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KSU / Architecture / ARCH 20112 / What is the Pisa Baptistery?

What is the Pisa Baptistery?

What is the Pisa Baptistery?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: Architecture
Course: History of Architecture II
Professor: Elwin robison
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: History of Architecture 2- Week 2- 9-8-15
Description: History of Architecture 2- Week 2: 9-8-15 and 9-10-15 Notes including definitions
Uploaded: 09/12/2015
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Kayla Schmidt


What is the Pisa Baptistery?



History of Architecture 2

9-8-15

∙ Pisa Baptistery 1153-1265 Dioto Salvi

o Gothic vaults

o Pulpit  

∙ Pisa Campanile. 1174-1271

o Banana shaped

o Started tilting during construction—started to sink on one side

o A simple bell tower

o Blind arcades surrounding construction

o No guardrails

o Soft soil—soil failure

▪ Pumped in grout--cement

▪ Increased rate of leaning

▪ To solve it put weight on the opposing side—extracted soil

∙ San Miniato al Monte 1018-62 Florence

o Face building—subconscious –bilateral symmetry  

o Looks like a Greek temple or Roman temple

o Polychroming

o Arcade

o Shed roof over aisles-cross hatched façade

o Small mosaic in the center

o Pilasters

o Iconic and Corinthian pilaster capital

o Interior


What is the Pisa Campanile?



▪ Open timber truss—large interior

▪ Nave arcade

▪ Clerestory windows relatively small

▪ Northern Europe—has more lively windows (introducing light in) vs. this type of  situation

▪ Split level format in the east-crypt ½ story

▪ Arch in the center splitting the church in two

▪ Rood-between the east and west end

o Rome left behind a lot of timber roofs

▪ Old St.Paul

▪ Old St.Peters

o Clicker quiz: The most important element that distinguishes San Minato al Monte as an  Italian Romanesque church:

▪ 3 answers

∙ Pilasters

∙ Pediment

∙ Polychromy  

∙ S. Ambrogio 1080-1128 Milan

Kayla Schmidt

o Brick –due to geography

o Early use of masonry vaulting—made of brick not stone

o Doesn’t have a transept

o Smaller chapels

o Atrium-arched corbtable on the cornice


What is the San Miniato al Monte?



If you want to learn more check out ­ How to determine how many sig figs there are with a DECIMAL?

o Following format of earlier churches

o Gallery above arcade

o Vaulting has ribs—semi circle and then filled in the webs

o Ratio of the height of the rib to the edge of the vault—or span 1:√2

o Dark interior—sense of permanence—religious idea

o Arch-horizontal thrust outward

∙ Pilgrimage Road Churches

∙ Clicker quiz: Monks accommodated pilgrims by adding a _________ to the basilican plan: o Answer- ambulatory If you want to learn more check out What is total fertility rates in the USA?

∙ Santiago de Compostela  

∙ Ste. Foy (1050-1120) Conques

o Pilgrims increased commoners

o Very dark interior---cross sectional view Quadrant vault-half barrel vault Don't forget about the age old question of What is cognitive psychology?

o Lively sculptural stories

▪ God—heaven on left and Hell on right

S. Sernin (1077-1119) Toulouse Don't forget about the age old question of What is Neoclassicism?

o Mostly brick façade

o Morning mass—that sometimes would  

o Wealthy merchant pay clergy---to give mass for past mother We also discuss several other topics like what is Tropomyosin?

o Alternate circulation path—avoiding mass and visit other chapels

o 5 aisle plan

o Radiating chapels—around ambulatory---(need to know)

▪ “An apse chapel, in church architecture, is a chapel radiating tangentially from  one of the bays or divisions of the apse. It is reached generally by a semicircular  passageway, or ambulatory, exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse.”

o Aps, Radiating chapels and ambulatory

▪ Chevet

▪ “eastern end of a church, especially of a Gothic church designed in the French  manner. Beginning about the 12th century, Romanesque builders began to  We also discuss several other topics like what order do you prepare financial statements?

elaborate on the design of the area around the altar, adding a curved ambulatory

behind it and constructing a series of apses or small chapels radiating from the  

ambulatory. Chevet design became most elaborate during the 13th century, and  

examples can be seen in the cathedrals of Rheims and Chartres.”

o In echelon chapels—in a row----(need to know)

▪ “A level of command, authority, or rank.”

