Art History 202. Material for Test 2.
Art History 202. Material for Test 2. ARTHC 202
Popular in World Civilizations since 1500
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brinley Clark on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTHC 202 at Brigham Young University taught by Elliott Wise in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations since 1500 in Art at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
2/9/2016 Netherlands become Calvanist, France/Italy/Spain remain strongly Catholic. This is a time when people are intensely concerned about their souls and other peoples souls. The Catholics are concerned a significant part of Europe is going to Hell for being Protestant. This is a time of warfare. People are killing each other over religion. It’s very intense. It’s a time of fraught political situations. Their personal spiritual beliefs. Kings stayed Catholic because of political reasons. The ideologies of monarchs. The Protestants had accused the Catholic church of becoming very corrupt. The council of Trent deliberate about this and say the Protestants have a point… the church instigates a reform and encourages a return to the zeal of the early christian periods where the blood of martyrs/great religious devotion. They wanted the bishops to serve lovingly and to take again their vows. They reaffirm their positions on all the doctrine though. Priesthood lineage matters big time. There has to be a descending lineage from Peter. The importance of scripture (not vernacular) in Latin. The doctrine of predestination. Deep veneration of the Eucharist. The church/council of Trent says they need to teach these doctrines and spread them.. So this happened through the foundation of new religious orders. Jesuit missionariestaught the catholic teachings everywhere around the world! St Ignacious of Loyola. The church also says one of the powerful ways is by marshaling art and architecture in the service of God. The church thinks mannerism doesn’t really get the point across.. only makes sense to an elite audience. 1.Art should be dramatic, it should inspire the faith of people, it should reach outside of the frame, it should appeal to people. 2. It should be didactic, educational, extremely clearm grasp the storyline, promote good catholic doctrine. 3. Good Catholic art should be devotional, it should inspire the most devotional, the most fervent desire of your heart St IgnaciousSpiritual Exercises imagine you can smell the candles, feel the light of his presence, taste the sweetness of Jesus’ name in your mouth, also imagine you can feel the flames of hell… Bringing all the sense to religion. John Lorenzo Berninibeloved sculptor by the council of trent. First work= David (he did for the nephew of the reigning pope). There was a terrible system of nepotism… the nephew was the cardinal because his uncle gave him that position. Bernini imitates michelangelo. The figure is titanic and strong and is carved in white marble. Highly polished… but not mistaken for michelangelo because there’s so much emotion in the face. David is so concentrated that he is biting his lip. He’s not calm/stoic/eternal. Chiaro Oscuro created by the shadows/light. The black pupil of the eye is created by the shadow. “Berninigave color to stone.” You are in the middle of the fightwhen you interact with this piece. David is an old symbol of the weak city state.. now in the 17th century David is the catholic Church and Goliath is the protestant church… Bernini Spanish mysticismdesire for the soul to be united with God. Mount Carmel a place they went to be close to God. Carmellitesthey went shoeless, they fasted. Sense of motion on the statue...The statue is in the middle of frescos and stone relief. a belcomposto (means a beautiful whole) you use all kinds of things, gold, stucco, the candles, insense, music, to create a spiritual experiences that follows St Igancious’s spiritual guide. There’s clouds on the ceiling that overlap the architecture. The ceiling opens up into the heavens. The altarwith an optical illusionfeels like the marble statue is floating (it’s secured to the wall). The woman is having a spiritual miraculous experience. The rays of light are lit by a hidden window. The light would shift at different times of day.. natural hidden spotlight. Very dramatic chiaro oscuro. He curved, because of the miracle, the pediment, there’s a sense of power coming out into our faces. There’s two reliefs on either side. Bernini makes the stone look like real clothe. He uses very steep perspective to give us the illusion that the theater box us a deep space.. The cardinal’s crest is at the top. On the floor, even the dead, buried under the chapel are raising their hands in praise of the miracle. Very important sculpture. St Teresa had died recently. This ensemble is meant to indicate this is a living breathing church with modern saints who you can ask for intercession, a place where miracles happen. St Peters.. Competition for who can move the obelisque. Colone surrounds the obelisque. Bernini wrote the design for the church was suppose to represent arms… coming to embrace you. It embraces the new converts. The church opens its arms to embrace the protestants who’ve decided to come back. The pope represents the church embracing the faithful. The church and the pope (as christ's representative) do the same thing. Inside St PetersBaldacchino. Makes giant structure made out of Bronze. 2/11/2016 NEXT THURSDAY IN THE MOA Italian Baroque Bernini, Baldachino (cont). Optical illusion, supposed to feel ephemeral. It’s bronze that they mine from the root of the pantheon. This baldacchino is about 100 feet high. The tomb of St Peter is under the Baldacchino. There’s a huge dome on the top of the building built by Michelangelo. The columns, the patron is Pope Urban the 8th. He comes from an important familythe barbarini. Their symbol was the bumble bee. So the columns have golden bumble bees on them. ChristI am the true vine. Vines up the column. The columns aren’t just straight ordinary vertical columns. They spiral and coil giving us a sense of musicreferences the temple to solomon. At St. Peters the message is that it is the new center of solomon. Angels and an orb (the world) crowned by the cross of Christianity. The putto are carrying the pope's crown/tiara and the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Bernini, Cathedra Petri. Cathedrathe throne of the bishop. Petri means Peter. This is called the Cathedra Petri because it contains inside of it Peter’s relic. Relicsomething that belonged to the saint or part of the saint. It’s contained within a reliquary. The bronze chair is a reliquary. Inside is Peter’s wooden chairhis relic. Shows the deeply held belief that priesthood lineage matters. This is a proclamation to the world that the lineage is conserved, protected and enshrined here. It’s a belle compostobeautiful compositionan assembly of different media. It’s a space that involves all of your senses in a spiritual experiences. Right above the altar you can see bernini has affixed it to the wall so it looks like it’s floating. St Augustine, St Ambrose, St Gregory the Great, St Jeromeuniversally understood to be unimpeachable. Righteous examples of the christian faith. The men are not actually touching the thing. It looks like angels and clouds and the heavens are coming down into the space. He uses a stain glass window to let in the light. It’s one of the only christian churches that faces west. He knew there would be a ton of sunlight coming in through the window all the time. Pucci hold up the crown and the papacy. Helps intensify your religious experience. Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church. Borromininemesis of Berninihe thought he was getting the short end of the stick. He is widely acknowledged to be the best architect (Bernini is a sculture). The church of st charles of the 4 fountains. It’s a church that epitomizes baroque style like nothing else. Corinthian columns, inscription dedicating the church. Nice ratios BUT the church looks like it moves! Response to the protestant argument that the church was dead. It emphasizes that it is alive. Very few straight lines. Right over the door St Charleshe had just died. He was a model bishopthe bishop of Milan. And had been famous for being a good pastor. He sacrificed for his flock. He lived among his people and loved and cared for him. A saint bringing across the message that miracles still happen. The motion of his prayer goes spiraling upward.. with the angels that are lifting a painting off the building. The plan is “very wonky”. It’s built out of ovals nothing like the renaissance. It was completely white inside. The ceiling looks like honeycomb. He makes the shapes smaller and smaller as they get closer to the center so the ceiling looks a lot higher. Hidden windows let in a glow that you wouldn’t know where it’s coming from. The Classical Baroque Aurora by Reni. Very calm like a frieze. But it’s very asymmetricala tendency of the baroque. It’s a ceiling fresco The baroque is very famous for ceilings. It’s called a painting that has been moved to the ceiling. It looks like a painting that would have on the wall. No worms eye perspective. The Triumph of the Name of Jesusone of the most incredible ceilings! It’s the church of Jesus. This employs gilded stucco, real architectural components, stucco figures, putti, allegorical figures, a fresco painted right onto the wall. Panels that have been cut out, painted, and then glued onto the ceiling. The Jesuit was infamous by naming themselves after the name of Christ. They are deeply devoted to the holy name of Jesus. IHS=complicated abbreviation of the name Jesus. It’s a monogram for Jesus. In the light in the clouds on the ceiling are the initials IHS. Can’t tell what’s painted, what’s 3D and what’s real. Caravaggio, Conversion of Paul VERY IMPORTANT FOR NEXT EXAM. Very influential in this period. He’s a very unusual and violent personality. He was not appreciated during his lifetime. Not appreciated until the 19th century. His style was uncomfortably naturalistic. Naturalistic Baroque. The people are gritty looking and dirty. The renaissance culture celebrates the beautiful. They don’t like the shocking inappropriate portrayal of holy individuals with dirty fingernails. He’s always getting in trouble with the law. He joins the knights of Multa. He died of a fever in his 30s running away from the knights of Multa after a fight. He still is able to embody the desires of the council of trent as well as Bernini but in a totally different way. It’s profoundly devotional. He glues the oil painting to the wall to make it look like a frescos. Make the shadows line up the the real light of the chapel. His technique for creating a dramatic composition. He uses dramatic chiaro oscuro. The modeling is called tenebrism. It’s a very shadowy image, dark black corners, you feel like something is taking place on a stage set. The light is always hidden. It’s never a candle or something like that. He also foreshortens the arms of the figures. You feel like you’re part of the narrative. You feel like the horse could kick you! He cuts off his compositions. Carrvagio is also known for… Paul looks like an old peasant. The horse is an old ugly animal. It’s very offensive. The dirty hands of Paul. You feel like Paul is someone who can relate to, someone who you could really ask to pray for you. It’s a painting about conversion. Paul zealously fought against the church not knowing what he’s doing. Paul imitates Christ spiritually. In the same chapel the crucifixion of St Peter. The composition is totally dramatically dark, lighting the faces of Paul. There’s a cut off and it’s right in our faces. Peter is old and his dirty feet are in our face. The composition itself creates a cross. The man’s face is in shadow. Peter imitates Christ physically. All of a sudden there’s a bunch of Christian martyrdoms. Catholics and Protestants killing each other. Jesuits being crucified. Peter’s feet in our face. In St Peter’s basilica the devotional practice was to touch and kiss his feet. ^ It’s a reminder about that. A chapel commissioned for awkward reasons. He robbed the popethe papal purse. As a sign of his contrition he commissioned this chapel. The calling of St Matthew, Caravaggio. Dramatic chiaro oscuro. Christ in the corner… squeezed into the side with a thin halo over his head. Matthew points to himself as Christ also points to him. The people around him are counting their money. Christ is calling them to a greater work with his spiritual light… A man wearing spectacles is wearing them to see his money but he can’t see spiritual things. The gesture of Christ’s hand is a direct copy of Michelangelo’s hand. It’s Adam’s hand. Christ becomes the new Adam. He redeems the sins of the first Adam. Christ is now creating something. Christ is creating an apostle. A fisher of men. A martyr. The message is about Christ’s call to you. Are you wavering in the faith? If you’re a protestant then consider Christ might be calling you back to the faith. It’s a very powerful painting. Cardinal’s way of saying he’s guiltyrepresented by Matthew pointing at himself. Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus. Foreshortening. Very dramatic. They recognize Christ when he breaks bread and blesses it. When he does they know him. In Baroque technique he chooses the most dramatic part of the story. The shock of the apostle can be seen in his arm outstretched. Message: recognize Christ’s divinity. Wants you to consider what you see spiritually when the bread is broken. You see Christ for who he is. You see it for just a second and then it disappears. Caravaggio, Entombment. Christ’s body is being taken off the cross. The body of Christ is very heavy. Makes it look like they are putting the body on an actual altar. The stone looks like it’s coming out right at us. He’s making the idealized Michelangelo Christ body into a real body. You can see his dirty feet. Dirty toenails. Christ’s face has started to blacken… A real dead body. Strong dramatic diagonal. From Mary Magdalene’s hands in the air to the hand of Christ on the ground. Mary” Careful, careful, careful”. Transubstantiation. Mary could pray for you. You have the body of Christ and see the body of Christ right in front of you. Caravaggiodeath of the virgin. He made the mother of Christ, the body of a prostitute who had drowned in the riverbloated. He also showed Mary’s bare feet. Tremendous power! 2/18/2016 Entombment continued. The figures feel like they’re right up in your face. Chiaro Oscuro. Caravaggio was very influential. His closest imitator was Artemisia Gentilleschi. A female artist. There were very few female artists. They were barred from artist academies. Up until the 20th century. Whenever you have a female artist before the 20th century there’s something unusual about their circumstances. Usually their father trained them. Like in the case of Artemisia. She was raped on several occasions by a man in her father’s workshop. No one believed her. She was tortured in court to “tell the truth”. This is her greatest work “Judith Slaying Holofernes” the story comes from the Apotheca. They were never canonized into the bible. Several churches believe it has the same status as the bible. There are true things in the apothreca. You can benefit from reading it with the spirit. Holofernes was an enemy of Israel. They camped around the city. Judith comes and tricks him into becoming drunk and cuts off his head. She comes out and becomes like Esther and Debra, a female hero of the Israelites. You can see the similarities because it has strong tenebrism. It’s a strong diagonal. The use of the spotlight, dramatic, miraculous (creates chiaro oscuro). It’s very close, cut off. Comes very close to your face. Very strong foreshortening. Chooses the most climatic part of the story. It’s extremely easy to get the message. Used as a representation for the triumph of the church over paganism. But in the 17th century it also symbolizes the Catholic Church dispatching the protestants. To finish up the Italian Baroque looking at the Jesuits again. IHS is their symbol.. the name of Jesus. They loved to marshal the arts in defense of the faith. Always go visit a Jesuit church if you can. St Ignatius’ Churchcommemorates the canonization of St Ignatius. The outside is plain but the inside is spectacular. It’s painted by Fra Andrea Pozzo. There’s a bronze disk on the floor and when you look up the perspective comes into perfect alignment. He wrote book on perspective. He had to adjust the perspective because the ceiling curves. This perspective is called Quadra Tura. The ceiling is called Glorification of St Ignatius. It looks like the architecture of the ceiling itself extends into the sky. St Ignatius is being greeted by Christ with the cross on his shoulders. It refers also to a vision of St Ignatius. In his vision he wanted to serve the Lord in Jerusalem. But he kept being stalled. Then he saw God and Jesus Christ (a mental experience not a visitation). That Christ said to him I will bring blessings upon you at Rome. Make Rome your holy city… That’s what’s happening in this painting. In the corners there’s Asia, Africa, Europe. In the center of it all you’re in the center of Rome and see that the church is going to flower there. The dome on the side of the church, you realize it’s a flat surface. It’s suppose to remind you of miracles and visions. Remind you of the miracle of the sacrament. Regular bread and water changing into the blood and body of Christ. Church of the Jesui. Church of the Gesu, Rome. The relics of St Ignatius are kept in the chapel. A deeply spiritual experience. This belle composto. The monogram of the holy name of Jesus. The angels at the top of the painting there’s stucco angels that look like they’re floating. There’s lapis lazuri to make the blue pigment. In the side chapel there’s christ with his cross. Christ with his hand over the globe to represent the Jesuits bringing the gospel to the world. This is a theatrical spectacle… The painting drops and the sculpture/alter piece is underneath it. St Ignatius is dressed as a priest. He’s having a spiritual revelation. There’s an allegorical statue of religion on one side and then faith on the other side. One step further again. Across from the altarpiece. It has the relics of St Francis Xavier. They decided to bury him with lots of lime to get a quick decay. But when they find him body again it hasn’t decayed as much as it should have. This was interpreted as a miracle because saints supposedly didn’t decay since God chose them. Rome decided they wanted part of his body so they took it from India. His hand is on the wall. It’s a sign of God’s miraculousness. It’s the hand he used to baptize and bless and perform miracles. Jesuit reaching to the four corners of the earth (his body is in India but he’s also in Rome, their gospel is everywhere). 17th Century in SpainThe Spanish Golden Age They actually didn’t have very much gold. They were struggling economically but their culture was flowering. King Phillip the 2nd. His father Charles the 5th controlled modern day Holland, Austria, etc. And retired to be a monk, and split his empire in half. Under Phillip the 2nd’s reign the Netherlands then become protestant. They are opposed to images. But he is devotedly religious. He has a strong fist and feels he needs to punish them for being Protestants/Calvinists. Phillip the 2nd’s wifeMary Tudor (daughter of Henry the 8th). Bloody Mary. Phillip starts the 30 years war to reclaim the Netherlands and he loses. The Netherlands split from Belgium. King Phillip the 4th. The Spanish Armada were defeated by the British which is why they were struggling economically. Spanish Artists: Jose de Ribera. In Italy artists were court philosphers, genius, conversationalists in liberal arts. In Spain the artist has a very low status. They are tightly controlled by their patrons. The king had a very tight control of the artists. Sometimes the kings (Spanish Inquisition) made sure there was no heresy. The church made them paint in a certain way to perserve the religion. Spain during the 17th century was a very spiritual place. Lots of saints came out of the state. Spain hates its own artists. Ribera spent a lot of time in Italy. Heavy Carravagio influence. St Phillip is being crucified. Tied to the cross. The cross is going to swing out into our space! The diagonal line gives strength to the man pulling on the rope. We feel we are very close to Phillip. His skin is very light, there’s a spotlight on him. It’s nat as dark as Caravaggio. The people look like very normal people. They look rugged. You can see he’s an ordinary, common, dirty peasant. Spanish 17th century painters love images of martyrdom. It shows the unwavering devotion to the faith. You die before you deny the faith. This tactic is harsh. Francisco de Zurbaran. From Southern Spain. He works for the spanish religious orders. It’s a painting of St Serapion. A 13th century order called the Mercedarians. They vowed to save Christian prisoners and risk their lives. Similar to Caravaggio. There’s a miraculous light source. Very ordinary figure. It’s cut off and close to us in the space. Some diagonal going on. Very devotional image. His arms are stretched out. It’s like a still life. It’s not very gorey or dramatic. A tromp loyfooling . Fooling the eye making it look like there’s really a piece of paper pinned onto the painting. It symbolizes a relic. He’s literally tied in place the way a pice of bone would be threaded to a pillow. You’re invited to reflect the life of the saint. Diego ValazquezHe wanted to be like the Italian Artist. He was born to a noble family. He wants to promote the arts and move them into the realm of liberal arts. He painted Water Carrier of Seville. He’s somehow come in contact with Caravaggio. A miraculous light source. People that are cut off, foreshortened. The water vessel is coming into our face. The subject matter is very unique. It’s a scene of a water carrier. Not a miracle. He’s intent on showing up the incredible acts of light. How it reflects off different types of pots (unglazed and glazed). The way the water refracts. An obsessive interest in textures. Similar to the Northern Renaissance. Valazquez is studying them and paints a genre scene. A genre scene is a scene of normal everyday life. It’s unusual to paint a commonday scene like this. Las Meninashis masterpiece! He does it for Philip the 4th. He’s the court painter. People have tried for a long time to figure out what’s happening on this. It’s a self portrait. It’s also a portrait of King Philip the 4th and his wife (in the mirror), and their daughter the princess. It also talks about the status of art. Valazquez copies Caravaggiothe canvas extends out of the painting. The main theories are that the real king and queen are posing for their portrait. He’s painting from their perspective. The ladies in waiting curtesy as soon as they realize the king and queen who are in the room. There’s dwarves as well. Who were kept as entertainment. She’s the princess’ friend. You are standing where the king and queen would stand. ALSO, Valazquez wants you to think of the artist as someone royal. They’ve discovered that the paintings in the background are actual paintings by Titian. They portray men and women who try and compete with the Gods in artistry. He’s implying that he competes with Gods. He’s in the same category of the Gods. He paints the cross on his chest, because he had been made into a noble. Valazquez paints with an extremely painterly brushstroke imitating Titian. He wants to be like someone who painted for the royalty. It comes together in a sense of motion. The same effect on the Infanta (the princess). You get the sense it’s quivering from her running into the room. One last argument is that the economic situation of the room is displayed. The room is pretty dark. The candelabra was taken down because they couldn’t afford it. He’s trying to show new hope for Spain. The new hope comes from the Infanta. She could be a new dawn for Spain. Very interesting painting. 2/23/2016 Spanish Baroque Less influence from Caravaggio: Murillo. Very Famous and very important. Very soft and sweet and pious painter. Known for devotional images. The Immaculate Conception. There’s a status given to the Virgin Maryborn without the original sin. Most people believe that we are born into a state of sin. There’s also a guilt/sin passed on when a child is born… which is why you want to baptize children. The virgin mary is in heaven supported by angels, surrounded by a sunlike radiance. Revelations 12a woman clothed with the sun standing on the moon with a crown of 12 stars. She holds a child. The dragon attacks the woman but she flees into the wilderness. Represents how there’s a stranglehold on the artists. They have to keep heresy out. In order to avoid confusion artists have to display the immaculate conception in a specific way. The Lord’s mother was absolutely pure. Dark tenebrism on the right. Mary is a bit off center. It’s asymmetrical. Flemish Baroque Flanders. What today is the Netherlands becomes its own state. Belgium stays with Spain. Part of Belgium is called Flanders. But in this course we are calling Belgium Flanders. Flanders produces one of the most famous artists of the 17th century. Peter Rubens (Bernini of Northern Europe) he’s completely loved. The same kind of aura. Beloved by the church and monarchs. But unlike Bernini he travels all over the place. He’s the son of a Protestant. His father dies and the mother returns to Flanders and converts back to Catholicism. Ruben is very true to Catholicism. He’s very educated and travels a lot. He spends a lot of time in Italy and studies Michelangelo. He works for popes and aristocrats. He moves to Spain and looks at Titian. He’s very influenced by him. He’s very polite, well educated. Various monarchs who have instability in their reins use him an an ambassador. He understands his mission to promote catholicism is intertwined with promoting peace. Then he goes back to Flanders and then he goes to England. Because he sees so many different types of art his style is an amalgamation of different pieces. His style becomes known as the International Baroque Style. His styles spreads throughout Europe because he traveled everywhere. He had an enormous workshop. He has people who are trained to copy him. His workshop sometimes does the whole thing and he would only put on a few touches and then he’d make so much money. Elevation of the Cross. Ruben was called upon to make a new altarpiece when the other one was destroyed with iconoclasm. He makes it a triptych (an