize N Explicit 9 signi cance presented overtly LA Implicit 9 signi cance left for viewer to discover upon analysis or re ection 9 Symptomatic 9 signi cance that lm divulges often against its will by virtue of its historical or social context Flow of Story Information 0 Story all events that we see and hear plus all though that we infer or assume have occurred 0 Diegetic World 0 Diegetic 9 things that t the ctional time and space of presented world 0 Nondiegetic 9 titles music fades dissolves 0 Plot everything visually and audibly presented to us in its order of presentation 0 Added nondiegetic material Auteur director recognized for hisher individual traits in story and style Classical Hollywood Cinema CHC 0 Genre 0 Narrative conventions l Goaloriented protagonist 2 Scenes are motivated by causeeffect ofthose goals 3 Deadlines are essential for organizing time and action 4 Closure and resolution 0 Range of Information how much information is received from plot 1 Restricted 9 what central character in scene sees hears and knows 2 Unrestricted 9 narration provides more information to us than any one character can know 0 Depth of Information how deeply narration lets us into character s vision and mind 1 Objective 9 we see and hear as if overhearing events 2 Subjective a Perceptual 9 point of view b Mental 9 inner images and sounds I Memories ashbacks fantasies Miseenscene 1 Setting 2 Costume amp Makeup 3 Lighting 0 Three point lighting 0 Key light brightest illumination coming into the scene 0 Fill light illumination from a source less bright than the key light used to soften deep shadows in a scene 0 Backlighting illumination cast onto gures in the scene from the side opposite the camera usually creating a thin outline of highlighting on those gures I Halo effect isolates gure from setting 0 High key lighting comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light 0 Low key lighting high contrast between light and dark areas of the shot with deep shadows and little fill light 4 Figure expression Cinematography 0 Shot scales 9 camera s distance from characters and setting 0 Extreme long shot building landscape or crowd of people 0 Long shot standing human gure 0 Medium long shot object about 4 or 5 feet high most common 0 Medium shot human gure seen from waist up 0 Medium close up human gure seen from chest up 0 Close up person s head seen from neck up 0 Extreme close up small object or part of body 0 Perspective 9 manipulation by camera lens 0 Wide angle distorts and exaggerates depth 0 Telephoto attens depth 0 Deep focus considerable distance between plane closest to camera and plane farthest away 0 Racking focus shifts from one plane to the next 0 Framing 0 Long take 0 Shot sequence special long take entire scene unfolds in one take 0 Mobile Framing I Pan camera movement with camera body turning to right or left scans space horizontally I Tilt camera body swiveling upward or downward on stationary support scans space vertically I Tracking 01 dolly shot travels through space forward backward or laterally I Crane shot change in framing accomplished by placing camera above subject and moving through the air in any direction I Steadicam 9 bodymounted camera I EX out of people and tents as main character walks through Ashby 1976 9 camera weaving in and campsite I EX 771 V Kubrick 1980 9 camera following boy riding over carpet and back onto hardwood oor without camera making sound Editing 9 assembles diegetic world time space 0 Continuity editing 0 Used by CHC 0 Goal 7 establish smooth ow from shot to shot 0 Devices used I 1 180 degree rule I Axis of action imaginary line that passes from side to side through main actors I Guarantees screen direction I 2 Analytical editing patterns I Establishing shot shot usually involving distant framing that shows spatial relations among important gures objects and setting in scene I Shotreverse shot two or more shots edited together that alternate characters typically in conversation situation I Reestablishing shot return to view of entire space after series of closer shots following establishing shot I Breaks down space while providing illusion that time is unfolding continuously before our eyes I EX 39 woman 7 shotreverse shot I 3 Matches 9 conversation