World History II: Exam 2 Study Guide
World History II: Exam 2 Study Guide HIST 1020 -012
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Key Terms 1. East India Company: Joint Stock Company that was royally chartered and traded with the East Indies. The Mughals (rulers of India) allowed them to build forts around the trading ports they had built along the coast, setting the stage for the Sepoy Revolt. 2. Sepoy Revolt: 1857; Final straw that allowed the British to take over. The East India Company had created an army with British officers and Indian food soldiers (or Sepoys). The soldiers had to tear off paper from their bullets with their teeth. Later, they discovered that the bullets were coated in animal fat. The soldiers, who were vegetarian, found this repulsive, and it resulted in an uprising. Took the British a year to put it down, and hundreds of thousands of people died. When the British took won, they took direct control of India’s government. 3. Great Trek: the movement of the Boers (Dutch people living in South Africa) north, further inland, to escape the British that had started moving in. 4. Boer War: the Boers discovered diamonds and gold in their new land, and the British wanted in. Lasted 3 years; British won, but allowed Boers a degree of control in the new Union of South Africa. 5. Cecil Rhodes: his British South Africa Company was chartered by the British government; when he learned that the Boers had discovered diamonds, he pushed for war 6. Force Publique (FP): Created by King Leopold II of Belgium; an army that had European officers and foot soldiers from African tribes that were known for terrorizing other tribes. Let the Reign of Terror, when people were killed, maimed, and raped for resisting Leopold’s policies. 7. Bosnia and Herzegovina: part of the Balkans geographical area inhabited by Serbs. Unlike the independent country Serbia, BosniaHerzegovina was part of the Austro Hungarian Empire. Dispute over this heavily influenced the events leading up to World War I. 8. Bismarckian System: designed by Otto von Bismarck, who knew that seeing a united Germany made the rest of Europe unhappy, so he designed a system of diplomatic alliances to make Germany seem like the peacemaker. Started by allying Germany with AustriaHungary, Russia, and Italy. Included all major European Powers except France, and decided not to bother with Britain, as they were very distrustful of Germany 9. Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and AustriaHungary 10. Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia 11. Schlieffen Plan: designed in 1905, and implemented in the fall of 1914. Was a German plan to invade France from the north, where France wouldn’t expect it, but meant crossing through Belgium, violating Belgium’s official neutral nature. Germany did it anyway, hoping to knock France out of the war early so that Germany wouldn’t be fighting a war on two fronts with Russia on their other side. 12. Trench Warfare: System of warfare that emerged in WWI. Defenders would dig trenches. Offense was jumping out of your trench, running across noman’s land, crawling under barbed wire, and using a rifle or bayonet against a defense that was safely hidden in a trench and fighting back with machine guns. 13. Battle of the Marne: 1914, first major battle between Germany and France. France dug 475 miles of trenches 710 feet deep, and Germany couldn’t get through for the entirety of the war; the line never moved more than 10 miles. 14. Battle of Verdun: 1916; huge battle that resulted in 700,000 deaths. 15. Gallipoli: efforts by the Triple Entente to distract the Triple Allies and spread their forces thin; battle in the Ottoman Empire; failed epically. 16. T.E. Lawrence: a British man that had lived in the Middle East and knew the culture well. Was tasked with engendering nationalism in the Ottoman Empire to get them out of the war. 17. Treaty of Versailles: Brought WWI to an end; blamed the war on Germany, which led to incredibly harsh conditions dealt out to them. They had to pay a huge fine, and weren’t allowed to have armed forces (limited to 100,000 soldiers). Also had to return Alsace Lorraine to France, give up all colonial possession, and lost eastern territory to Poland. The Ottoman Empire was officially broken apart, and Yugoslavia was created. 18. Nicolas II and Alexandra: Nicolas II was the tsar (king) of Russia in the time period leading up to the Russian Revolution. Alexandra, his wife, allowed Rasputin to become very politically powerful because she thought he could heal her hemophilic son. 19. Rasputin: con artist that used Alexandra’s sick son to become politically powerful, discrediting the tsar’s rule more than it already was. 20. Kerensky: Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Russia that was set up after the March Revolution (1917) 21. Lenin: Marxist revolutionary; encouraged the unhappiness of the people with his followers, the Bolsheviks; led to the Bolshevik Revolution, which overthrew the Provisional Government and set up communism in Russia, turning it into the Soviet Union. 22. Trotsky: One of Lenin’s followers. Thought the revolution must continue, that in order for Marxism to succeed, it needed to go beyond Russia and become an international movement. Was exiled in 1929 by Stalin, and took refuge in Mexico until his assassination in 1940. 23. Stalin: Believed in “Socialism in One Country”; exiled Trotsky and took control of the Soviet Union; built it into a totalitarian state (a nation controlled by a dictator and one political party) 24. Bolshevik Revolution: Revolution led by Lenin to overthrow the Provisional Government and capitalism. Nurtured by Lenin’s followers, who went to the soviets to spread their communist ideas. 25. Soviets: had developed in most major Russian cities/towns. Were activists for more reforms, and were pivotal in the Bolshevik Revolution. 26. War Communism: economic policy implemented by the Bolsheviks during the Civil War to supply their army. 27. New Economic Policy (NEP): 1921; meant to be an emergency measure to boost the Russian economy after their civil war. Reversed the effects of war communism and reverted the economic system to capitalism; offered a profit incentive for businesses. 