ELEM PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1101
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Module 33 34 and 35 102209 331 Personality o v Personality one s distinctive and consistent pattern of thinking feeling and acting The Psychoanalytic Perspective 332 Exploring the Unconscious 39239 Sigmund Freud 18561939 gt quotDiscoveredquot the unconscious gt Free association a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing gt Psychoanalysis theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts gt Unconscious I according to Freud a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories I according to contemporary psychologists information processing of which we are unaware V Mind is like an iceberg with mostly hidden unconscious thoughts under the surface gt Freud s Personality Structure is made of interacting systems I E contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy sexual and aggressive drives 0 Pleasure Principle demands immediate gratification I Ego the largely conscious quotexecutivequot part of the personality that mediates among demands of the id superego and reality 0 Reality Principle satisfying the id s desires in a realistic way I Superego represents internalized ideals and provides standards forjudgment conscience and for future aspirations V Freud s Personality Development I Psychosexual stages the childhood stages of development during which the id s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones 1 Oral pleasure centers on the mouth 2 Anal coping with demands of control over bowel bladder 3 Phallic pleasure zone is the genitals 4 Latency dormant sexual feelings 5 Genital maturation of sexual interests I Oedipus Complex a boys sexual desire of his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father A girl s desire for her father is called electra complex I Identification the process by which children incorporate their parent s values into their developing superegos I Fixation a lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved 333 Defense Mechanisms 39239 According to Freud the ego protects itself with defense mechanisms to reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality gt Repression banishes anxietyarousing thoughts feelings and memories from consciousness gt Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage gt Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites People may be suffering anxiety of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex gt Proiection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others gt Rationalization offers selfjustifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for one s actions gt Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person redirecting their anger toward a safer outlet 334 The Neo Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists o v NeoFreudians gt Alfred Adler believed in not sexual childhood tensions but social and nature tensions gt Karen Horney countered Freud s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from llpenis envy gt Carl Jung believed in collective unconscious which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our past This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as mother being a symbol of nurturance I Collective unconscious concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history 335 Assessing Unconscious Processes 39239 Proiective Tes a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one s inner dynamics gt Thematic Apperception Test TATl test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes gt Rorschach lnkblot Test a set of 10 inkblots seeks to identify people s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots I most widely used o v Evaluating the Psychoanalytical Perspective gt Psychoanalytical Perspective 0 Development is lifelong 0 Infant brains are not mature enough to have so much emotional trauma 0 Freud s questioning methods probably led to falsememories 0 Gender identity does not form as a resolution of a Oedipal complex 0 Little support for notion of defense mechanisms to disguise aggressive and sexual impulses o Suppressed sexuality does not cause psychological disorders 39239 Is repression a myth gt Freud s psychoanalytical theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind gt The majority of children death camp survivors and veterans are unable to repress painful memories gt The scientific merits of Freud s theory have been criticized It is not easily tested 39239 The Modern Unconscious Mind gt The modern unconscious involves I Schemas that automatically control our perceptions and interactions I Parallel processing of different aspects of vision and thinking I Implicit memories that operate without conscious recall I Emotions that activate instantly I The selfconcept and stereotypes that automatically and unconsciously influence how we process info about others and ourselves The Humanistic Perspective 341 39239 Abraham Maslow gt Proposed the hierarchy ofneeds gt Selfactualization the process of fulfilling our potential 39239 Carl Rogers gt Unconditional positive regard an attitude of total acceptance toward another person gt Selfconcep all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves 351 The Trait Perspective 39239 Describes personalities in traits gt Traits peoples characteristic behaviors and conscious motives gt Factor analysis Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions and quot 39stabilityinstability see figure 351 Biology and Personality