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Soc 354, Midterm Study Guide

by: Clarissa Hinshaw

Soc 354, Midterm Study Guide Soc 354

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Sociology > Soc 354 > Soc 354 Midterm Study Guide
Clarissa Hinshaw
GPA 3.5

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This is my study guide for the midterm exam.
Families and Social Change
Jan Reynolds
Study Guide
sociology, Families and Social Change
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 354 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jan Reynolds in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Families and Social Change in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Defining families:  Terms: Institutional arenas: roles expected from family members. Example: children are expected to  obey their parents and parents are expected to take care of their children. There are no clear  boundaries for these families, only societal expectations. Sometimes the law intervenes, such as  if parents are abusing or neglecting their children.  Structural functionalism: popular idea during the twentieth century.  o Breadwinner, homemaker family: popular during the 1950s, the patriarchal  structural where the husband worked for pay and the wife stayed home with  children, cooked meals, and cleaned the house.  Conflict perspective: the belief of conflict being unavoidable and necessary for social change.  Example: a president fighting people in congress of other political parties to create changes  improving families.  Additional notes:  The state (government/laws) and the market (economy) both majorly affect families. Examples:  People are getting married at later ages, waiting longer to buy homes, and having fewer children  than in the past largely because of the econony. In addition, many of the laws the government  considers affect families (same­sex marriage, same­sex adoption, abortion laws, contraceptive  ability, the funding of Planned Parenthood, sex education in high schools, health insurance,  social security, welfare requirements, paid family leave, equal pay for equal work). Research methods: Terms: Sample survey: questions are asked to a large sample of people anonymously and responses are  recorded. Example: the online polls on who the public thinks won each presidential primary debate.  In­Depth interview: also called a case study, shows a closer look at family life.  Example: interviewing your parents about marriage attitudes.  Time­Use study: study in which a person records daily activities to see how a person manages  their time. These are particularly helpful when assessing work/school/family balance.  Example: Time use studies are used to measure the differences of how men and women spend  their time, work and otherwise.  History of families: Terms: Colonial Americans: People married for social acceptance, not love. Arranged marriage was  dissolved, but women were expected to serve the husband they chose. Men were allowed to be  arrested for failing to control their wives, but not for marital abuse. Women couldn’t vote, hold  positions of power, so were forced to marry for support. Any property women had become her  husband’s when the married. Families had many children, but some died in childhood. Children  expected to work and provide. Inheritance went to the favored child, usually oldest son. The rest  would have to wait until marriage. African Americans became slaves for white Americans in the  eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Slaves were not given family names. Marriage and  parenthood were not legally recognized. Slave owners owned all children of slaves and could sell them whenever they pleased.  Emerging modern family: Included wives, children, slaves, and servants.  o Division of traditional gender roles returned. Conservatives tried to deny  women’s right to vote, as they thought it would break down the traditional family. o Couples began to value love in marriage more as they now had more choice over  who they married.  o Courtship began. Dates took place in public places, usually supervised. If things  became more serious, the man would meet the woman’s parents. If her parents  approved, the couple would marry.  o Due to the invention of condoms, people had fewer children. Infant mortality rates declined. Children began receiving toys to play with and birthdays were  celebrated. However, there was still a very small population of adult age sixty and older.  o More white collar jobs emerged.  o President Lincoln believed in peace within families. Government didn’t get in the  way of patriarchy, but did regulate who could marry. o People were only allowed to practice monogamy (having one significant other)  and polygamy (having two or more significant others) was banned. The mailing  of porn and other ‘obscene’ material was also banned. o There were lots of widows and orphans during this time. African American,  Asian, and Mexican families were torn apart.  1900­1960: o Partners became companions and people started marrying for love.  o Women worked during the war, then ‘traditional’ family returned in the 1950s.  The new family wage made this possible. o Courtship began  o Men were still in control over the family.  o The baby boom consisted of people marrying younger and having more children. 