between man and I Eyeline match cut obeying axis of action principle in which first shot shows person looking off in one direction and the second shows nearby space containing what he or she sees Kuleshov Effect Match on action splice of two different views of same action I together at same moment in movement making it seem to continue uninterrupted o Intensified continuity editing c 9 interrogating suspect multiple shots 9 rocket taking off hundreds of detailed closeups and vast long shots 0 Long takes continuous time amp space 0 Ex 7 9 prisoner tries to signal that he is suffocating in tunnel dug for escape supports narrative form 0 Graphic Editing o Discontinuity o Disrupts clear time amp space I In CHC to show chaos I In Art Cinema to explore editing s potential 0 Strategies I 1 Montage sequence segment of lm that summarizes topic or compresses passage of time into brief symbolic or typical images I 2 Soviet montage I Founded by Eisenstein I Contexts o A Constructivism 9 art industry social function 0 B Kuleshov s workshops 9 editing techniques 0 C Pavlov amp re exology o D Marxist dialectics 9 shot a shot b new meaning I Goal to devastate reality and create physical reactions and intellectual responses 9 tsar sends troops to dominate helpless civilians I 3 Jump cut elliptical cut that appears to be interruption of single shot either gures seem to change instantly against constant background or background changes instantly while gures remain constant I EX m 9 Michel talking to himself in traf c cuts to getting pulled over and shooting police of cer Sound 0 Powers of Sound 9 same sequence of shots shown three times but each time with different sound track creates mood and directs attention toward speci c objects in shot 0 Fundamentals of Film Sound 0 Perceptual Properties I Loudness 9 volume I Pitch 9 highness or lowness of sound I Timbre 9 tone quality 0 Selection Alteration and Combination I Choosing and Manipulating Sounds I Sound Mixing I Mixing combining two or more sound tracks by recording them onto single one I Dialogue overlap editing in scene arranging cut so that bit of dialogue coming from shot A is heard under shot that shows another character or another element in scene o EX 0 Dimensions of Film Sound 0 Rhythm 0 Fidelity 9 sound faithful to source I EX loud noise from little lter on microphones 9 character sets cup down and sets off 0 Space Diegetic sound any voice musical passage or sound effect presented as originating from source within lm s world Nondiegetic sound sound such as mood music or narrator s commentary represented as coming from source outside space of narrative I Offscreen sound and optical point of view 9 money exchange same sequence shown three times in three different character s perspective x 9 couple being chased by Indians woman hears bugle of salvation Forms of Film 0 Independent Cinema 0 Economic mode I No money from studios no distributor o Stylistic mode I Off beat personal stories 9 inspired by Art Cinema amp New Wave I Risky story structure I Gritty 9 de es CHC I Contemporary tales and music I Valorizes cheap alternative sounds images and marginal actors o EX Hollywood Shu le 9 black man showcases acting school 0 French New Wave 0 Context I l PostWWII new wave generation I 2 Critical environment I 3 New lowcost lightweight camera and sound equipment 0 Story and style I 1 Low cost 9 location shooting short shooting schedules no stars I 2 Casual visual style 9 improvisation handheld cameras I 3 Loose story construction 9 characters wander loose causeeffect play with genres 0 Goal tell new stories in new ways o EX l 0 Hong Kong Cinema 0 History I 60 s I Martial arts amp chivalry lms 9 action amp stunts I 70 s I More stylized martial arts lms 9 action amp re ection I EX I 80 samp90 s I Vivid storytelling I Flashy style I Popular amp vulgar taste I Highly emotional 0 Types I 1 Martial ArtsChivalry 9 high action 0 Documentary 0 Categorical Form type of lmic organization in which parts treat distinct subjects of topic eX 7 lm about United States might be organized into 50 parts each devoted to a state I l Introduces topic I 2 Provides overview I 3 Exploits cinematic techniques I 4 Conclusion asserts value of our new understanding I EX quot a 9 birds struggle