PSY 310: Midterm Study Guide
PSY 310: Midterm Study Guide PSY 310
Popular in Basic Counseling Skills
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 310 at Colorado State University taught by Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Basic Counseling Skills in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
Reviews for PSY 310: Midterm Study Guide
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
-Sabina Bosco IV
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/05/16
PSY 310 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1 & 2 Terms ● Reflective Practitioner: one who takes the time to reflect and be aware of their personal feelings, reactions, and prejudices (possibly recording them) ● Emotional Empathy: responding to someone's feelings ● Cognitive Empathy: understanding someone's motives, values, intentions, and thinking ● Common Therapeutic Factors: basic healing properties found in all counseling theories and techniques ● Intake Forms: "psychological histories" ● Interviewing: a conversation where one person tries to obtain information for a specific purpose; data collection ● Counseling/Psychotherapy: professional helping services How to be Proactive in Reflection ● Ask for Supervision ○ allows you to listen to yourself and explain your actions to someone else ● Develop a Support Group of Fellow Learners ● Become a Client ● Keep a Personal Journal ○ able to record your reflections so you can refer back to them Perry's Stages ● The Dualistic Stage: the assumption that there are right or wrong responses that can be given to a client ○ very common for beginners ○ helper may fail to listen because they are too focused on what to say next ● The Multiplistic Stage: the realization that there are many possible responses to what the client says ○ no one particular response works for every client all the time ○ helper may feel overwhelmed by the amount of possible answers ● The Relativistic Stage: the ability to recognize that some responses are better than others depending on the circumstances ○ happens after study and practice experience ○ able to consider the possible responses of different approaches ○ How to Decide which Response Works Best: ■ What?: which skill should be used to be most effective ■ When?: what skill is most appropriate for the particular problem ■ How?: how you say it Ethical Guidelines 1. Keep what is said in role playing/practice sessions private. 2. Avoid advice giving. 3. Do not impose values onto others. 4. Be considerate with your feedback. 5. Stay within the techniques taught by your instructor and described in the book. 6. Notify an authority as soon as possible when a client is contemplating hurting themselves or others. Essentials for Being a Helper (according to Carl Rogers) ● Congruence ○ the ability to be genuine with another person ○ verbal and nonverbal signals agree with each other ● Positive Regard ○ the respect of each client as a whole, worthy person ○ never rejects a person, though they may reject their actions ● Empathy ○ the ability to understand another person’s worldview or feelings ○ instead of evaluating, understand Other Research on Effective Helping ● An Effective Helper... ○ has a positive and accepting view of others ○ has a good selfesteem, is secure, and mentally healthy ○ has good selfcare skills ○ is creative and competent ○ is courageous Common Therapeutic Factors 1. Maintaining a strong helper/client relationship 2. Increasing the client's motivation and expectation of help 3. Enhancing the client’s sense of mastery or selfefficacy 4. Providing new learning experiences 5. Raising emotional arousal and promoting expression 6. Providing opportunities to practice new behaviors Stages of the Helping Process 1. Relationship Building ○ building rapport and letting the client open up 2. Assessment ○ helper collects information through forms/tests/questions/etc. 3. Goal Setting ○ client participates in setting goals that will lead to improvement 4. Intervention and Action ○ helper uses techniques to accomplish goals ○ success depends on... ■ client/helper bond ■ importance of goals to client ■ acceptance of the helper's methods 5. Evaluation and Reflection ○ decision is made whether to end process or work on a new "problem" Microskills Hierarchy ● Goal: understand how clients