old fashion style now). He’s reminding us of when the church was united. The original altarpiece was probably a triptych. Where’s the amalgamation? Michelangelothe people are muscular. There’s a pyramid composition. Everything is spilling out into our spacecaravaggio. The fabrics look like titian. Titian models with colorsblocks of color. The very bright colors and textures look like real furNorthern Renaissance Influence (careful attention to little things with Italian Idealism). Not dirty like Caravaggio. Mary’s face is spotlighted. Christ is interacting outside the painting with God. It’s very dramatic and devotional. One of the most important is the virgin and St John. Self portrait of Reuben in the painting. Why would he depict himself as one of the soldiers who lifted up the cross of Christ? He’s confessing his own sin and saying that he’s lifting the cross over the world as an ambassador. He’s also raising up a cross over where there previous was a painting. The protestant destroyed Christ when they destroyed the image of him. Ruben, Henry lV Receiving the Portrait of Marie de ‘Medici. King Henry lV married Marie de Medici as a power play. He arrnages the marriage, he saw a porttrait of her to decide if she was pretty enough for her. She was married to him by proxy in Italy. So when she arrived in France she could arrive as the queen of France. But Henry lV dies in battle. Louis the 13th is too little to rule. Marie rules as regent of France. She’s not a good ruler, she wasn’t very smart and she wasn’t French. She has problems with a powerful man in France, Cardinal Rkj;jdf. She’s in a difficult situation. The divine right to rule is a notion a lot of 17th century people believed. Receiving the portrait of Marie de ‘Medicini. Peopler are idealized, his hand is foreshortened. The armor is reflective. The clouds are very fluffy. The strokes are loose. Very international baroque. Henry iV is viewing the picture. It’s being held bu a putti and the roman god of marriage. Juno and Jupiter together represent the King and Queen of the Gods. They are going to be the king and queen and have an ideal marriage. The putti figures play with his armor. The king will drop warfare to love. A woman behind Henry says “Marry her”. Marie’s coronation. She’s covered in a long train of fleur di lees. Painting of Marie mourning the king. She’s wearing black. Allegory of France is saying that she has the strength to rule France. Marie riding a triumph on her white pony (it was actually a draw, she never won any battles). Her paintings didn’t really change the beliefs of the people. St George and the Dragon viewer involving. The dragon’s head is about to fall out of the picture. The horse is idealized. Flowing mane! strong baroque diagonal, dark tenebrism. Real metal and cloth. Lots of colors reflecting in the cloth. The spear about to come out of the painting. It’s devotional. Anthony Van Dykeworked in Ruben’s workshop Mill. Exactly like Ruben’s work. He spends most of his career in Britain. He’s in a protestant country so he specialty is portraiture. He makes them look great. King Charles the First (who also has a rocky reign), eventually he is beheaded. But in the middle of this he has Anthony do a bunch of paintings of him. Anthony paints him in a hunt. Van Dyke makes him look like he’s tall (although he’s short). His horse is bending his head down, the trees incline over his head, the canopy of foliage is suppose to mimic a baldachino. Anthony invented that aristocratic pose. The perspective is looking up at King Charles. The elongated figure looks down his nose at you. Leather that looks like real leather, little plants and rocks from Northern Renaissance. Tenebrism from caravaggio. the Kings face is surrounded by a light sky, a dark hard, and his light face. Dutch Baroque Calvinist church dramatically opposed to religious images. They have the doctrine of predestination and iconoclasm. Harlem’s cathedral. Poetry about the last supper. This creates an interesting situation in the Netherlands. Most protestant denominations are tolerated in the Netherlands. Catholicism was banned. But the government turned a blind eye to the people conducting mass. During these years when catholicism was outlawed you could see them congregated around a home.. but inside it’s a hidden church! The dutch were also a very charitable society. The 17th century in the Netherlands was also termed the Golden Age. It wasn’t just cultural flowering… it was golden in the literal sense. The dutch got their Dutch East India Trading Company. They are also the only ones allowed to trade with Japan. They had elaborate imports. Calvinism teaches you should avoid ostentation. Most Dutch portraits show people in black and white. Everything was very severe. This is the same culture as the pilgrims. They are fabulously wealthy. An embarrassment of riches. Lots of money and lots of nice things. Not strictly calvinist. If you are poor it means you are in trouble in the next life. It’ overall a nice society to live in though. The prince of orange kind of like an aristocrat. Mostly the middle class commissions art but not many of them like religious images (and certainly not in churches). Many americans like middle class dutch art because it’s similar to what we like. Historical events, portraits, landscapes and genre scenes. Dutch artists were specialists at certain things. More women artists. You could sell your art on the street. Women had a powerful place in the Dutch market. 2/25/2016 Ducth Baroque cont. Group of Catholic artists travel to Italy. It’s rare that they are dutch and go to Italy to study. They are profoundly influenced by Caravaggio. So they are called the Utrecht Caravaggisti. Hendrick ter Brugghen, Calling of St Matthews. Dark Tenebrism in the corners. The painting is cropped so you feel like you’re part of the table. It’s a very dramatic moment. There’s a love for textures. It’s actually a copy of a Caravaggio. Everything is pushed up the the front of the frame. Similar to the 15th century the table is unnaturally turned up. It’s didactic, dramatic and devotional. Do you choose heart or do you choose money? The Lord looketh on the heart. One of Matthew’s hands is gesturing towards the money and one towards the heart. Protestant artists are still profoundly influenced by Caravaggio through the Utrecht Caravaggio. Frans HalsOfficers of the Haarlem Militia Company of St Adrian. A club for rich middle class men to be in parades and have celebrations. Each person in the painting paid for a part of the painting.. they paid based on how much of their body was in the painting. Strong diagonal lines (influenced by Caravaggio) from the flags in the