1960­present: o Families became more diverse o Marriage became less of a necessity. o Women’s employment began growing. o People lived with extended family less o Single parenting became more common o Divorce rates rose. o People started marrying at older ages and lived on their own before marriage. o People became more independent from their families. o Parents became more emotionally attached to their children o Trends in baby names changed. Race: Terms:  Native American: Non­competitive, valued working together over competition in early days. African American: o Men and women worked for pay, often in the slave market.  o Very adaptive, often matriarchal families o Marriages were information, many became widowed before age 50. o Blocked access to good­paying jobs o Families with no college degree and living in old industrial cities were most  affected by the decline in blue collar jobs.  o Black people today are less likely to marry, more likely to be single parents, and  more likely to become incarcerated than people of any other race. o Black women are the least likely to marry someone outside their race.  o Extended households are most common among black families.   Hispanics o Over ¾ speak Spanish in their own community o Some were here on our land before it became US territory, other immigrated.  o Mexicans and Cubans are likely to have married parents, while Puerto Ricans are  more likely to have single parents.  o Familism: like collectivism, putting the family’s needs before your own. Often  practiced in Hispanic families.  Asians:  o Most are immigrants and speak their native language at home. o Value respect for elders and education.  o More likely to live in multigenerational households than the general population.  o Some Asians are well educated and wealthy, while others are poor. This is why  many refugees have been trying to immigrate to the US for a better future.  Social Class:  Social capital: the amount of opportunities a person has based on social connections. Example: People are often rich because of their family and connections Capitalist and managerial class: the upper, referred to as the ‘top 1%’. They have a high political  influence and high standard of living.  Middle class: not rich, but usually have a college degree and stable employment. Almost half of  the population. Working class: slightly more of the population than the middle class. Similar in structure, but  often lacks postsecondary education and employment is often unstable and are hid hard during  difficult economic times.   Lower class: people living in poverty and often need government assistance to survive. Extreme  poverty sometimes leaves people homeless in this group. This group increases during hard  economic times.  Poverty line: line which defines a family of 4 as poor.   Black and Hispanic families are more likely to be poor  If a person is raised in a poverty family, it is very difficult to get out of.  Many of these families are short of basic needs, such as food and shelter.  Although homelessness has declined since 2000, it is still a major concern.  Programs to help the poor include Medicaid, Food Stamps, Women  Infants & Children, disability assistance, public or subsidized housing,  Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, etc.   Although some successfully rise out of poverty, many are not able to.  Children of other countries are more likely to than the US.   Rich kids often inherit their parents’ wealth. Less of the rich estates are  taxed than in the past, contributing to greater income inequality.  Additional notes:  Neighborhood conditions and socioeconomic status influence how gender expectations  are divided.  Effects of low income families: Money: children often have less opportunities because of their parent’s lack of income. Time: single parents often have less time to spend with their children, especially when  government programs require them to work in order to receive help. These children often go  unsupervised, learn more about behavior from peers or the media, and often get into more  trouble than children of married couple families.  Social capital: fewer economic resources for children.   There are more single mothers in poverty than in past, and less of them receive  Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.  How money affects parenting decisions:  Parents with more money are able to provide more opportunities for their children to gain skills. This is called concerted cultivation.  Parents with self­directed jobs taught their children to choose their own destiny,  while parents with high­order jobs taught their children to value conformity.   Working class and poor parents are more focused on making sure their children  have a good childhood.   Children of middle class parents often feel prepared for the working world, but  are often stressed because they don’t have enough social or free time. Children of  working class and poor families often have the opposite situation.  Work and Families:  When women entered the workforce more, it started out as only single women without  children, then married women without children, then women with kids.  Gender: Notes:  Gender is often divided in many occupations, while some occupations are more equal.   Many jobs will gender segregate solely from screening and women were often excluded  from decision­making situations.   Women and men often differ in their college majors and women usually make less than  men in the same occupation. 


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