Kayla Schmidt

o Ambulatory- “a place for walking, especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a  church or monastery”

o Masonry vaulted

▪ Big buttresses

o Continuous barrel vaults

o People don’t mind the darkness of the interior—no task lighting

o At the East End lies the alter

o Quadrant arch

9-10-15

Abbey Church of St. Pierre (1088-1121) Cluny

∙ Nuns would retire from life and move into the monastery

∙ The only way you would learn to read or write would be to be a part of the monastery  ∙ Grandest church in northern Europe---major cathedral of France

∙ No longer exists---purchased land---local peasants tore the church down in the late 18th century ∙ 2 transepts—rare in France—to add alters

∙ Long extensive nave

Ste. Madeleine (1104-32) Vezelay

∙ Building sagged and had to take down the vaults and rebuild them

∙ Experimenting with light—partly unsuccessful

∙ Flying Buttresses-added on later on during gothic period (13 century)

∙ They didn’t have enough buttressing to begin with

∙ Barrel vault with transverse arches

o Cut in clerestory windows into the barrel vault

o Transverse arches---polychromatic stones which was rare for France

o Callenet  

▪ Respond to ribs

o The façade helped support the barrel vaults

o Almost groin vault—anticipating  

o Structural stand point not successful

∙ Signs of the Zodiac were used in sculptural purposes

∙ Column capitals

Monastery

∙ giving wealth to the poor

o Crop rotation

o Education  

o Innovators

∙ Simple design

o “big barns”

o Buttresses on both sides of the doorway—on the façade

Kayla Schmidt

▪ Because of the arcade

▪ To balance each other out

▪ Aspe at the other end—East End

▪ No towers on the west front

o Interior-Little decoration

▪ Plain

▪ So that your thoughts could go to God

▪ Cloister-

∙ Courtyard

∙ Covered walk way

o Because it rains a lot in France

∙ Pray exercises

o Stations of the cross

Norman Architecture

St. Etienne, Caen, 1068-1120 (vaults built 1115-1120)

∙ Normans rule England---after the Hastings battle

∙ Twin tower façade

∙ Buttresses nave arcade

∙ Tribute gallery above nave arcade

∙ Exterior wall is massively thick for horizontal vaulting

o Created groin vaults

o Not much light coming through thick wall

St. Cuthbert (1093-1180) Durham, England  

∙ Transept arm

∙ Clerestory windows---clerestory passage

∙ Buttresses thicken wall

∙ Thick piers supporting nave and tribute gallery above that

∙ Not a tall building

Aquitaine and Provence

St. Pierre (1105-1128)

∙ Influenced by San Marco, Venice

∙ Dome in the center

∙ Masonry vaulting

o Instead of a barrel vault—independent domes-pendentive—supports dome ∙ Thick drum

St.Front, Perigueux (1120–1150)

Kayla Schmidt

∙ Domes  

∙ In Périgueux is the Saint-Front cathedral, built in the 12th century---ruins burned in 1120 ∙ One of the largest in France

∙ Greek cross, topped with 5 lofty domes and numerous colonnaded turrets

∙ Cloisters and bell tower built in 12th, 13th, and 16th centuries  

S. TrophIme (1150-1180) Arles

∙ Elaborate portable

∙ Series of columns supporting pediment form

∙ Mimics Triumphful arch

∙ Roofing system—stone---which sits right on the vaults

∙ John is shown as the angel (stories carved in)

Throughout this course there are a lot of definitions to know. Here is a list of words that we have explored  after just these two weeks of classes; words that I have taken in importance through his lectures. And here  is the website that I used to define these words, so be free to explore that more:  http://www.learn.columbia.edu/ma/htm/sw/ma_site_resource_glossary_f.htm 