V I Brainimaging procedures show that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low I Genes also influence our temperament and behavioral style Differences in children s shyness and inhibition may be attributed to autonomic nervous system reactivity 352 Assessing Traits 39139 Personality Inventories long questionnaires covering a range of feelings and behaviors designed to assess several traits at once gt 39 quot quot39 39 39 39 39 Personalitv lnventorv MMPI most used personal inventory gt Empirically derived test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups 353 The Big Five Factors C Conscientiousness organized careful disciplined A Agreeableness softhearted trusting helpful N Neuroticism calm secure selfsatisfied emotional stability vs instability 0 Openness imaginative preference for variety independent E Extraversion sociable funloving affectionate o How stable are these traits change over development but stable in adulthood o How heritable are they 50 or so for each trait o How about cultures traits are common across cultures 354 Evaluating the Trait Perspective 39239 Personsituation controversv peoples traits persist over time but human behavior varies from situation to situation 355 The SocialCognitive Perspective 39239 Socialcognitive perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their thinking and their social context gt Reciprocal determinism the interacting influences between personality behavior and environmental factors gt Figure 354 on page 484 356 Personal Control 39239 Personal control our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless gt External locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces determine one s fate gt Internal locus of control the perception that one controls one s own fate gt Learned helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events 357 Assessing Behavior in Situations Exam 1 Study Guide Modules 111 1315skip p205208 on Dreams 17 Introduction Important people 0 000000 0 Wilhelm Wundt Sigmund Freud Wiliam James Mary Whiton Calkins Margaret Floy Washburn John B Watson Rosalie Rayner BF Skinner Biopyschological approach How psychology has changed from the 1920s 9 1960s 9 present Nature vs Nurture Research Strategies Limits of intuition Scientific method 0 Theory vs hypothesis Description Case study Survey 0 O Wording effects Random sampling Naturalistic observation Correlation vs causation Experimentation 0 Independent vs dependent variables Biology amp Behavior Anatomy of a neuron and how a neuron processes information Neurotransmitters Nervous system 0 0 Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system I Somatic nervous system I Autonomic nervous system I Sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous systems Endocrine system what is a hormone Brain structures 0 O O O O Brainstem Thalamus Limbic system Amygdala Hypothalamus Cerebral cortex know the 4 lobes amp function of lobes What is plasticity Identical vs fraternal twins Nature vs nurture What influences differences in individual personalities Module 36 11309 Introduction to Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorde deviant distressful and dysfunctional behavior patterns 39239 Problem or Disorder gt Normative development 1 Difficult infant 2 Defiant toddler 3 Aggressive preschooler 4 Oppositional dramatic impulsive andor egocentric teenager gt Determining quotDisorderquot I Is it developmentayappropriate I Does it cause interference in daily life family or social relationships I How long has this been going on I Is there another potential explanation Psychopathology quotclinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disabilityor with a significantly increased risk of suffering death pain 39239 Deviant vs distressful vs dysfunctional behaviors 1 Deviant behavior in one culture may be considered normal While in others it may lead to arrest 2 Deviant behavior must accompany distress 3 If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder Understanding Psychological Disorders 39239 The Medical Model I The concept that psychological disorders are mental illnesses that can be diagnosed treated and in most cases cured o Etiology cause and development of the disorder 0 Diagnosis identifying and distinguishing one disease from another 0 Treatment treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital 0 Prognosis forecast about the disorder a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms extreme inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity The Psychoanalytic Perspective MODULE 33 Introduction and Exploring the Unconscious 1 De ne personality and explain how Freud s treatment ofpsychological disorders led to his study of the unconscious mind Personality free association psychoanalysis unconscious preconscious 2 Describe Freud s view ofpersonality structure in terms of the id ego and superego 3 Discuss how defense mechanisms serve to protect the individual from anxiety Defense mechanisms Repression regression reaction formation Projection rationalization displacement The NeoFreudian and Psychodynamic Theorists 5Contrast the Views of the neoFreudians and psychodynamic theorists with Freud s original theory Collective unconscious Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective 4 Summarize psychology s current assessment ofFreual s theory of psychoanalysis Implicit learning false consensus effect The Hu man istic Perspective MODULE 34 Abraham Maslow39s SelfActualizing Person 1 Summarize Abraham Maslow s