to survive during seasons I EX I EX o Rhetorical Form type of lmic organization in which parts create and 9 exposes homelessness 9 sequence of women with gapped teeth support argument I l Addresses viewer openly I 2 Subject matter is o en matter of opinion I 3 Appeals to emotion I 4 Challenges viewers to take a stand I EX 9 New Deal lm supports federal government 0 Animation 0 Modes I 1 Pixilation 9 object animation I 2 Drawn animation 9 ink on paper I 3 Ce animation 9 painting on layers of clear cels I 4 Direct cameraless animation 9 painting on clear lm stock quot 9 Dots 9 Colour Flight I 5 Computer animation 9 rotoscoped home movies transforms woman on train into drawn animation I Rotoscope machine that projects liveaction motion picture frames one by one onto drawing pad so that animator can trace gures in each frame aim is to achieve more realistic movement in animated film 0 Color amp Depth in Disney I l Reinforce characterization I 2 Provide depth cues I 3 Suggest volume amp texture I Ex 0 French Animation I Comic book traditions 9 2D I Ex 9 vivid color no shadowing 9 film noir futuristic black background I Ex 9 comic book style depressed boy receives puppy from grandmother I Ex 9 paper figures with tiny hinges backlit silhouettes against colorful backgrounds 0 Experimental Cinema 9 AvantGarde explores medium for personal expression 0 Abstract form type of filmic organization in which pa1ts relate to one another through repetition and variation of such visual qualities as shape color rhythm and direction of movement I Organized around color shape and movement I Theme and variation parallel to musical structure I 39 9 woman smiling ipping image 0 Associational form type of filmic organization in which parts relate to one another through repetition and variation of such visual qualities as shape color rhythm and direction of movement I Group of images with no obvious connection I Creates meaning through associations I Ex of cars 9 warning of modern life long shot of thousands o Surrealism 9 abstract nonnarrative I Ex An Andalusian Dog 9 needle inserted into woman s eye Ereserve Articles 0 Identi cation by Murray Smith 0 Threepart Web of Sympathy I 1 Recognition 9 recognizing character traits and goals I 2 Alignment 9 range amp depth understanding character s goals I 3 Allegiance 9 developing sympathy for character s values responding emotionally o EX 9 Doctor and his wife meet couple in North Africa couple are spies and kidnap their son identify with doctor 0 EX m 9 no identi cation with any character 0 Critical Terms by Corrigan o Semiotics includes pictures gestures and wide range of other systems of communication or perception I Sign signi er material signi ed concept I Signi er spoken or written word picture or gesture I Signi ed mental concept signi er evokes I EX 9 comic book integration 0 Ideology systematic set of beliefs that is not necessarily conscious o Psychoanalysis how individual comes to believe in ideology as imaginary representation 0 Gender amp Women in Cinema by Benshoff o 1 Are women present or absent in narrative o 2 Are women restricted to dutiful wives and mothers 0 3 Are women active or passive o 4 Are women s bodies presented differently than men 0 Result 9 women s value is determined by their relation to men s desires I EX 7 39 f l 9 woman gets book published and has romance I EX I EX reduced to body parts no individuality I EX husband with silence I EX bodies are objectified 39 9 crossgender casting Tilda Swinton as Orlando 9 uniform women in synchronized swimming 9 mother sold and sent to New Zealand resists new 9 women are main characters but 0 Postmodernism by Haase o Postmodern era marked by commodification of all human existence 0 No faith in absolutes 0 Nothing is original 0 Pastiche copying others work quot 9 turtle refers to El Mariachi 0 Batman Looms Larger 0 Digital Cinema EX Time Code 9 four overlapping segments movie about making movies 0 Dark Knight Used IMAX Resolution and clarity 9 makes characters appear creepy Depth of eld 9 shallow equivalent to telephoto Three distinct tones 9 bluegreen neutral blacldwhite and rust 12132008 124200 AM Films 0 Casablanca Curtiz 1942 0 Rick ees France to Casablanca 9 runs into his eXlover Ilsa who is married to a