Definitions:

abbey — An independent and canonically erected monastery, ruled by an abbot if occupied by monks  and by an abbess if occupied by nuns.

abbey church — The main church of an abbey constituting one part of the building complex that may  also include cloisters and assembly rooms (chapter houses). Abbey churches are usually designed to  accommodate any special liturgical requirements of the monks or nuns.

ambulatory — The passageway surrounding the apse or hemicycle located at the east end of a basilican  church plan. Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory are sometimes referred to as  radiating chapels.

apse — The semicircular or polygonal space containing the high altar located at the east end of a  basilican church plan.

arcade — a series of round or pointed arches supported by a row of columns or piers.

atrium — An open courtyard or vestibule located before the principal entrance of a church, sometimes  surrounded by covered aisles. The atrium of the Early Christian church was originally a place for the  catechumens (people awaiting initiation into the faith of the church) to wait during the celebration of the  Eucharist.

barrel vault — Round-headed stone vault supported by parallel walls or arcades. Also called a tunnel  vault.

blind arcade — Wall decoration composed of arcades (arches resting on columns or pilasters) set flat  against the wall and therefore closed at the back.

buttress — Pier-like vertical masonry elements built to strengthen or support walls or resist the lateral  thrust of vaults.

Kayla Schmidt

clerestory — Literally, a clear story. In a basilican church, the uppermost section of the nave wall,  located above the triforium, and rising above the roofs covering the lateral aisles, pierced by a row of  windows to admit light into the nave. Clerestory windows often contain stained glass depicting Old and  New Testament subjects.

cloister — Enclosed spaces composed of a garth (garden) and surrounding walkways, which are  generally arcaded on the courtyard side (facing the garden) and walled on the other; usually found in  Christian religious building complexes such as monasteries and used for contemplative purposes.

diagonal rib — Slender stone moldings, or arched supports, called ribs arranged in a diagonal formation  and positioned along the groins (or joins) of a vault, crossing in the center, used either to mask the groins  or to support or decorate the vault.

east end — Term used to describe the apse or hemicycle portion of a church containing the main altar.  More broadly, may refer to the area of the church including the choir, apse, ambulatory and radiating  chapels. Most Medieval churches were oriented on an east-west axis with the main entrance at the west  end and the high altar at the east end facing the direction of the Holy Land.

flying buttress - Exterior stone supports in the form of arches located between an upright pier or buttress  and the building wall designed to transmit the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall  outward to the pier or buttress. The exterior of Gothic cathedrals is characterized by flying buttresses  usually located along the sides of the nave and around the choir or east end of the building.

gallery - Substantial interior spaces at the level of an upper story (e.g. second level in a three-story  church elevation) that overlook the level below (e.g. nave) and usually extend the full length of the church  . The term tribune may also be used. Distinct from a triforium in which the passage way is usually very  narrow.

Greek cross plan - A ground plan designed in a cross-shape with four equal arms and a central space.

groin vault - A vault characterized by sharp ridges or edges on the interior surface formed by the  intersection of two or more tunnel or barrel vaults.

historiated capital — A capital designed with one or more figures of humans or animals, sometimes  combined with architectural settings or foliage. The figures may be decorative or carry symbolic, moral or  narrative meaning and may constitute a narrative sequence such as scenes from the Life of Christ.  Historiated capitals were most commonly used in the Romanesque from the late eleventh to mid-twelfth  centuries and are sometimes found in monastic cloisters.

Latin cross — Church buildings whose plan is designed in the form of a cross with two short lateral arms  (transept arms) and one long arm (nave).

monastery — Complex of buildings used to house a community of monks or nuns, including a church  and cloister, refectory for meals, dormitory for sleep and, usually, a hostelry for guests and a scriptorium  for the production and copying of books (manuscripts).

nave — The main central space of a basilican church interior extending from the entrance to the crossing  or choir. The pierced side walls, usually opening onto side-aisles, are composed of the nave arcade  (columns or piers supporting arches), the triforium and the clerestory, covered by a vaulted or wooden  ceiling.

nave arcade — The row of columns or piers supporting arches along the lower section of the nave in a  basilican church. The nave arcade is usually surmounted by a triforium and clerestory.