experience and make sense of the world ○ relationship is important! ● Research ○ foundation for all therapeutic approaches ○ maintenance requires practice and use ○ crosscultural support ○ use in multiple settings Chapter 3 Terms ● Empathy: understanding the feelings and significance of another person's story ● Basic Empathy: interviewer responses are roughly interchangeable with client's ● Additive Empathy: adds something beyond what client has said ● Subtractive Empathy: gives back to client less than what client says and may distort what was said ● Tutorial Stance: to understand client, helper becomes a learner ● Selfdisclosing Statements: helper relates facts about themselves ● Selfinvolving Statements: helper expresses thoughts/emotions about client ● Transference: client feels emotions that are carried over from parental or love relationships ● Countertransference: helper feels emotions that are a reflection of past/present relationships ● Hearing: passive process, only requires ears ● Listening: active process, requires ears and mind Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship ● Mutual liking/respect ● Purpose is the resolution of client's issues ● Sense of teamwork with both participants working towards a goal ● Safety and trust are established in contract ● Compensation for the helper ● Relationship is limited to sessions ● Relationship can be terminated at any time How to Create a Therapeutic Relationship ● Relationship Enhancers ○ Empathy ■ Empathy and Differences ■ pay attention to cultural and racial differences ■ try your best to understand instances of racism/prejudice ■ Empathy is not... ■ pretending to understand ■ taking on your client's problems ■ not a onetime behavior ○ Self Disclosure ■ associated with positive outcomes ■ moderate levels best ■ self disclosure best at beginning, self involving best further along ■ Known to... ■ make helper more attractive ■ deepen client disclosure ■ encourage expression of feelings ■ Common Mistakes ■ Too Deep ■ Poorly Timed ■ Does not Match Client Experience ● Other Factors ○ Office Environment ■ quiet, comfortable, orderly, well lit ■ decorated and warm ■ "quiet please" sign ■ phone off Therapeutic Faux Pas ● detours that should be corrected ● Suggest ○ client is incapable of solving own problems ○ client needs another person to solve problems for them ● 12 Common Detours ○ Exclamations of Surprise ○ Being Punitive ○ Giving False Reassurance ○ Psychobabble and Premature Interpretations ○ Probing Traumatic Issues when the Client Strongly Resists ○ Transference and Countertransference ■ How to Deal with Transference 1. Convey acceptance of the client's remarks but don't retaliate 2. Use selfinvolving statement to help the client become aware of how their thoughts and emotions affect the relationship 3. Use the experience to help the client find new and better ways of expressing their feelings Why is Listening Important? ● Encouragement/Trust ● Understanding/Validation ● Evaluation (of information) ● Measurement Building Rapport ● Use client's name ○ varies depending on situation ● Attending behavior and client observation skills ● Positive asset search/strength ● Empathy ○ Carl Rogers ○ listen carefully ○ enter world of client ○ communicate understanding ○ Types: ■ Basic Empathy: interviewer responses are roughly interchangeable with client's ■ Additive Empathy: adds something beyond what client has said ■ Subtractive Empathy: gives back to client less than what client says and may distort what was said ○ Ways to Display: ■ Positive Regard: searching for positives ■ Respect and Warmth: nonverbal ■ Concreteness: make therapy live and real, making sure solutions will be used ■ Immediacy: being in the moment with the client ■ Nonjudgmental Attitude: seeing world from their point of view ■ Authenticity and Congruence: be true to who you are ■ Validation: endorse and appreciate the client’s story and normalize ○ Clarifications: ■ not sympathy ■ more than just putting yourself in one's shoes ■ requires constant shift in perspective Chapter 4 Invitational Skills ● Nonverbal Skills ○ 7080% of communication is nonverbal ○ Three Functions ■ Regulation ■ indication of pauses and stopping points ■ Intimacy ■ enhances intimacy ■ Persuasion ■ inviting nonverbal skills encourage the client to open up ○ Body Language ■ Eye Contact ■ most important ■ shows confidence and involvement ■ pay attention to differences in cultural backgrounds ■ ex: eye contact is considered rude in some Asian cultures ■ Body Positioning ■ lean torso slightly forward with "open" posture (no crossed legs/arms) ■ shows involvement and relaxes client ■ Attentive Silence ■ gives client time to reflect and gives helper time to process ■ may make client feel unsupported if used too early or too often ■ not to be used with clients who are dealing with a lot of anxiety or anger, or have a psychotic disorder ■ Voice Tone ■ use voice to mirror client's emotion ■ emphasis on words to show that the client's feelings are being understood ■ ex: "You were very sad" vs "You were very sad" ■ Facial Expressions and Gestures ■ attend to and consider what messages are being portrayed through client's facial expressions ■ consider cultural differences ■ head nodding for encouragement ■ Physical Distance ■ very important to consider cultural differences ■ 35 feet is comfortable distance ■ close quarters can create anxiety ■ physical barriers (desks) can add feeling of formality ■ Touching ■ shaking hands shows willingness to connect ■ depends greatly on situation and client ■ Guidelines ■ touch should be appropriate in the situation ■ touch shouldn't be more intimate than the client is comfortable with ■ touch shouldn't convey a negative message ● Opening Skills ○ Encouragers: words used to help the client feel comfortable confiding ■ Door Openers/Probes ■ positive, nonjudgmental invitation to talk ■ initiated by helper, client decides depth of response ■ Used to... ■ get clients to expand ■ begin conversation ■ give helper time to find a response ■ ex: "Tell me about it." "You look down this morning. Do you want to talk about it?" "Can you say more about that?" or repeat few words from client's previous statements ■ Minimal Encouragers ■ brief supportive statements ■ show understanding and attention ■ ex: "I see." "Right." "I hear you." "Hmm." “Mhm” ○ Questions ■ most abused opening skill ■ excessive use reduces ability to listen and may make client feel interrogated ■ may train clients to answer questions instead of expressing themselves ■ "Why" Questions ■ not very effective ■ Assumes.. ■ client knows why ■ knowing why is helpful ■ with experience, helper can extract motivations without asking "why" ■ Leading Questions ■ not very effective ■ attempt to push the helper's agenda onto the client ■ shuts down conversation ■ Open and Closed Questions ■ closed: asks for specific information ■ elicits short response ■ Good for: ■ enriching and elaborating client's story ■ brings out specifics of the client's world ■ critical for assessment ■ can help clients search for positives ■ open: allow for freedom of expression ■ elicits longer response with more information ■ Be Careful With: ■ "can you..." and "will you..." ■ "how are you?" ■ Problems with Questions ■ bombardment/grilling ■ multiple questions ■ cultural differences ■ takes all control from client ● Behaviors to Observe ○ eye behavior, facial expressions, and head movements ○ body positioning and full body movements ○ Goal: look for meaningful patterns ○ How to respond if verbal doesn't match nonverbal? ■ react to words ■ react to nonverbal ■ comment on double (mixed) messages ● Verbal Communication ○ Important to: ■ ask questions to clarify understanding ■ confirm understanding ○ Verbal Tone & Rate of Speech ■ can use to descalate a situation ○ Don't Offer Solutions too Quickly ○ Stay on Topic ○ Appropriate Amount of Talking by Interviewer ■ interviewer is passenger, client is driver ○ Appropriate use of Encouragement ○ Focus on What is Being Said ■ okay to ask for clarification Ethics Terms: ● Autonomy: right of both the consumer and the provider to make choices and take actions, provided the results do not adversely affect others ● Beneficence: intent “to do good” by helping and promoting growth in others ● Nonmaleficence: “above all, do no harm”, includes conscious/unconscious error ● Justice: fairness or assurance of equality of opportunities and resources for all people ● Fidelity: keeping promises and being trustworthy in relationships with others ● Integrity: telling the truth Professional Ethics Codes ● What do ethical codes address/provide? ○ encourage members to act in responsible manner ○ ensure quality care ○ encourage members to contribute to society through their work ○ do not provide the “right” answer Ethical Standards Relevant to Clinical/Counseling Psychologists ● relationships ● avoid assumptions ● confidentiality ● informed consent ● empirically supported treatment ● advertising ● personal boundaries ● competence ● debriefing Trends in Ethical Complaints ● APA: complaints decreasing ● States: complaints increasing ● Malpractice Rates: remaining steady over 20 years ● difficult to assess due to different reporting requirements (states/APA) ● estimated 2% of licensed psychologists subject to licensing board complaint annually Common Ethical Dilemmas ● APA Ethics Committee ○ Most frequent types of complaints ■ sexual relationships with adult clients ■ nonsexual dual relationships ■ insurance/fee problems ■ child custody evaluation issues ■ sexual relationships with minors ○ What happens ■ resign from APA and/or license revoked ● State Licensing Boards ○ Most frequent disciplinary actions ■ unprofessional conduct ■ sexual misconduct ■ failure to maintain adequate or accurate records ■ negligence ■ conviction of a crime ○ What happens ■ license revoked ● Cases that don’t fit nicely into APA Ethics violations or state licensure issues ○ client is psychologist and discloses they violated ethical code ○ client dating therapist’s best friend ○ one client claims to have been raped, another discloses they raped client Ethical Guidelines ● Recognize Limits ○ areas of expertise ○ supervision ○ referrals ○ qualifications ○ be aware of your own values ● Focus on the needs of the client ○ informed consent ○ confidentiality ■ Limits ● imminent threats of harming self/someone else ● concerns about child abuse/elder abuse ● threats to national security ● court order ○ avoid harmful dual relationships ○ watch for personal conflicts ● Understand the role of Culture ○ don’t assume skills transfer ○ don’t assume client’s goal is to assimilate ○ demonstrate interest in client’s culture ○ commit to eliminating bias and discrimination in your work ● Documentation ○ case notes ○ protects clients and professionals Ethical Decision Making 1. Assessment ○ situation ○ client’s status and resources ○ interviewer’s values, feelings, and reactions 2. Benefit ○ what benefits the client ○ what benefits the helping relationship ○ what obligation do you have to others 3. Consequences ○ ethical, legal, emotional, therapeutic 4. Consultation/Supervision ○ Consultation: something a professional can do with other professionals without disclosing identifying information ○ Supervision: client knows therapist is being supervised and therapist can disclose information to supervisor Chapters 57 Terms: ● paraphrase: a different version of what the client is saying that restates faces and thoughts in different wording and a nonjudgmental way ● emotional intelligence: the ability to monitor one's own and other's feeling and emotions ● compound response: a question followed by a reflecting statement or vice versa ● undershooting: reflecting a feeling that is too weak to properly mirror the client's emotion ● overshooting: reflecting a feeling that is more intense than the one expressed by the client ● parroting: repeating the same feeling word as the client used ● constructivism: people work with their experiences and beliefs to construct reality ● summarizing: final reflecting skill ● nonjudgmental listening cycle: general helping session pattern ● questioning cycle: used by newbies, lots of closeended q's Components of Client's Message: 1. clients understanding of their thoughts (cognition) 2. clients underlying feelings (emotion) 3. hidden meanings (existential) Paraphrasing/Reflection of Content ● Positive Effects of Paraphrasing 1. verbal way of communicating empathy 2. feedback that lets the person confirm or correct the impression they are giving 3. encourages further exploration 4. captures important aspects that might otherwise remain hidden ● When? ○ can be used early ○ follows invitational skills ○ don't wait too long ○ stop rambling client ● How to Paraphrase ○ listen carefully ○ relay a condensed and nonjudgmental version of the facts and feelings shared ■ why not just say exactly what they said? ● paraphrasing shows