French activist 9 Rick and Ilsa fight but realize they love one another 0 Gender I Women are viewed as tokens or objects 9 Ilsa does not choose her own fate I Women shot with excessive backlight 7 extreme haloeffect 0 Sam black performer not lit like the others 9 de nes inequality 0 Breathless Godard 1960 0 Michel steals cars to sell them 9 shoots police officer after being pulled over 9 has affair with Patricia 9 in search of money 9 wants Patricia to move away with him 0 Discontinuity editing I Numerous jumpcuts with continuous dialogue 0 French New Wave I Dialogue improvised o CHC Definite goals 9 needs money and wants Patricia to move to Rome with him Deadlines 9 catch Michel for murder I Michel emulates Humphrey Bogart o The Graduate Nichols 1967 0 Ben graduates from college 9 has affair with Mrs Robinson 9 falls in love with Elaine Robinson her daughter 9 Elaine learns of his past with her mother 9 chaos in winning Elaine back 0 Framing I Widescreen 9 creates tension humor and awkward situations I Zones of action 9 credits I Telephoto 9 Ben running in direction of camera seems to be going nowhere 0 Sound I Song imitates car running out of gas I Sound bridge 9 conversation in phone booth is heard while Ben is in pool wait a minute to mother as he s shaving and to Mrs Robinson in bed 0 D0 The Right Thing Lee 1989 O O Mookie works in pizzeria 9 racial tension builds 9 burn down pizzeria 9 racial tension zzles but still exists Identi cation I Recognition 9 all characters I Alignment 9 Mookie most information is restricted to Mookie I Allegiance 9 Mookie when mediating no character entirely o Desperately Seeking Susan Seidelman 1985 O 0 Lonely housewife becomes obsessed with Susan in newspaper ad 9 tries to nd her and emulates her style 9 mistaken for Susan and hunted by someone trying to nd her 9 falls in love with Dez 9 leaves her husband Gender I Women are main characters I Independent women are praised dutiful wives are mocked I Men and women both active I Women s bodies objecti ed 9 Roberta undressing voyeurism o Elephant Van Sant 2003 O O 0 Different student perspectives of hours leading up to school shooting Sound I Same scene 9 different student s perspective I Beginning 9 Michelle dazed muf ed conversation of others near her I Alex in cafeteria 9 overwhelming loud talking Independent Film I No causeeffect plot structure I Low budget 0 Chungkz39ng Express Wong Karwai 1994 O O O 0 First story 9 follows woman in blonde wig who tries to smuggle cocaine through others but they steal her money and drugs man just dumped by his girlfriend is upset and desperate Second story 9 woman works in fast food joint and is visited by of cer of cer recently dumped by girlfriend woman secretly cleans his house to make him feel better she goes to California alone but comes back Independent Film I Risky plot structure I Gritty appearance Identi cation I Alignment 9 range 7 physical action of women depth 7 mental action of men I Allegiance 9 male characters connect to their emotions Princes et Princesses Ocelot 2000 O O O 0 Story of prince and princess who kiss 9 prince turns into frog 9 continue to kiss while turning into different animals Animation I French 9 drawn animation Editing I Discontinuous 9 jumpcuts I Uses steadicam Postmodernism I Assigning money values to characters I Pastiche 9 jumpcuts mimic Breathless Run Lola Run Tykwer 1998 O Manni needs money and asks girlfriend Lola to help I First ending 9 they rob a grocery store together are caught by police and Lola is shot I Second ending 9 Lola steals money from her father a banker escapes and makes it to location on time and Manni is hit by ambulance Third ending 9 Lola wins money by gambling Manni trades gun for his money that homeless man found walk off happily with money 0 Sound I Creates mood 9 ticking of clock rapid heartbeat I Fidelity 9 gun hitting ground sounds tinlike American Splendor Berman amp Pulcini 2003 0 Life of Harvey Pekar 9 works in mundane office 9 meets wife over phone 9 receives praise for comics 9 gets cancer 9 adopts child 0 Critical Terms I Semiotics 9 comic book style integration narration I Psychoanalysis 9 voyeurism I Ideology 9 obsession with happiness not wanting fame
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