Kayla Schmidt

pilgrimage church — Churches designed and built primarily during the 11th century to accommodate  crowds of visiting pilgrims along the main routes to the shrine at Campostela, Spain; may also be used for  any large church designed to receive large numbers of pilgrims and characterized by the arrangement of  entrances/exits, aisles and chapels to facilitate a steady movement of people through the building.

radiating chapels — Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory in the east end of a  basilican church plan. Chapels may be defined as any space used for worship or veneration in a Christian  church, often dedicated to an individual saint or Christian episode.

rib — Arches or raised moldings of masonry supporting or decorating quadripartite (four-part) or  sexpartite (six-part) vaults.

ribbed vault — Vaults that include slender arched moldings or supports called ribs, used either as  structural or decorative elements arranged in a diagonal formation on the surface of the vault and  crossing in the center. The brick or stone covering spanning each section between the ribs is called the  web. Ribbed vaults are usually composed of four (quadripartite) or six (sexpartite) sections.

thrust — The downward and/or outward pressure exerted by an arch or vault resulting from the weight of  the structure and the effects of gravity.

transept — Transverse arms of a basilican church plan set at right angles to the nave. The lateral  spaces of the transept are referred to as the north and south transepts or transept arms. The area where  the transept and nave intersect is called the crossing, sometimes surmounted by a tower, and providing a  monumental space separating the nave and the choir.

transverse rib or arch — Monumental stone arches (ribs) located at right angles to the longitudinal axis  of the nave in a basilican church, dividing the space and the vaults into regular bays or compartments.

triforium — Arcaded register or level of the wall in a basilican church interior located between the arcade  and clerestory that corresponds to the space between the side-aisle vault and the lean-to roof above that  vault. The triforium may be blind (no passageway) or may include a passageway set behind it. The  triforium may be glazed, e.g., the wall behind the triforium is pierced by windows.

vault - A ceiling or roof constructed of brick or stone built on the principal of the round or pointed arch  designed to transmit outward and downward thrust along structural members such as columns, piers and  buttresses. Major vault types include barrel or tunnel vaults, groin vaults and rib vaults.

web, webbing (vaults) — The stonework filling the area between the ribs of a vault. Also called infilling.

west end — The structural elements built on the west end of a Christian church including the main  facade. The term is used to distinguish the entrance and nave area from the choir and hemicycle located  at the east end.

Kayla Schmidt

History of Architecture 2

9-8-15

∙ Pisa Baptistery 1153-1265 Dioto Salvi

o Gothic vaults

o Pulpit  

∙ Pisa Campanile. 1174-1271

o Banana shaped

o Started tilting during construction—started to sink on one side

o A simple bell tower

o Blind arcades surrounding construction

o No guardrails

o Soft soil—soil failure

▪ Pumped in grout--cement

▪ Increased rate of leaning

▪ To solve it put weight on the opposing side—extracted soil

∙ San Miniato al Monte 1018-62 Florence

o Face building—subconscious –bilateral symmetry  

o Looks like a Greek temple or Roman temple

o Polychroming

o Arcade

o Shed roof over aisles-cross hatched façade

o Small mosaic in the center

o Pilasters

o Iconic and Corinthian pilaster capital

o Interior

▪ Open timber truss—large interior

▪ Nave arcade

▪ Clerestory windows relatively small

▪ Northern Europe—has more lively windows (introducing light in) vs. this type of  situation

▪ Split level format in the east-crypt ½ story

▪ Arch in the center splitting the church in two

▪ Rood-between the east and west end

o Rome left behind a lot of timber roofs

▪ Old St.Paul

▪ Old St.Peters

o Clicker quiz: The most important element that distinguishes San Minato al Monte as an  Italian Romanesque church:

▪ 3 answers

∙ Pilasters

∙ Pediment

∙ Polychromy  

∙ S. Ambrogio 1080-1128 Milan

Kayla Schmidt

o Brick –due to geography

o Early use of masonry vaulting—made of brick not stone

o Doesn’t have a transept

o Smaller chapels

o Atrium-arched corbtable on the cornice

o Following format of earlier churches

o Gallery above arcade

o Vaulting has ribs—semi circle and then filled in the webs

o Ratio of the height of the rib to the edge of the vault—or span 1:√2

o Dark interior—sense of permanence—religious idea

o Arch-horizontal thrust outward

∙ Pilgrimage Road Churches

∙ Clicker quiz: Monks accommodated pilgrims by adding a _________ to the basilican plan: o Answer- ambulatory

∙ Santiago de Compostela  

∙ Ste. Foy (1050-1120) Conques

o Pilgrims increased commoners

o Very dark interior---cross sectional view Quadrant vault-half barrel vault

o Lively sculptural stories

▪ God—heaven on left and Hell on right

S. Sernin (1077-1119) Toulouse

o Mostly brick façade

o Morning mass—that sometimes would  

o Wealthy merchant pay clergy---to give mass for past mother

o Alternate circulation path—avoiding mass and visit other chapels

o 5 aisle plan

o Radiating chapels—around ambulatory---(need to know)

▪ “An apse chapel, in church architecture, is a chapel radiating tangentially from  one of the bays or divisions of the apse. It is reached generally by a semicircular  passageway, or ambulatory, exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse.”

o Aps, Radiating chapels and ambulatory

▪ Chevet

▪ “eastern end of a church, especially of a Gothic church designed in the French  manner. Beginning about the 12th century, Romanesque builders began to  

elaborate on the design of the area around the altar, adding a curved ambulatory

behind it and constructing a series of apses or small chapels radiating from the  

ambulatory. Chevet design became most elaborate during the 13th century, and  

examples can be seen in the cathedrals of Rheims and Chartres.”

o In echelon chapels—in a row----(need to know)

▪ “A level of command, authority, or rank.”

Kayla Schmidt

o Ambulatory- “a place for walking, especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a  church or monastery”

o Masonry vaulted

▪ Big buttresses

o Continuous barrel vaults

o People don’t mind the darkness of the interior—no task lighting

o At the East End lies the alter

o Quadrant arch

9-10-15

Abbey Church of St. Pierre (1088-1121) Cluny

∙ Nuns would retire from life and move into the monastery

∙ The only way you would learn to read or write would be to be a part of the monastery  ∙ Grandest church in northern Europe---major cathedral of France

∙ No longer exists---purchased land---local peasants tore the church down in the late 18th century ∙ 2 transepts—rare in France—to add alters

∙ Long extensive nave

Ste. Madeleine (1104-32) Vezelay

∙ Building sagged and had to take down the vaults and rebuild them

∙ Experimenting with light—partly unsuccessful

∙ Flying Buttresses-added on later on during gothic period (13 century)

∙ They didn’t have enough buttressing to begin with

∙ Barrel vault with transverse arches

o Cut in clerestory windows into the barrel vault

o Transverse arches---polychromatic stones which was rare for France

o Callenet  

▪ Respond to ribs

o The façade helped support the barrel vaults

o Almost groin vault—anticipating  

o Structural stand point not successful

∙ Signs of the Zodiac were used in sculptural purposes

∙ Column capitals

Monastery

∙ giving wealth to the poor

o Crop rotation

o Education  

o Innovators

∙ Simple design

o “big barns”

o Buttresses on both sides of the doorway—on the façade

Kayla Schmidt

▪ Because of the arcade

▪ To balance each other out

▪ Aspe at the other end—East End

▪ No towers on the west front

o Interior-Little decoration

▪ Plain

▪ So that your thoughts could go to God

▪ Cloister-

∙ Courtyard

∙ Covered walk way

o Because it rains a lot in France

∙ Pray exercises

o Stations of the cross

Norman Architecture

St. Etienne, Caen, 1068-1120 (vaults built 1115-1120)

