MGMT 453 Exam 1 Study Guide
MGMT 453 Exam 1 Study Guide MGMT 453
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Patricia Soto on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 453 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Bingqing Wu in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Human Resource Management in Business, management at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
MGMT 453 Study Guide Ch. 1-‐7 Vocabulary Ch.1 Human resource management – The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance. Capital – cash, equipment, technology, and facilities Human capital – An organization’s employees, described in terms of their training, experience, judgment, intelligences, relationships, and insight. High-‐ performance work system -‐ An organization in which technology, organizational structure, people and processes work together seamlessly to give an organization an advantage in the competitive environment. Job analysis -‐ the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Job design – the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires. Recuritment – the process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment Selection – the process by which the organization attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that will help the organization achieve its goals. Training – a planned effort to enable employees to learn job-‐related knowledge, skills and behavior. Development – the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that improve an employee’s ability to meet changes in job requirements and in customer demands. Performance management – the process of ensuring that employee’s activities and outputs match the organizations goals. Workforce analytics – the use of quantitative tools and scientific methids to analyze data from human resource databases and other sources to make evidence based decisions that support business goals. Human resource planning – identifying the numbers and types of employyees the organization will require to meet its objectives. Talent management – a systematic, planned effort to attract, retain, develop and motivate highly skilled employees and managers. Evidence based HR – collecting and using data to show that human resources practices have a positive influence on the company’s bottom line or key stakeholders. Sustainability – an organization’s ability to profit without depleting it’s resources, including employees, natural resources, and the support of the surrounding community. Stakeholders – the parties with an interest in the company’s success (typically shareholders, the community, customers and employees). Ethics – the fundamental principles of right and wrong. Ch.2 Internal labor force – an organization’s workers (its employees and the people who have contracts to work at the organization). External labor market – individuals who are actively seeking employment High performance work systems – organizations that have the best possivle fit between their social system (people and how they interact) and technical system (equipment and processes). Knowledge workers – employees whose main contribution to the organization is specialized knowledge, such as knowledge of customers, a process, or a profession. Employee empowerment – giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service. Employee engagement – full involvement in one’s work and commitment to one’s job and company Teamwork – the assignment of work to groups of employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service. Virtual teams-‐ teams that rely on communications technology such as videoconference, email and cell phones to keep in touch and coordinate activities. Strategy – an organization’s plan for meeting broad goals such as profitability, quality, and market share Total quality management (TQM) – a companywide effort to continually improve the ways people, machines and systems accomplish work. Reengineering – a complete review of the organizations critical work processes to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality. Outsourcing-‐ the practice of having another company (a vendor, third part provider, or consultant) provide services. Offshoring-‐ moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available. Expatriates – employees who take assignments in other countries Human resource information systems (HRIS) – a computer system used to acquire, store, manipulate, analyze, retrieve and distribute information related to an organization’s human resources Electronic human resource management (e-‐HRM) – the processing and transmission of digitized HR information, especially using computer networking and the internet. Self-‐service – system in which employees have online access to information about HR issues and go online to enroll themselves in programs and provide feedback through surveys. Psychological contract – a description of what an employee expects to contribute in an employment relationship and what the employer will provide the employee in exchange for those contributions. Alternative work arrangements-‐ methods of staffing other than the traditional hiring of full-‐time employees (for example, use of independent contractors, on-‐call workers, temporary workers, and contract company workers) Ch. 3 Equal employment opportunity (EEO) – the condition in which all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex, age disability, or national origin. Equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) – agency of department of justice charged with enforcing Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 and other antidiscrimination laws. Affirmative action – an organizations active effort to find opportunities to hire, or promote people in a particular group. Disability-‐ under the Americans with Disabilities Act, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a record on having such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment EEO-‐1 Report – the EEOC’s employer information report, which counts employees sorted by job category, sex, ethnicity, and race. Uniform Guidelines on employee selection procedures – guidelines issued by the EEOC and other agencies to identify how an organization shop develop and administer its system for selecting employees so as not to violate anti-‐ discrimination laws Office of Federal contract compliance programs (OFCCP) – the agency responsible for enforcing the executive orders that cover companies doing business with the federal government Disparate treatment – differing treatment of individuals, where the differences are based on the individuals race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or disability status. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)-‐ A necessary (not merely preferred) qualification for performing a job. Disparate Impact – a condition in which employment practices are seemingly neutral yet disproportionality exclude a protected group from employment opportunities Four-‐fifths rules – rule of thumb that finds evidence of potential discrimination if an organization’s hiring rate for a minority group is less than four-‐fifths the hiring rate for the majority group. Reasonable accommodation – an employer’s obligation to do something to enable an otherwise qualified person to perform a job Sexual harassment – unwelcome sexual advances as defined by the EEOC. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) – U.S. law authorizing the federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standard for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – Labor department agency responsible for inspecting employers, applying safety and health standards, and levying fines for violation. Right-‐to-‐know laws-‐ state laws that require employers to provide employees with information about the health risks associated with exposure to substances considered hazardous. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) – Forms on which chemical manufacturers and importers identify the hazards of their chemicals. Job hazard analysis technique – safety promotion technique that involves breaking down a job into basic elements, then rating each element for its potential for or injury Technic of Operations Review (TQR) – Method of promoting safety by determining which specific element of a job led to a past accident. Work flow design – the process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service Job – a set of related duties Position-‐ the set of duties (job) performed by a particular person Job analysis – the process of getting detailed information about jobs Job description-‐ a list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails. Job Specification – a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform a particular job. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) – A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs. Fleishman Job Analysis – job analysis technique that asks subject-‐matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job. Competency – an area of personal capability that enables employees to perform their work successfully. Job design – the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job Industrial engineering – the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency Job enlargement – broadening the types of tasks performed in a job Job extension – enlarging jobs by combing several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks Job rotation-‐ enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs. Job enrichment – empowering workers by adding more decision making authority to jobs Flextime-‐ a scheduling policy in which full-‐time employees may choose starting and ending times withing guidelines specified by the organization Job sharing-‐ a work option in which two part time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job. Telework-‐ the broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office Ergonomics – the study of the interface between individual’s physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment Ch.5 Forecasting-‐ the attempts to determine the supply of and demand for various types of human resources to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses. Trend analysis – constructing and applying statistical models that predict labor demand for the next year, given relatively objective statistics from the previous year. Leading indicators – objective measures that accurately predict future labor demand Transitional matrix – a chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period. Core competency – a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers Downsizing-‐ the planned elimination of large numbers of personnel with the goal of enhancing the organization’s competitiveness Outsourcing – contracting with another organization to perform a broad set of services Recruiting – any activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees Workforce utilization review-‐ a comparison of the proportion of employees in protected group with the proportion that each group represents in the relevant labor market. Employment at will – employment principle that is there is no specific employment contract saying otherwise, the employer or employee may end an employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause. Due-‐process policies – policies that formally lay out the steps an employee may take to appeal the employer’s decision to terminate that employee Job posting – the process of communicating information about a job vacancy on company bulletin boards, in employee publications, on corporate intranets, and anywhere else the organization communicates with employees Direct applicants – people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organization Referrals – people who apply for a vacancy because someone in the organization prompted them to do so Nepotism-‐ the practice of hiring relatives Yield ratio – a ratio that expresses the percentage of applicants who successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and selection process to the next Realistic job preview – background information about a jobs positive and negative qualities Ch. 6 Personnel selection – the process through which organizations make decision about who will or will not be allowed to join the organization Reliability-‐ the extent to which a measurement is free from random error Validity – the extent to which performance on a measure such as test score is related to what the measure is designed to assess (such as job performance) Criterion-‐ related validity – a measure of validity based on showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores Predictive validation – research that uses the test scores of all applicants and looks for a relationship between the scores and future performance of the applicants who were hired Concurrent validation – research that consists of administering a test to people who currently hold a job, then comparing their scores to existing measures of job performance. Content validity – consistency between the test items or problems and the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job Construct validity – consistency between a high score on a test and a high level of construct such as intelligence or leadership ability, as well as between mastery of this construct and successful performance of the job. Generalizable – valid in other contexts beyond the context in which the selection method was developed Utility – the extent to which something provides economical values greater than its cost Immigration reform and control act of 1986 – federal law requiring employers to verify and maintain records on applicants’ legal rights to work in the US Aptitude tests-‐ test that asses how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities Achievement test-‐ tests that measure a person’s existing knowledge and skills Cognitive ability tests-‐ tests designed to measure such mental abilities as verbal skills, quantitative skills, and reasoning ability Assessment center-‐ a wide variety of specific selection programs that use multiple selection methods to rate applicants or job incumbents on their management potential Nondirective interview-‐ a selection interview in which the interviewer has great discretion in choosing question to ask each candidate Structured interview-‐ a selection interview that consists of predetermined set of questions for the interviewer to ask Situational interview-‐ a structured interview in which the interviewer describes a situation likely to arise on the job then asks the candidate what he or she would do in that situation. Behavior description interview (BDI) – a structured interview in which the interviewer asks the candidate to describe how he or she handled a type of situation in the past Panel interview-‐ selection interview in which several members of the organization meet to interview each candidate Multiple hurdle model – process of arriving a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage of the selection process Compensatory model – process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another. CH. 7 Training – An organizations planned efforts to help employees acquire job related knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job, Instructional Design – a process of systematically developing training to meet specified needs. Learning Management System (LMS) – a computer application that automate the administration, development and delivery of training programs Needs assessment – the process of evaluating the organization, individual employees, and employee’s tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any are necessary. Organization analysis – a process for determining the appropriateness of training by evaluating the characteristics of the organization Person analysis – a process of determining individuals’ needs and readiness for training Task analysis – the process of identifying and analyzing tasks to be trained for Readiness for training – a combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training E-‐learning-‐ receiving training via the Internet or the organization intranet Electronic performance support System (EPSS)-‐ computer application that provides access to skills training, information and expert advice as needed. On-‐the-‐job training-‐ training methods in which a person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace Apprenticeship-‐ a work-‐study training method that teaches job skills through a combination of on-‐the-‐job training and classroom training. Internship – on-‐the-‐job learning sponsored by an education institutions a component of the academic program Simulation – a training method that represents a real-‐life situation with trainees making decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job Avatars – computer depictions of trainees, which the trainees manipulate in an online role-‐play Virtual reality-‐ a computer based technology that provides an interactive, three dimensional learning experience. Experiential programs – training programs in which participants learn concepts and apply them by simulating behaviors involved and analyzing the activity, connecting it with real-‐life situations Adventure learning-‐ a teamwork and leadership training program based on the use of challenging, structure outdoor activities. Cross-‐training-‐ team training in which team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that they are prepared to step in and take another members place Coordination training-‐ team training that teaches the team how to share information and make decisions to obtain the best team performance Team leader training – training in the skills necessary for effectively leading the organizations teams Action learning – training in which teams get an actual problem, work on solving it and commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying it out. Transfer of training – on-‐the-‐job use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training. Readability – the difficulty level of written materials Communities of practice – groups of employees who work together, learn from each other and develop a common understanding oh how to get work accomplished. Orientation – training designed to prepare employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization, and establish work relationships. Diversity training – training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce.
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