corner. There’s some pretty dramatic foreshortening. Some of the men look like they’re speaking, some look like they are getting a bit tipsy. There’s focus on the detail of the satin, real looking tips of the swords, Frans Hals copies Van Dyke’s aristocratic pose.. symbolizing the aristocracy. The problem in Dutch art again, the embarrassment of riches. Frans Hans, Women Regents of the Old Men’s Home. He did a portrait of the women running the old men’s home (that perhaps he attended). There’s a strong baroque diagonal. There’s a sense of motion with the heights of their heads. The figures are cut off on the bottom. There’s strong contrast between their white collars and their dark background. He paints super loosely. The hands of the women seem to fidget. It gives motion to the image. He gives a sense of that the women are like by their positions. Judith Leyster, Self Portrait. The women run the market so it’s easier for them to sell them at the market. They don’t need a huge studio to paint genre scenes and are trained by their fathers. Judith was very close to Frans Hall. There’s an importance to merry fellows dancing and being silly, they were understood to be a moralizing image. You make fun of how stupid he is, it’s moral not to be like that. However, in this image she is probably trying to advertise her own ability as a painter. I can paint as well as a violinist plays. It’s very spontaneous. She’s opening her mouth as to say something expressed to loose energetic brushstrokes. Rembrandt he’s an anomaly for this time. He doesn’t really represent the dutch republic. He was a very rich man. He was well loved and known as a painter who could portray moving emotion better than any other painter that day. Rembrandt is influenced by Italy although he never went. He doesn’t know anatomy so some of his proportions are a bit off. Although he’s a Calvinist he is very interested in painting religious paintings. Because of this he fell out of popularity and lost a lot of money. He decided to stay true to himself and then came into poverty. By the end of his life his wife and all of his children but one had died. He was very troubled. He was a very autobiographical painting and was one of the first. Artists didn’t make references to their biographies very often. He was very interested in old age, and scholars and in exotic (costumes from the far east) in blindness, the father to son relationship, he’s a master. Painting of Judas returning the 20 pieces of silver, he says I have sinned, I have betrayed the innocent blood. He goes out and hangs himself. Judas is usually vilified but in this piece he is bearing his heart. Rembrandt thinking very innovatively. He’s an extremely experimental artist. He was a master printmaker. He’s also famous for using the wooden part of his brush. He slaps on impasto (thick paint). Rembrandt’s output is hard to characterize. They are too many paintings to have all been done by Rembrandt. There’s a Rembrandt research projectthey evaluate the collection and make judgment calls saying if it’s his or not. It can drop millions of dollars. RembrandtThe Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp. Northern Europeans were fascinated by human dissections. The Netherlands were okay with dissecting criminals and they were sometimes public. It’s a portrait that’s disguised as a genre scene. Each individual paid a part. Doctor Tulp was a famous scholar. Foreshortened into our space is a huge old dusty book of learning with dusty pages and a leather cover. There’s strong diagonal lines and figures that are cut off. The calvinist have bright colors. The arm is especially weird. Rembrandt doesn’t study anatomy so you can see it there. He often dresses people into giant costumes. He focuses on texture and detail instead of proportions. The spotlight is creating a chiaro oscuro but it’s not really miraculous. Knowledge, science, and medicine replaces the miraculous. It’s taking Caravaggio’s idea but replacing the focus. Rembrandt's Three Crosses. He continually works this image over and over again. It’s called an etching. The acid eats the metal that isn’t covered by the wax/resin. If you run that through a press it creates an image different than a woodcut. Drypoint is where you remove all the resin and you carve into the metal. Metal filings come up but the artist leaves those filings on which creates a fuzzy image when printed. You can see the Roman Soldier falling to his knees, Mary and John the beloved below him to the right of Christ. He’s one of the first to use Jewish modelsvery unusual for this period. Rembrandt actually cuts out a lot of the narrative in order to focus on the emotion. Mary and John start to fade away because they are so light. He goes back in with the Dry point. You get stronger contrast. More dissapearing into the shadows (Mary and John). It’s hard to see the roman soldier. The priests are hidden by a rock. The last one is so dark that you only see Christ’s head glowing in the dark. It’s a calm quiet moment. Christ alone in the darkness.God, why has thou forsaken me? RembrandtSelf Portrait. He drew himself as a King who has lost everything. He has sad eyes. He has a love for texture. There’s a sense of fur on the cloak. There’s a section of impasto along his neckline. The face has the impression of real flaky old skin. Extremely painterly, loose brushstrokes that contribute to the emotion. Dollops of highlight. Rembrandt, Return of the Prodigal Son. Rembrandt doesn’t make it clear who is standing in the background. The father in blind, went blind looking out the window waiting for his son to return. There’s some resentment from the brother. He’s using a parable of Christ like the story of the Publican going to Christ asking for forgiveness and saying the publican is justified. It becomes a devotional painting in a roman catholic way. Jan Steen, The Feast of St Nicholas Nothern things are happening. There’s a lot of detail. There’s a sense of a cold winter day outside. There’s a scene of rowdy kids who aren’t acting like righteous Calvinist children. The boy is given a show full of willow branches. The girl in the front is a greedy little brat. She’s an example of how not to be. The mother is a bad mother because she has let a lot of food fall on the ground. The most popular image was one like this. Johannes Vermeer Woman Pouring Milk. He always draws a single woman in a corner bathed in light. The morning light is reflecting off the plastered dutch wall where the servant woman is working. The way the light comes off the metal container on the wall. Everything is coming out of the Northern love of textures. Brilliant colors, jewel like blues on her skirt and the ceramic