∙ Normans rule England---after the Hastings battle

∙ Twin tower façade

∙ Buttresses nave arcade

∙ Tribute gallery above nave arcade

∙ Exterior wall is massively thick for horizontal vaulting

o Created groin vaults

o Not much light coming through thick wall

St. Cuthbert (1093-1180) Durham, England  

∙ Transept arm

∙ Clerestory windows---clerestory passage

∙ Buttresses thicken wall

∙ Thick piers supporting nave and tribute gallery above that

∙ Not a tall building

Aquitaine and Provence

St. Pierre (1105-1128)

∙ Influenced by San Marco, Venice

∙ Dome in the center

∙ Masonry vaulting

o Instead of a barrel vault—independent domes-pendentive—supports dome ∙ Thick drum

St.Front, Perigueux (1120–1150)

Kayla Schmidt

∙ Domes  

∙ In Périgueux is the Saint-Front cathedral, built in the 12th century---ruins burned in 1120 ∙ One of the largest in France

∙ Greek cross, topped with 5 lofty domes and numerous colonnaded turrets

∙ Cloisters and bell tower built in 12th, 13th, and 16th centuries  

S. TrophIme (1150-1180) Arles

∙ Elaborate portable

∙ Series of columns supporting pediment form

∙ Mimics Triumphful arch

∙ Roofing system—stone---which sits right on the vaults

∙ John is shown as the angel (stories carved in)

Throughout this course there are a lot of definitions to know. Here is a list of words that we have explored  after just these two weeks of classes; words that I have taken in importance through his lectures. And here  is the website that I used to define these words, so be free to explore that more:  http://www.learn.columbia.edu/ma/htm/sw/ma_site_resource_glossary_f.htm 

Definitions:

abbey — An independent and canonically erected monastery, ruled by an abbot if occupied by monks  and by an abbess if occupied by nuns.

abbey church — The main church of an abbey constituting one part of the building complex that may  also include cloisters and assembly rooms (chapter houses). Abbey churches are usually designed to  accommodate any special liturgical requirements of the monks or nuns.

ambulatory — The passageway surrounding the apse or hemicycle located at the east end of a basilican  church plan. Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory are sometimes referred to as  radiating chapels.

apse — The semicircular or polygonal space containing the high altar located at the east end of a  basilican church plan.

arcade — a series of round or pointed arches supported by a row of columns or piers.

atrium — An open courtyard or vestibule located before the principal entrance of a church, sometimes  surrounded by covered aisles. The atrium of the Early Christian church was originally a place for the  catechumens (people awaiting initiation into the faith of the church) to wait during the celebration of the  Eucharist.

barrel vault — Round-headed stone vault supported by parallel walls or arcades. Also called a tunnel  vault.

blind arcade — Wall decoration composed of arcades (arches resting on columns or pilasters) set flat  against the wall and therefore closed at the back.

buttress — Pier-like vertical masonry elements built to strengthen or support walls or resist the lateral  thrust of vaults.

Kayla Schmidt

clerestory — Literally, a clear story. In a basilican church, the uppermost section of the nave wall,  located above the triforium, and rising above the roofs covering the lateral aisles, pierced by a row of  windows to admit light into the nave. Clerestory windows often contain stained glass depicting Old and  New Testament subjects.

cloister — Enclosed spaces composed of a garth (garden) and surrounding walkways, which are  generally arcaded on the courtyard side (facing the garden) and walled on the other; usually found in  Christian religious building complexes such as monasteries and used for contemplative purposes.

diagonal rib — Slender stone moldings, or arched supports, called ribs arranged in a diagonal formation  and positioned along the groins (or joins) of a vault, crossing in the center, used either to mask the groins  or to support or decorate the vault.

east end — Term used to describe the apse or hemicycle portion of a church containing the main altar.  More broadly, may refer to the area of the church including the choir, apse, ambulatory and radiating  chapels. Most Medieval churches were oriented on an east-west axis with the main entrance at the west  end and the high altar at the east end facing the direction of the Holy Land.

flying buttress - Exterior stone supports in the form of arches located between an upright pier or buttress  and the building wall designed to transmit the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall  outward to the pier or buttress. The exterior of Gothic cathedrals is characterized by flying buttresses  usually located along the sides of the nave and around the choir or east end of the building.

gallery - Substantial interior spaces at the level of an upper story (e.g. second level in a three-story  church elevation) that overlook the level below (e.g. nave) and usually extend the full length of the church  . The term tribune may also be used. Distinct from a triforium in which the passage way is usually very  narrow.