deeper understanding ● Common Mistakes in Paraphrasing ○ only reciting the facts or parroting ○ unable to focus on story because of noise ■ listening to own thoughts (mental noise) ○ worrying about what to say next ○ taking the client's side and being judgmental (of others) ○ being judgmental of the client Typical Sequence of Responses in First Few Minutes of Session 1. Door Opener 2. Minimal Encourager 3. Open Question 4. Minimal Encourager 5. Paraphrase 6. Closed Question 7. Paraphrase Reflecting Feelings ● the ability to recognize emotions in others and convey that you understand their feelings ● Positive Effects of Reflecting Feelings ○ client becomes more aware of their emotions ○ brings the client to a deeper level of selfdisclosure ○ provides relief from emotional pressure ■ sort out and label feelings as to not feel overwhelmed ● How to Reflect Feelings 1. identify client's feelings 2. articulate the underlying emotion you detect 3. describe the feeling clearly 4. observe the effect of what you said 5. facilitate discussion ■ Examples ● You feel _______ because _____. ● "Sounds like you're..." ● "I think I hear some..." ● "I hear ______ in your voice" ● "You have a _____ expression on your face." ● "You seem to be feeling ________." ● "It appears you're ______" ● "Sounds like you think you should feel _______, but you really feel ________" ● Common Problems in Reflecting Feelings ○ asking the client, "how did you feel?" ○ waiting too long to reflect ■ it's okay to reflect within first 2 minutes ○ turning the reflection into a question ○ combining reflection and a question ○ focusing on wrong person/topic (compound response) ○ letting the client ramble ○ using "feel" instead of "think" ○ undershooting and overshooting ○ parroting ○ drawn out reflecting statements Feeling Vocabulary ● Primary Emotions ○ joy ○ sadness ○ anger ○ guilt/shame ○ fear ○ disgust ○ surprise ○ interest/excitement ● Other ○ Feelings of... ■ weakness ■ strength ■ general/nonspecific distress ● Use Indicators like... ○ a little ○ somewhat ○ very Levels of Disclosure: 1. Content 2. Feelings 3. Meaning Why Reflect Meaning? ● client takes background issues for granted ● helps client understand their story is perspective ● gets the client to delve deeper ● identify, clarify, and express ● supports client ● enhances selfawareness ● encourages new insight ● enhances understanding of interpersonal interactions Types of Summarizing ● Focusing ○ beginning of session ○ brings up major issues, client goals, progress ● Signal ○ middle of session ○ shows comprehension on a topic and allows to move on ● Thematic ○ after many sessions ○ brings up themes in content, emotions, or meanings ● Planning ○ end of session ○ review of progress, plans, and agreements General Guidelines ● don't reflect everything ● be precise ● avoid repetitive responses ● mix and match ● Reflection of Feeling ○ be careful with "how does that make you feel" ○ don't go too far too fast ○ don't make assumptions ○ avoid under/overstating Helpful Hints ● wait ● is client ready? ● work as a team ● use other basic skills ● be tentative yet concise ● consider using questions ● don't judge ○ focus on understand rather than evaluating ● watch for reaction ● processes and followup ○ allow enough time for this Chapter 9 Terms: ● Assessment: gathering information about a client and the client’s problems ● Formal Assessment: testing and filling out forms/questionnaires ● Informal Assessment: other ways a helper learns about client: observation, listening Reasons to Spend Time In Assessment Stage ● Helps determine if client is good fit for the help you can provide ● Gives crucial information to plan effective and realistic goals ● Helps clients discover events related to the problem ● Helps us understand the impact of client’s environment ● Helps recognize uniqueness ● Uncovers potential for violence ○ “ask questions that we ask everybody” ● Reveals crucial historical data ● Highlights strengths ● Helps client become aware of important problems ● Helps helper choose the techniques to use Making a Diagnosis ● Information comes from ○ things the helper observed ○ information provided by friends and family ○ information provided by client ○ medical history ○ other agencies ○ legal system Beginning Assessment Methods ● The Mental Status