pot. He comes from a city called Delf. He’s catholic but his paintings are meant to be appealing to a middle class Calvinist dutch. Vermeer goes totally against the tide of moralizing genre scene. People have tried to grasp if there’s a moral going on in his genre scene. Enobles daily chores. I work hard. My everyday life is ennobled because it’s what God wants me to do. Vermeer doesn’t make it interactive to the viewer. You’re just looking in on it. Vermeer used a camera obscura. It uses lenses like a projector so you can trace it. He might have used it on a lot of images. You can see this because there’s a beading effect. On the rim of her apron. It was caused by the impurities of the lense. It looks a bit like it goes out of focus a bit and fades out of focus. Johannes VermeerWoman Holding a Balance. Vermeer only did about 40 works of art in his life because he spent so long on them. For a while it was called woman weighting pearls because that was looked down upon. The woman is actually pregnant (no pearls) thinking about raising her child. Represents the Last Judgment when things are actually going to be weighted. She also looks like virgin Mary. In the Last Judgment she pleads to God for her children. As a mother she’s going to intercede for her children in their lives. 3/1/2016 Jacob van Ruisdale. View of Haarlem from the Dunes of Oversen. Sells his paintings in the market. ⅔ of his canvas is dedicated to the sky. Why? Gives you a sense of the great providence of God. Also because Dutch landscape is very flat. It depicts linen bleaching celebrating their industry. Bleaching things white speaks to the theme of the painting. A people who have been purified and purged themselves of Spain and Catholicism. The Dutch find a lot of significance in their dykes as well. To them it’s synonmyous with Noah. As the waters recede they become a purified people in a land baptized by the water. Protestant work ethic in their white bleaching fields. In the Dutch churches everything is whitewashed out. They have “baptized the church”. They wiped out everything Catholic and idolatrous. Peter ClaeszVanitas Still Life It’s very hard to find another time period that does still life as fantastically as the Dutch. This is a culture that is used to tilting up tables intentionally to see all the objects on it. John Van Eyk comes from this area of the world (the intense detail on the beads). This comes into play in their 17th century still life’s. There’s also a moral to it. In still life it’s called vanitas memento mori (a reminder of death)skull. The vanity of focusing too much on life, you could die any day. All of these items are vanitas. There’s a timepiece/clock that represents how your heart ticks and then it will stop today. The oil lampthe foolish virgins who are not ready for the bridegroom. Dancing and singing are sins (focus on the worldly as opposed to the heavenly). The big books are an illusion for the wisdom of the world that perishes. The cup and ink well are overturnedyour life will be overturned and your life contents gone. Texture of the feather, crinkling pages, detailed glass cup. Reflected on the surface of the ball, Peter painting himself. He’s saying that “I also, like all these things, will pass away as well.” One day the world will be wrapped together as a scroll and wrapped away also. Even while you are amazed at the detail, it’s all fake. It’s not a real violin.. even the skill of the artist is transient. What really matters are the things in heaven. Williem Kalf, Still life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar.. still a lot of vanitas items. The fruit will rot. The lemon is partially peeled. Fine objects representing worldliness. The jar from China, expensive Turkish rug, expensive food items and a little watch. It also looks a bit like it’s falling off the table… kind of like Caravaggio! You have to stop and say how much of a moralizing painting is this? The later into the century they don’t care as much about the morals. They start caring more about the details and the beauty of it. You also get the idea of the embarrassment of riches. Good calvinists aren’t really supposed to own these things. You have a painting of “we don’t set our hearts on them.. but they are beautiful.. but we don’t have them.. but we could!”. It’s a dramatic high point. This still life is very baroque. There’s a diagonal through the composition. There’s strong tenebrism. The Dutch has beautiful lemon paintings. Rachel RyuschFlower Still Life. One of the most famous painters in the 17th century. Which is amazing because she painted flowers and because she painted flowers (not a very important subject for the time). She painted for like 70 years. She went outside and drew flowers. Many Dutch books on flowers she studied.. She would make compositions that couldn’t really exist (flowers don’t bloom at the same time). Strong diagonal, dark corners (tenebrism), the light side of the painting has the dark flowers, the darker side has the brighter flowers. The orange flowers next to the blue make them really pop. THere’s a bunch of little bugs on the flowers. They are a type of vanitas, things that are cut, things that are dying. The flowers are dying that fell out of the vase. One of the downfalls of the Dutch Golden age was actually caused by flowers. There was an enormous industry in tulip bulbs (still is!). But the tulip market crashed and a lot of people’s fortunes crashed. So the tulips are a very real reminder of vanity. End of Dutch Republic. FRENCH BAROQUE At this time France was dominated by the reign of an extremely powerful, tyrannical king. Louis the 14th. Women can’t inherit the crown in France. In the mythology of Kingship he is married to the country and all the citizens are the children. The Queen is in a weird position because of this. The king would have an adviser who was a cardinal. When Louis the 13th died his son Louis the 14th was 5 and was crowned king. So his whole life he was king. Louis the 14th took over most the functions of the cardinal. Louis the 14th bust. He didn’t like Bernini’s style. They liked classical baroque style. France remains Roman Catholic in the 17th century. But they aren’t a huge promoter of the counter reformation. Louis founded the Academy of the Fine Arts. The academy has a stranglehold on what they make, what kind of style and how they paint. It’s a very powerful institution last until the 19th century. If you want to be an artist in France then you have to be trained there. Idealized figures, frozen no emotion, primary colors, symmetrical balance. Very linear paintings with smooth brushstrokes. Georges de la tour, Mary Magdalene with the Smoking Flame. He