concept ofselfactualization and explain how his ideas illustrate the humanistic perspective Carl Rogers39 PersonCentered Perspective 2 Discuss Carl Rogers personcentered perspective and explain the importance of unconditional positive regard Unconditional positive regard selfconcept Assessing the Self 3 Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective 4 Discuss the major criticisms of the humanistic perspective on personality Contemporary Research on Personality MODULE GUIDE 35 The Trait Perspective 1 Discuss psychologists interests in personality types and describe research e orts to identify fundamental personality traits Trait factor analysis 2 Discuss the value of using personality inventories to assess traits and identi the Big Five trait dimensions Personality inventories Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI empirically derived Big F1ve e 3 Summarize the personsituation controversy and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective The SocialCognitive Perspective 4 Describe the socialcognitive perspective and discuss the important consequences of personal control learned helplessness and optimism Socialcognitive perspective Reciprocal determinism personal control locus of control learned helplessness attributional style positive psychology 5 Explain why socialcognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations and state the major criticism of the socialcognitive perspective Exploring the Self 6 Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self and discuss the importance of selfesteem to human wellbeing Possible selves spotlight effect selfesteem 7 Discuss some evidence for selfserving bias and contrast defensive and secure self esteem Selfserving bias defensive selfesteem secure selfesteem Introduction to Psychological Disorders MODULE 36 Defining Psychological Disorders 1 Identify the criteria forjudging whether behavior is psychologically disordered Psychological disorders deviant distressful dysfunctional Understanding Psychological Disorders 2 Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial approach to disordered behavior medical model biopsychosocial approach Classifying Psychological Disorders 3 Describe the goals and content of the DSMIV La beling Psychological Disorders 4 Discuss the potential dangers and bene ts of using diagnostic labels Rates of Psychological Disorders 5 Summarize the ndings on the link between poverty and serious psychological disorders Anxiety Dissociative and Personality Disorders MODULE 37 Anxiety Disorders 1 Contrast the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder OCD separation anxiety disorder social anxiety disorder and panic disorder 2 Discuss the contributions of the learning and biological r anxiety disorders r 39 to 139 the 1 of 3 Be familiar with the best treatment approaches ie those with empirical support for anxiety disorders Dissociative Disorders 4 Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders and the controversy regarding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder Personality Disorders 5 Contrast the three clusters of personality disorders and be especially familiar with antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder Mood Disorders MODULE 38 Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder 1 Define mood disorders and contrast major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder 2 Explain the development of mood disorders and summarize the contributions of the biological perspective to the study of depression linkage analysis neurotransmitters 3 Summarize the contributions of the socialcognitive perspective to the study of depression selfdefeating beliefs learned helplessness negative explanatory style Schizophrenia MODULE 39 Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1 Describe the symptoms of schizophrenia Delusions hallucinations Understanding Schizophrenia 2 Outline feature of schizophrenia 3 Discuss the evidence for a genetic contribution to the development of schizophrenia 4 Be aware of the treatment for schizophrenia The Psychological Therapies MODULE 40 Introduction Define psychotherapy and explain what we mean by an eclectic approach to therapy Psychoanalysis 2 Define psychoanalysis and discuss the aims methods and criticisms of this form of therapy Humanistic Therapies 3 Identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies and describe the speci c goals and techniques of Carl Rogers clientcentered therapy Active listening Behavior Therapies 4 Explain how the basic assumption of behavior therapy differs from those of traditional psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies and describe the techniques used in exposure therapies and aversive conditioning Behavior therapists Counterconditioning Exposure therapies systematic desensitization Virtual reality exposure therapy aversive conditioning 5 State the main premise of therapy based on operant conditioning principles and describe the views ofproponents and critics of behavior modi cation 6 Token economy Cog nitive The ra pies 7 Contrast cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy and give some examples of cognitive therapy for depression Group and Family Therapies 8 Discuss the rationale and bene ts of group therapy including family therapy Evaluating Psychotherapies MODULE 41 Is Psyc hothera py Effective 1 Explain why clients and clinicians tend to overestimate the e ectiveness of psychotherapy
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