Japa 152 Midterm Study Guide
Japa 152 Midterm Study Guide JAPA 152
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brynna Williams on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JAPA 152 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Megumu Burress in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Elementary Japanese II in Literature at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
JAPA 152 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE TE FORM Japanese te form is the command form, e.g. tabete kudasai (please eat) The te form is constructed in multiple ways depending on the ending of the verb in its dictionary form. RU VERBS To construct the te form of ru verbs, simply drop the ru off the end of the dictionary form and add te taberu – tabete okiru – okite miru – mite U VERBS Depending on the ending of u verbs, the te form can be constructed several different ways. For verbs ending in tsu, ru, or u, the te form is constructed by dropping the final syllable and adding tte (small tsu plus te). kaeru – kaette kau – katte For u verbs endng in mu, bu, or nu, the te form is constructed by dropping the final syllable and adding nde. yomu – yonde nomu – nonde For u verbs ending in su, the su will be dropped from the dictionary form and replaced with shite. hanasu – hanashite For u verbs ending in in ku, the ku will be dropped from the dictionary form and replaced with ite. kiku – kiite For u verbs ending in gu, the gu will be dropped from the dictionary form and replaced with ide. oyogu – oyoide IRREGULAR VERBS Certain te forms just have to be memorized. The te form for suru (to do) is shite. The te form for kuru (to come) is kite. Lastly, the te from for iku (to go) is itte, NOT iite. These unusual te conjugations just have to be memorized. ASKING FOR PERMISSION To ask for permission to do an activity, simply conjugate the verb in the te form (see te form notes or textbook) and add mo ii desu ka afterwards, e.g. uchi ni kaette mo ii desu ka (“Can I return home?” or, more literally, “Is it okay for me to return home?”) GRANTING OR DENYING PERMISSION There are numerous ways to respond when asked a mo ii desu ka question, both for affirmative and negative responses. To respond affirmatively, here are some acceptable responses. Example: Mado (w)o akete mo ii desu ka? (May I/Is it okay for me to open the window?) Hai, douzo. (Yes, please.) Hai, ii desu yo. (Yes, it’s good.) Hai, mado (w)o akete mo ii desu ka. (Yes, you may/it’s okay for you to open the window.) The response you choose is dependent on the situation and level of complexity with which you wish to respond. To respond negatively, some acceptable responses are as follows: Mado (w)o akete mo ii desu ka? (May I/Is it okay for me to open the window?) Sumimasen, chotto… (Sorry, that’s a little…) Iie, ikemasen. (No, you can’t/do not.) Iie, mado w(o) akete wa ikemasen. (No, you can’t/do not open the window.) Again, your choice of response depends on the situation (1 response is less direct than the other two) and the level of effort you are willing to put into responding. LINKING TWO VERBS TOGETHER Previously, we knew how to link two nouns together (with to), but we didn’t know how to link to different verbs in one sentence. However, now that we have the te form, we can do it! Hooray! To link two different actions together in one sentence, for example “I will listen to music and read books,” you conjugate the first verb in the te form and the second verb in whatever tense the mentioned activities take place. For our example, that would be the long or masu form, so our sentence would be watashi wa ongaku (w)o kiite, hon (w)o yomimasu. Here are examples of how to conjugate the other tenses using the same example sentence: Kinou, ongaku (w)o kiite, hon (w)o yomimashita. (Yesterday, I listened to music and read books.) Ongaku (w)o kiite, hon (w)o yomimashou. (Let’s listen to music and read books.) PROVIDING AN EXPLANATION To provide a reason for a situation, end the statement explaining the reason with kara (as in dakara, which means “therefore”). An example of this is sakana (w)o tabemasen. Sakana wa oishikunai desu kara. (I don’t eat fish. (Because) fish is not tasty.) Here are some other examples: Konban hachijikan nemasu. Ashita kurasu ga arimasu kara. (Tonight I will sleep for eight hours. (Because) there is class tomorrow.) Mado (w)o akete wa ikemasen. Samui desu kara. (You can’t/do not open the window. (Because) it is cold.) OFFERING ASSISTANCE We didn’t learn much in the way of grammar this week, but one key thing we did learn is how to offer to do something. This is done using the mashou ka conjugation, as in mado (w)o akemashou ka? (Should I open the window?) In the past, we used mashou in a “let’s go do this” situation, but it can also be used to ask someone whether you should do something. Here are some examples: Terebi (w)o tsukemashou ka? (Should I turn on the TV?) Nimotsu (w)o mochimashou ka? (Should I carry your baggage?) [This is from the textbook.] Hon (w)o kaeshimashou ka? (Should I return the book?) There are a few different ways you can reply if on the receiving end of these questions. To respond affirmatively, the following will do: Sumimasen, onegaishimasu. (Sorry, please do.) Sumimasen, arigatou gozaimasu. (Sorry, thank you very much.) To respond negatively, these are appropriate responses: Iie, daijoubu desu. (No, it’s okay.) Iie, kekkou desu. (No, don’t worry about it.) TE IMASU FORM While the regular masu form is used for an activity that is habitual or an activity that will occur in the future, the te imasu form is used to describe an event that is happening currently. It functions like the addition of a helping verb