28. “Socialism in One Country”: Stalin’s ideas of Marxism; the idea that Socialism needed to be built up in Russia first and be successful before it could be exported to other countries. 29. Permanent Revolution: Trotsky’s ideas of Marxism; the idea that in order for Marxism to succeed, the revolution needed to continue immediately and be exported beyond Russia to become an international movement. 30. Five Year Plans: replaced the NEP; goal was to change Russia into an economic superpower; collected peasants’ land, livestock, and equipment; set huge objectives on factories to raise production levels 31. Collectivization: part of the Five Year Plans; collected the peasants and all of their land, livestock, and equipment and put them to work on common farms. 32. Kulaks: The Russian middle class before the Bolshevik Revolution; destroyed during the Five Year Plans 33. Politburo: the governing body of Soviet Russia 34. Hitler: Leader of fascist Germany; instigator of WWII 35. Weimar Republic: the government that took over Germany after WWI; under the control of a president that was in office for terms of 7 years, who shared power with the Reichstag, German’s version of Parliament. 36. Occupation of the Ruhr: the Ruhr river valley was an industrial zone rich in natural goods. Occupied by the French when Germany was behind in their reparations payments. Ultimately led to the Inflation of 1923, in which Germany’s money became almost entirely worthless. 37. Fascism: a very nationalistic ideology; thinking very hostile terms, talk of superior races. Focused on the middle class, and allowed private ownership, but regulated heavily. 38. Great Depression: Fall 1929: people on Wall Street were throwing money around, trying to get rich quick by investing, but the consumption of goods wasn’t keeping up. Smarter people noticed this and started pulling their money out. In October 1929, this turned into a frenzy as everyone pulled out. American banks panicked and started calling in loans, including international loans, making it into a worldwide affair, plunging the world into the Great Depression 39. Beer Hall Putsch: Put the Nazis on the map; also put Hitler in prison 40. Mein Kampf: written by Hitler when he was in prison after Beer Hall Putsch; an autobiography where he wrote out all of his hatred and his strategies and plans. 41. Reichstag: Germany’s version of Parliament 42. Goebels: Hitler’s closest advisor. 43. Enabling Act: 1933; gave Hitler dictatorial power for 4 years, presumably to straighten out the political problems that Germany had been having. Instead, his first action was to expunge all other political parties, making his dictatorship permanent. 44. AntiSemetism: hostility or prejudice against Jews 45. Blitzkrieg: the German style of fighting; translates to “lightning war”. It was a war of rapid movements designed to avoid bogging down in the trenches, believed to be one of the reasons that Germany lost World War I. Focused on the air force, tanks, etc. and took out opposing air forces early in the fight. 46. Appeasement: Britain’s response to Hitler’s aggressive actions (rearming Germany, remilitarizing the Rhineland between Germany and France, making an alliance with Italy, etc.). Designed to keep Hitler happy as long as there was a valid reasoning behind his actions. 47. Anschluss: 1938: Hitler’s annexing of Austria. Scared a lot of people, France in particular, but it was allowed under appeasement. Left the door open for German expansion into Czechoslovakia to annex the Sudetenland. 48. Sudetenland: part of Czechoslovakia that was populated by ethnically Germanic peoples. 49. Lebensraum: German for “living space”; Hitler thought the Germans were the master race, and everyone else was inferior. Therefore, they could take what they wanted, and the wanted space to expand for the growing population of Germany. 50. Vichy France: a southern portion of France where, after Germany took over, was put in control of a French government that collaborated closely with the Germans 51. Battle of Britain: the German attempt to take over Britain. The Luftwaffe (German Air Force) bombed civilian targets in Britain every night for a time period. The Royal Air Force (RAF) fought back. They had fewer numbers, but superbly trained pilots that still took out crucial numbers of German planes until Hitler finally gave up. Civilians demonstrated remarkable fortitude, moving calmly underground every night, and going about their lives as usual in the morning. 52. Winston Churchill: condemned appeasement; became prime minister of Britain during World War II. 53. Eastern Front: the fight between Germany and Russia. Germany went against the nonaggression pact they’d made with Russia by invading, and Russia retaliated. 54. Pearl Harbor: Japan’s attack on the U.S.; until this point, the U.S. had been (mostly) neutral, but after the attack on Pearl Harbor, they finally joined the war and joined the British and the French against Germany. 55. Holocaust: specifically the genocide of the Jews in Europe under Hitler. Also targeted communists, gypsies, Mennonites, and deviants (homosexuals and people with mental illnesses or disabilities. 56. New Order: Hitler’s racial theories; thought the Germanic peoples were the master race. Nordic peoples were closely related to the Germans, and were treat better than most other races. Hitler viewed Latin peoples as underachievers. He planned to enslave the Slavs and work them to death so that he could take their land. His feelings toward the Jews were more venomous and terrible than his feelings toward any of the other peoples; intended to ultimately exterminate the entire Jewish race. Geography (labeled on map) 1. Berlin 2. Rhine River 3. Elbe River 4. Danube River 5. Vistula River 6. Vienna 7. Budapest 8. Sarajevo 9. Gallipoli 10. Caonstantinople 11. Kiev 12. Warsaw 13. Leningrad 14. Stalingrad 15. Moscow 16. Yalta
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