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EEOB 2520 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: hmoore

EEOB 2520 Exam 1 Study Guide EEOB 2520

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About this Document

This covers everything that will be on the first midterm.
EEOB 2520: Human Physiology
Study Guide
Physiology, parameters, hierarchy scale, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, tissues, negative feedback, positive feedback, skin pigmentation, Diabetes
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by hmoore on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EEOB 2520 at Ohio State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
EEOB 2520 Exam 1  Physiology: how the body works  Homeostasis: maintenance of physiological parameters in a dynamic equilibrium  Converting to Beats per Minute: o beats     x  60seconds=BPM seconds       1min.  Example: 20 beats  x    60 sec =83.22 BPM                      14.42 sec.       1min  Reasons for slight deviation from actual parameter measure: o instrument error o true changes within the individual o variation of environment (cold to warm or vice versa, nervous, excited, ill,etc.)  with body temperature can depend on where measurement is taken; core  body temp varies from extremities temp  Hierarchy of Spatial Scales o subatomic articles(protons, neutrons, electrons) o  atoms o molecules(O2, H2O) o macromolecules  nucleic acids: genetic material; DNA and RNA  carbohydrates:CH2O(always in 1:2:1 ratio);polar and easily dissolve in water  monosaccharides: simple sugar; glucose  disaccharides:2 monosaccharides; sucrose, lactose  polysaccharide: several monosaccharides; glycogen, starch, cellulose  lipids: nonpolar/hydrophobic; hydrocarbon that sometimes contains O  or Phosphates  triglycerides: fats; glycerol with 3 fatty acids  phospholipids: lipids containing phosphate group; amphipathic; make  up cell membranes  steroids: ring structure; nonpolar; hormones, cholesterol  eicosanoids: modified fatty acids for intercellular communications  proteins: sequence of amino acids;3D shape determines function;  folds based on (+) and (­) charges o organelles ("organs" of the cell);be able to label o cells: smallest living unit; must be able to reproduce and have metabolism  devoted to maintaining homeostasis in order to be considered living o tissues: collection of cells in conjunction with others that have same basic  structure and function  nervous tissues: neurons, carry electrical signals  muscle: contract to create force or movement (heart, leg muscle, arm  muscle)  epithelial: form a barrier, lines a surface, transport material   connective: provide physical support, anchor, or link; cells embedded  in a extracellular matrix(tendons, ligaments, bones, blood,  lymph)  organs: two or more tissues combined that preform particular  functions o organ systems: collection of organs that work together  endocrine  nervous  musculoskeletal  cardiovascular  respiratory  urinary  gastrointestinal  reproductive  immune  integumentary o Organism Be able to identify cell parts Regulation of Physiological Parameters  set point for physiological parameter  sensor: detect/measure by transduction  integrating center: collection of nerves that receive input from sensors and compares level of  parameter to the set point; sends message to effectors so it can be adjusted if it deviates  effector: cells, tissues or organs that adjust parameter  Example: sensory nerve, integrating sensor(hypothalamus), muscles and skin(effector)  negative feedback: system acts to oppose change  blood sugar: set point=70­90 mg/dL o eat and it increases the level above set point o insulin is created by pancreas and released (integrating center and sensor) o liver absorbs extra glucose, muscles store as glycogen(effector) o glucose level below set point then glucagon released  feedforward: sets conditions for what is going to happen  cephalic insulin: anticipate rise in blood sugar so insulin is released to help keep sugar  level close to set point  positive feedback: acts to promote deviations from set point; goes in same direction as change  set in motion  example: when ovulating, pituitary gland secretes LH hormone that triggers ovaries to  secrete estrogen continues to happen until levels rise enough for ovulation to occur then  levels decrease­during childbirth oxytocin is secreted   example: pressure on the uterine wall from the baby causes more oxytocin to be secreted and allows more contractions which causes more oxytocin to be released Ultimate Time Frame  over a population/species lifetime Examples:  endothermy: use energy stored in body in order to keep temperature constant  ectotherm: energy from outside source used to regulate temp. o desert iguana used to study fever adaptation o prefer to bask in sun more when infected  o August Krough­one best choice of species for studying  Skin Pigmentation o melanin is pigment in skin; absorbs UV light; helps prevent DNA damage o people near equator have more melanin compared to those in Iceland where they  receive less UV light o need less melanin in order to get UV to make Vitamin D  Lactose Persistence o lactase used to convert lactose to monosaccharides o lactose in milk consumed when young o after weaned lactase production shuts off o those that domesticated goats/cows drank milk for vitamins and calcium so lactase  production after weaned stayed on o this was selected for and continued in certain populations   Diabetes Epidemic o inability to make insulin (Type I) o insensitive to insulin(Type II);acquired over lifetime o evolutionarily speaking ate food when found, have ton of food now so always eating  o bodies have a hard time dealing with so much food Proximate Time Frame  changes within lifetime; reversible changes o acute: short­term changes; overheating, cold­­>shiver, insulin release to lower blood  sugar  o chronic: long­term changes; tanning increases melanin production­­>set point changed Irreversible Developmental Changes o sweating o sweat glands developed but not activated until after a couple weeks of life o live in hot climate more are activated o live in cool climate less activated Reversible Acclimatization  o Exercising  disrupts homeostasis  generate heat, sweat, build up lactic acid  get better with time/gets easier  stop exercising then all the effects are reversed o Tanning  reversible; change rate of melanin production o Heat Acclimatization  move from colder to hotter place  sweat production changes; less salty/diluted o High Altitude Acclimatization  respiratory, circulatory, systems adapt  more red blood cells made to help carry more O2 to where needed  O2 released at muscles  [2,3 BPG] increased; makes hemoglobin hold onto O2 less tightly o "blood doping": using blood cells that have been acclimatized to higher altitude  that are injected into body  o used to cheat  o go to higher altitude; acclimatize, draw blood and store, go to low alt., shoot up Make sure to know kilo, mili, deci, and centi and do practice numeracy problems


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