Examination ○ snapshot of client’s current mental functioning ● Observation ○ deductions ○ What to Observe ■ Speech ■ Client’s Clothing ■ Grooming ■ Posture, Build, Gait ■ Facial Expressions ■ Other Bodily Movements ■ General Appearance ■ Feeling of the Helper ● Questioning ○ orienting questions ● Genograms ○ pictorial representation of clients family tree ● Brief Intake Form ○ A. Affective Assessment ■ intensity, frequency, and duration of negative emotions ○ B. Behavioral Assessment ■ helps to mitigate negative behaviors ■ encourages/praises positive behaviors ○ C. Cognitive Assessment ■ client’s thoughts ○ 1. Developmental Issues ○ 2. Family History ○ 3. Cultural/Religious Background ○ 4. Physical Challenges and Strengths ■ medical diagnoses ■ physical disabilities ■ drug and alcohol abuse problems Structuring the Interview ● Role of theory ● Planning around the problem ● Being aware of the process ● Being aware of which skills to use when Ivey & Ivey Model ● Wellformed interview ○ 1. Initiating ■ rapport building ■ initial structuring ■ exploration ■ discover client’s concerns ○ 2. Gathering Data ■ getting more specifics ■ continuation of rapport building ■ collaborative problem definition and prioritization ○ 3. Mutual GoalSetting ■ what does the client want to happen? ■ develop collaborative plan ■ may have goals and sub goals ○ 4. Working ■ brainstorming, exploring alternatives, confronting inconsistencies ■ insight oriented skills ■ theory driven ○ 5. Termination ■ generalizing and acting on change ■ ideally, goals met ○ Positive Asset Search ○ Nonlinear Areas to Address in Initial Assessment ● Presenting Problem ○ Why are they here? ○ How long have they experienced these difficulties? ○ Triggers? Symptoms? ○ What do they want to change? ○ Emotions, Behaviors, Cognitions ○ History of Presenting Concern ● Risk Factors ○ Safety Concerns self and others ○ Substance use and impact ■ Have you ever been concerned of use? ■ History in family ■ What role do drugs and alcohol play in your life? ● Relevant Family History ○ Description ○ Relationships ○ History of concerns? ● Trauma History ○ Ever had any significant events that have shaped who you are? ● Physical Issues ● Developmental History ● Cultural Considerations ○ How do you identify yourself culturally? ● Symptoms ● Goals Chapter 10 Boiling Down the Problem ● Summarizing and enumerating all the issues ○ helper uses summaries, reflections, and paraphrasing to determine agreement of goals ● Asking the client to identify the most crucial problems ● Selecting the focal problem Goal Setting Skills ● Why Set Goals? ○ sense of direction ○ track progress/know when to end ○ collaborative plan ○ avoid assumed goals ● Characteristics of Constructive Goals ○ Specific ■ better progress ■ know how to start ■ based on client’s needs ■ increases hope ■ evaluate progress ○ Positive ■ more powerful ■ turns problems into goals ○ Simple ■ increases probability of success ■ Behavioral Goals ● Clients Stated Goal (description of goal) ● Target Behaviors (described in frequency, duration, and intensity) ● Baseline (current level of target behaviors) ○ Important to Client ○ Collaboration between Client and Helper ○ Realistic ○ Measurable Cultural Considerations Terms: ● Culturally Competent: not only possess knowledge and skills, be are psychologically open and accepting ● Ascribed Credibility: the status given to a clinician based on appearance ● Achieved Credibility: status given to a clinician based on information they provide Working with Diverse Populations ● Knowledge ○ cultural study ○ cultural experiences ○ let your client teach you ● Skills ○ listen ○ enlist support from others ○ gain credibility ■ Ascribed Credibility: the status given to a clinician based on appearance ■ Achieved Credibility: status given to a clinician based on information they provide ○ use multiple techniques ● Attitudes ○ Culturally Competent: not only possess knowledge and skills, be are psychologically open and accepting ○ Ways to Develop: ■ empathy ■ selfexploration ■ broad understanding of cultural context Specific Cultural Considerations ● What do you bring to the relationship? ○ beliefs/biases ■ think about before session ○ personal experiences/your own culture ○ assumptions/stereotypes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'