Greek cross plan - A ground plan designed in a cross-shape with four equal arms and a central space.

groin vault - A vault characterized by sharp ridges or edges on the interior surface formed by the  intersection of two or more tunnel or barrel vaults.

historiated capital — A capital designed with one or more figures of humans or animals, sometimes  combined with architectural settings or foliage. The figures may be decorative or carry symbolic, moral or  narrative meaning and may constitute a narrative sequence such as scenes from the Life of Christ.  Historiated capitals were most commonly used in the Romanesque from the late eleventh to mid-twelfth  centuries and are sometimes found in monastic cloisters.

Latin cross — Church buildings whose plan is designed in the form of a cross with two short lateral arms  (transept arms) and one long arm (nave).

monastery — Complex of buildings used to house a community of monks or nuns, including a church  and cloister, refectory for meals, dormitory for sleep and, usually, a hostelry for guests and a scriptorium  for the production and copying of books (manuscripts).

nave — The main central space of a basilican church interior extending from the entrance to the crossing  or choir. The pierced side walls, usually opening onto side-aisles, are composed of the nave arcade  (columns or piers supporting arches), the triforium and the clerestory, covered by a vaulted or wooden  ceiling.

nave arcade — The row of columns or piers supporting arches along the lower section of the nave in a  basilican church. The nave arcade is usually surmounted by a triforium and clerestory.

Kayla Schmidt

pilgrimage church — Churches designed and built primarily during the 11th century to accommodate  crowds of visiting pilgrims along the main routes to the shrine at Campostela, Spain; may also be used for  any large church designed to receive large numbers of pilgrims and characterized by the arrangement of  entrances/exits, aisles and chapels to facilitate a steady movement of people through the building.

radiating chapels — Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory in the east end of a  basilican church plan. Chapels may be defined as any space used for worship or veneration in a Christian  church, often dedicated to an individual saint or Christian episode.

rib — Arches or raised moldings of masonry supporting or decorating quadripartite (four-part) or  sexpartite (six-part) vaults.

ribbed vault — Vaults that include slender arched moldings or supports called ribs, used either as  structural or decorative elements arranged in a diagonal formation on the surface of the vault and  crossing in the center. The brick or stone covering spanning each section between the ribs is called the  web. Ribbed vaults are usually composed of four (quadripartite) or six (sexpartite) sections.

thrust — The downward and/or outward pressure exerted by an arch or vault resulting from the weight of  the structure and the effects of gravity.

transept — Transverse arms of a basilican church plan set at right angles to the nave. The lateral  spaces of the transept are referred to as the north and south transepts or transept arms. The area where  the transept and nave intersect is called the crossing, sometimes surmounted by a tower, and providing a  monumental space separating the nave and the choir.

transverse rib or arch — Monumental stone arches (ribs) located at right angles to the longitudinal axis  of the nave in a basilican church, dividing the space and the vaults into regular bays or compartments.

triforium — Arcaded register or level of the wall in a basilican church interior located between the arcade  and clerestory that corresponds to the space between the side-aisle vault and the lean-to roof above that  vault. The triforium may be blind (no passageway) or may include a passageway set behind it. The  triforium may be glazed, e.g., the wall behind the triforium is pierced by windows.

vault - A ceiling or roof constructed of brick or stone built on the principal of the round or pointed arch  designed to transmit outward and downward thrust along structural members such as columns, piers and  buttresses. Major vault types include barrel or tunnel vaults, groin vaults and rib vaults.

web, webbing (vaults) — The stonework filling the area between the ribs of a vault. Also called infilling.

west end — The structural elements built on the west end of a Christian church including the main  facade. The term is used to distinguish the entrance and nave area from the choir and hemicycle located  at the east end.

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