was forgotten until the 19th century. The academy hadn’t been created yet so he had some freedom. He;s seen Caravaggio before. Mary Magdalene is one of the most important saints in France. She was privileged to be the first to see the Lord resurrected. Legend took a lot of stories of unnamed women in the bible. So in it’s believed that she’s the sister of Lazarus. Because she has been forgiven much she has loved much. She is believed to have been a prostitute.. the Lord forgave her and she because a great saint. She is shown in this painting in penance or repentance. As a result she is holding a skull to remember the transience of life. She also has a whip, to show her sorrow for her sins. Strong contrast, dark shadows, her hair completely black. We’re left a place at the table. However, it’s very still and quiet. The light source isn’t miraculous. She’s not foreshortened into our space. She’s a classical version of Caravaggio. She doesn’t look like a real person, a porcelain person. She looks made out of marble. Calm and quiet. Because France loves classical style. Nicholas Poussin, :landscape with St Matthew and the Angel and Landscape with St John on Patmos. He is loved by France. However, he spends most his time in Italy. He wants tp study classicism. You have to study the old masters if you want to paint like Poussin. Then you study plaster casts and incorporate them into your composition. Then you study nature outside. These paintings are meant to be seen together. Both have big clumps of trees on either side. The water sort of connects both paintings. The horizon line flows into the next one. Showing how the gospels are interconnected. There’s a foreground, middle ground and background. This is not the kind of painting people paint with a canvas. This is a very carefully studied image. Matthew is studying outside and is inspired by an angel. Every evangelist has a symbol that inspires them to write their gospel. St John has an eagle next to him. Poussin includes classical ararchitectural pieces that he saw in Rome. St John is also shown in strict profile. Even a sense of a shallow foreground space. Poussin Et in Arcadia Ego. One of his most famous paintings. It’s a pastoral landscape. It’s set in a mythical land called Arcadia. There’s golden sunshine. It’s a mythological place where people live in bliss. The shepherds come upon a monument. It says et in arcadia ego meaning I too was in Arcadia. It’s a moment mori. Someone who was in arcadia is no longer in arcadia. The woman is an allegory of death. She lays an healthy icy cold hand on the shepherds shoulder. The one pointing at the words, the shadow if his arm creates a scythe like the one the grim reaper carries. Everything is balanced. Primary colors! Not painterly (that’s bad). Nice classical calm colors. No jarring. Correct proportions. There’s a window on the world. Finally, Poussin in his effort of be classical, went to far as to say that he painted in different musical modes. This particular painting he painted in the Dorian mode.. which has a strong arrangement of flats. It replicates musical sound in that sense. Cloude Lorrain, Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba. He’s much more dramatic than Poussin. There’s a golden glaze. The most dramatic of the French Baroque (not that dramatic though). She’s getting ready to see King Soloman. It’s a biblical painting. The classical structure, doesn’t show pagan bad christian good, showing that it took place in the glory days of ancient rome. These aren’t painted outside. Everything converges towards the very bright sunrise/set. There’s a zigzagging shape with the leading lines. It’s a golden idealized landscape. Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis the 14th. Most famous portrait of him. Posing like King CHarle’s Van Dyke pose. Looking at us disdainfully. We grovel at the king’s feet. He was platform shoes. It’s suppose to evoke a theatrical feel. There’s a lot of detail of the different textures he’s wearing. Palace of Versailles, they can’t afford the upkeep. It’s over the top. Giant golden gates. Louis 14th (recap) He becomes king at 5 years old. He was very concerned with losing power. He was afraid of the aristocrats. There’s about 3,000 of them. 13,000 servants there. He forces them all to live with him so that way he can watch them. He drained the swampforced it to be something else. He takes the “small hunting lodge” and adds huge wings onto it. His bedroom is on the center of everything. He compared himself to the Greek God Apollo because he wanted to be the sunking. The East West arrangement made it so the sun always went over the palace.The second level is the noble level. He controls the aristocrats by also devising a system in which he pits them against themselves for his favour. He was a shrewd calculating frightening man. They had to compete each other. To place his chair (carrying it there and placing it). He also had another palace, the chateau de marly. It was an honor above honors to go to dinner with the king there. No invitations were ever extended.. You only went if you felt you were close enough to the king to invite yourself. You approach the king and say, Marley sire? and he would either welcome you or say something like “eh”. Which was very embarrassing. The sundial clock, his face is the center. The king’s bedroom has a stage like thing around him. Tons of gold and crystal and glass. The hall of mirrors¾ football field. Windows all along the garden side. Then the mirrors reflect the light coming through the windows. The ceiling is painted classically. There’s a strong division between the veiling and the walls. Most are quadro deportato (wall paintings put on the ceiling). A bunch of paintings of Apollo. The gardens are topiaries, forced to grow in certain shapes. Louis the 14th wants to control nature. There’s many mazes. The King would take visitors on tours and the servants would raise flags and the fountains would turn on. Ther servants would plant plants where he walked in the winter. 3/3/2016 Gardens of VersailleClassical horisontals. Greek feel. Working out of ratios from Vertruvius. The gardens of Versaille are filled with partiermaze shapes. The Orangierethe greenhouse where oranges are grown all year. The interior is very very large. There’s lot of exotic plants in there. The gardens have a number of fountains. The Latona fountain of Versaille. Latona is the mother of Apollo and the mother of Diana/Artemis the goddess of the moon. In a myth Latona went to a river to drink but the villiage stirred up the water into mud.. And out of spite she turns them into frogs. They are in th
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