in English. Conjugating the te imasu form is pretty self-explanatory; just conjugate the verb’s te form and add imasu. Examples: Watashi wa Nihongo (w)o benkyou shite imasu. (I am studying Japanese.) Watashi wa kowai eiga (w)o mite imasu. (I am watching a scary movie.) Watashi wa nihon no kaisha ni tsutomete imasu. (I am working at a Japanese company.) This form can also be used to ask what a person is currently doing. Yamaguchi san wa nani (w)o shite imasu ka? (What is Mr. Yamaguchi doing?) The te imasu form is also used when discussing events that happened in the past and are still in effect, such as marriage. Onee san wa kekkon shimashita. (My older sister was married) -> Onee san wa kekkon shite imasu. (My older sister is married.) Mary san wa yasemashita. (Mary lost weight) -> Mary san wa yasete imasu. (Mary is thin.) DESCRIBING BODY PARTS When describing body parts, there is a special sentence structure that can be used. In the past, we might’ve said something like Yamashita san no kuchi wa chiisai desu (Mr. Yamashita’s mouth is small), but now we have a specific structure for this type of description: Person wa feature ga adjective desu. Using the same example, it would be structured like this: Yamashita san wa kuchi ga chiisai desu. (As for Mr. Yamashita, his mouth is small.) Here are some other examples: Yuki san wa kami ga nagai desu. (As for Yuki, her hair is long.) Tobio san wa me ga ookii desu. (As for Tobio, his eyes are big.) LINKING SENTENCES WITH ADJECTIVES Previously, to describe one noun with multiple adjectives, it was necessary to form more than one sentence. Now, however, we have learned a way to link the sentences together and describe a noun with multiple adjectives. This method is the use of the adjectives’ te forms. For i adjectives, the te form is constructed by dropping the i off the end of the adjective and replacing it with kute, much in the same way that the negative from of the adjective is constructed by dropping of the i and replacing it with kunai. Similarly, when forming the te form of a negative adjective, the i from the end of kunai is dropped and replaced with kute (to make the adjective’s ending kunakute). For na adjectives, constructing the te form is much simpler; you simply add de after the regular adjective. To use the te form of an adjective to form a sentencing joining two adjectives, simply conjugate the first adjective’s te form and follow with the second adjective in its regular form. Here are some examples: Okaa san wa kirei de yasashii desu. (My mother is beautiful and kind.) Daigaku wa furukute ookii desu. (The university is old and big.) Tokei wa takakunakute atarashii desu. (The watch is not expensive and new.) In addition, sentences can be constructed with both a positive and negative adjective used to describe the noun. In this case, both of the adjectives will be conjugated in their regular forms and followed by desu. The first adjective, however, will be followed by not only desu but also ga, acting as the conjunction “but.” Remember to use this form when one of the adjectives is positive and one is negative; as with English, it would not make sense to combine two positive adjectives with “but,” nor would it make sense to combine one positive and one negative adjective with “and.” Here are some examples: Kimura san wa yasashii desu ga, tsumaranai desu. (Kimura is nice, but boring.) Mari san wa shizuka desu ga, omoshiroi desu. (Mari is quiet, but funny.) GOING TO A DESTINATION TO DO AN ACTIVITY The last grammar point we learned this week is the use of two verbs in a sentence to indicate that someone went to a place to perform a specific activity. These sentences will follow this structure: Person wa destination ni/(h)e stem form of activity ni iku/kuru/kaeru. The stem form of a verb is constructed by dropping the masu off of the verb’s masu form. For ru verbs, this is easy, as a verb’s masu form is created only by dropping ru and adding masu. As this is true, the stem of ru verbs is simply the dictionary form without the ru. For u verbs, however, the masu form is constructed by changing the verb’s final syllable to the i vowel of that particular consonant, then adding masu. Therefore, the stem form of these verbs will simply be the dictionary form with the final syllable changed to the i vowel for its respective consonant. Here are some examples of verb stems: taberu -> tabe (eat) miru -> mi (see) asobu -> asobi (play; spend time pleasantly) oyogu -> oyogi (swim) To show how this works with the structure of doing an activity in a destination, here are some examples: Fumiko san wa suupaa ni yasai (w)o kai ni ikimasu. (Fumiko goes to the supermarket to buy vegetables.) Robaato san wa umi ni oyogi ni ikimashita. (Robert went to the sea to swim.) Mearii san wa shokudou ni hirugohan (w)o tabe ni ikimasu. (Mary goes to the cafeteria to eat lunch.) COUNTING PEOPLE We know a few counters already, like mai for flat objects and nichi for days, but now we have learned the one for people, nin. This is written by putting first the kanji for the number of people and then the kanji for people (read as hito, nin, or jin). The two exceptions to the rule of adding nin onto the end of the number are counting one person and counting two people. They are written the same way as the others, but when counting only one person, hitori is said, and when counting 2 people, futari is said. After these first 2, the pattern is normal with any number of people. Examples of usage: Onna no hito ga futari imasu. (There are 2 women.) Watashi no kazoku wa rokunin desu. (My family is 6 people.) SHORT FORMS Until now, we’ve conjugated verbs in the masu form, also known as the long form, but now, we have the short form as well. Conjugating the short affirmative form of the verb is simple. It’s the exact same as the dictionary form for all verbs. For example, in long form the sentence “I drink water” would be Watashi wa mizu (w)o nomimasu, but in the short form, it would just be Watashi wa mizu (w)o nomu. The short negative forms, however, are not all conjugated the same. For ru verbs, the short negative form is conjugated by dropping the ru and adding nai to the end of the verb. For example taberu conjugated in the short negative form would become tabenai. For u verbs, the process is not as simple. When conjugating the short negative form of an u verb, the last syllable is changed from its u syllable to its a syllable (e.g. mu would change to ma) and nai is added onto the end of this. If the last syllable of the verb is simply u, however, it will change to wa instead of just a. Here are some examples of u verbs in short negative form: Kau -> kawanai Matsu -> matanai Yomu -> yomanai Au -> awanai There are, as always, a few exceptions to this rule. In this case, these include the aways-irregular verbs kuru and suru, as well as the verb aru. The short negative form of suru is shinai. For kuru, it is konai, and for aru, it is just nai. Adjectives and nouns also have short forms, but there is not much to note about conjugating them. For i adjectives, the desu that typically comes at the end of the sentence is just dropped, and the negative form is conjugated in the same way as usual but also without the desu at the end. For nouns and na adjectives, they are the same as normal as well, but the desu is replaced with da. In many cases, though, da will not be needed. For the negative form of these, it is simply the noun/adjective + janai (+ da). Short forms should be used in casual conversations with friends and family members, but not when talking to strangers or your boss. QUOTING OTHERS To quote something someone has said, the particle to is used in coordination with the verb iu, which means “to say”. To directly quote something someone has said, the quote will be followed by to iimashita. Here is an example: Robaato san wa “imouto ga futari imasu” to iimashita. (Robert said, “I have 2 sisters.”) To quote indirectly, the verb used by the person being quoted is conjugated in its short form, then followed by to itte imashita. Here is an example: Robaato san wa imouto ga futari iru to itte imashita. (Robert was saying he has 2 sisters.) EXPRESSING THOUGHTS As with quoting something that someone said, expressing your own thoughts is done by conjugating the short form of the verb you want to use and following it with the particle to. The difference is the verb used. For quotes, the verb was the verb for “say”, iu (conjugated as iimashita or itte imashita), but for thoughts, the verb used is the verb for “think”, omou (conjugated at omoimasu). Here is an example of how this works: Watashi wa ashita wa ame ga furu to omoimasu. (I think it will rain tomorrow.) NEGATIVE COMMANDS To command someone to perform a task, the verb associated with the task is conjugated in its te form. However, to command someone not to perform a task, the verb is conjugated in its short negative (nai) form and followed by de. This is different from saying that something is not allowed or that someone does not have permission to do something because this explicitly tells them not to do it. As always, pairing the request with kudasai makes it polite. Here are some examples: Terebi (w)o kasanaide kudasai. (Please don’t turn off the television.) Niku (w)o tabenaide kudasai. (Please don’t eat meat.) Minaide kudasai. (Please don’t look.) TURNING VERBS INTO NOUNS In order to turn a verb into a noun, its short/dictionary form is followed by no. This can be used in multiple ways, namely by saying you like/dislike performing a task wherein the associated verb is the one which has had its dictionary form modified by no or by saying you are skilled/bad at performing a task wherein its associated verb has been modified by no. After changing the verb to function as a noun in one of these circumstances, it should be followed by the particle ga. Here are some examples: Hon (w)o miru no ga suki desu. (I like to read books.) Sentaku suru no ga kirai desu. (I dislike doing laundry.) Ryouri suru no ga jouzu desu. (I am good at cooking.) Oyogu no ga heta desu. (I am bad at swimming.) GA Ga is a particle used alongside certain verbs, such as iru, aru, and wakaru, and in other cases (such as after desu to mean “but”), but it can also be used to place emphasis on a specific part of a sentence. To understand this, think about when you ask someone who has just walked into the classroom. What you care to hear in their answer is who walked into the classroom, not the fact that someone did walk into the classroom; you already know that. In such a situation, ga would be used to place emphasis on the subject, which is whoever your friend tells you has walked into the classroom. For this reason, ga is used with question words. Here is an example: Dare ge heya ni kimashita? Yoshie san ga heya ni kimashita. (Who came into the room? Yoshie came into the room.) SOMETHING AND NOTHING There are two words to indicate nonspecific things, nanika and nanimo. Nanika means something, and is paired with an affirmative verb. Nanimo means nothing, and must be paired with a negative verb. A similar pattern is followed to form other nonspecific indications (dareka = someone, daremo = no one, etc). Here are some examples of nanika and nanimo in use: Nanika motte kimashou ka? (Should I bring something?) Nanimo mimasen. (I see nothing./I don’t see anything.)
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